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Australia Unlimited 



BY 



Edwin J. Brady 

Author of "The King's Caravan," "The Ways of Many Waters," 
"River Rovers," "Bells and Hobbles," Si^c. 




'•''^''•l.U''Oi'li^.ilA 



MELBOURNE: 

George Robertson and Company 

PROPY. LTD. 






■^ 



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VC^hoJJy Set U^ and Printed in Australia hy 
The Specialty Press 'Pty. Ltd., 189 Little Collins Street, Mellourne, 

and 
Anderson, Gowan & DuRieu 'Pty. Ltd., 552-554 Lonsdale Street, A^elhourne. 

The Illustrations Engraved by 

Patterson, Shugg Pty. Ltd., Burns Lane, off Lonsdale Street, JVIelhourne. 

and 
The Globe Engraving Company, Temple Court Place, Little Collins St., T^elhournc 

ffXCHANGE 



• ••«*•• • 
• • • •• • •_ • 




C®HTEH' 



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INTRODUCTION 

My Country (Poem by Dorothea Mackellar) 

THE DAWN OF HISTORY 

The Genesis of Australian Settlement 
Old Colonial Days 
Inland Exploration 
Australia's Political Elvolution 

THE COMMONWEALTH 

Federation of the Australian States . . 
Canberra, the Federal Capital 
Transcontinental Railways : East-West 

„ „ North-South 

Irrigation, Storages and Artesian Water 
Undeveloped Industries 

Federal Administration: Post, Telegraph, and Telephones 
Customs and Tariff 
Commerce and Finance 
Immigration 

Social and Intellectual Life. . 
Outdoor Sports in Australia 



Page 
i6 



26 
33 
39 
55 



64 
68 

71 

74 
87 

lOI 

107 
III 

113 
119 
123 

131 



NEW SOUTH WALES 



Revenues and Resources 

Trade and Production 

Sydney Harbor at Night . . 

North Sydney and Beyond . . 

Picturesque New South Wales 

Mount Kosciusko 

The North Coast 

The South Coast 

Out West 

The Western Division 



Broken Hill 
The Land of Milk and Honey 
Irrigation and the Riverina 
The Future 



From Wentworth to Bourke 
What a Railway Will Do 



143 
159 

173 
178 

183 

193 
199 

217 

225 

232 

248 

255 
263 
275 
283 



Evolution and Progress 
Port Phillip and the Hills . . 
The Western District 
Gippsland 



VICTORIA 



291 

305 
325 
339 



A r\ t\ A 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Victoria {cent.) 

The Victorian Alps 
Victorian Agriculture 
Irrigation Settlements 
Mallee Lands 



Queen of the North 

The Trail of the Tropics . . 

Cedar and Gold . . 

Cooktown, Cape York, the Gulf 

The Heart of Queensland . . 

East and West . . 

Southern Queensland 



QUEENSLAND 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 



Pioneers and Outposts 

Coastal Climate and Production 

Darwin and Pine Creek 

The Daly River . . 

On the Adelaide . . 

Inland Districts . . 

Mineral Resources 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

Adelaide and the Hills 

Port Augusta, Hergott and the Great Inland 

Primary Production . . . . 

The "Desert" Myth 

Drought and Dry Country . . 

Irrigation, Water Conservation, and Drainage 



WESTERN 

Dampier's "Miserablest Country" 

What the West Will Do . . 

South to Leeuwin and Round Again 

The Glamor of Gold 

Kalgoorlie 

The Six Divisions 



AUSTRALIA 



TASMANIA 



Launceston and the Tamar 
Hobart and the Derwent . . 
Settlement and Development 
Agriculture and Production 

BRITISH NEW GUINEA (PAPUA) 



Page 

355 
367 
385 
398 



405 

417 
433 

451 
461 

475 
489 



515 
524 
539 
550 
563 
577 
594 



611 

615 
621 

628 

638 

649 



659 
679 
687 
701 

715 
725 



743 
754 
761 
770 

787 



PATRIOTIC, BENEVOLENT 

Australia's Army and Navy 

State Education in New South Wales 

State Education in Victoria 

The State Samaritan 

The late Thomas Walker, of Yaralla 

The Angas Family 

George Lansell: Bendigo's "Quartz King" 



AND NATIONAL 



795 
803 
811 
815 
821 
829 
845 















V^K? b 


» > ■> > 


CONTENTS 3 


Patriotic, Benevolent and National (cont.) Page 


The Abbott Family . . . . . . . . . . . . • • 853 


"Bell's Line" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • 859 


"Cox's Pass" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865 


THE AUSTRALIAN PASTORAL INDUSTRY 


Introduction 










. 871 


The Hon. Sir Samuel McCaughey, M.L.C. 










. 877 


Table Top Estate: the late James Mitchell 










885 


Murgha : the late A. J. Austin 










889 


Uardry: Chas. Mills Ltd. . . 










• 893 


Gum Swamp and Yooroobla : Geo. F. Simpson 










• 899 


Nowranie: Ferguson Simpson 










903 


Wangamong: W. B. Sanger 










907 


Big Springs: George Wilson . . 










909 


Merribee : W. W. KiUen . . 










915 


Tantallon: William Hood . . 










923 


Burrawang: C. Hedley Edols 










927 


Tocal : Frank Reynolds 










933 


Mooki Springs, Liverpool Plains 










935 


Edinglassie: the Hon. J. C. White, M.L.C. . 










941 


Belltrees : Hy. L. White . . 










947 


Palmerston and Noorindoo: N. N. Dangar 










953 


The Dight Family 










959 


Shannon Vale: Major J. T. White . . 










961 


Ramornie: C. F. Tindal 










967 


Dungalear and Tubbo : the late J. A. Campbell 










973 


Gracemere: Archer Bros. .. .. . 










977 


Hidden Vale : A. J. Cotton . . 










981 


Edmund Jowett, M.P. : a Great Queensland Pastoralist 








• 987 


John Arthur Macartney Pioneer and Explorer 








992 


Kooralbyn : C. L. Wyndham-Bundock 










996 


Willoughby : A. D. Alexander 










1000 


Mount Crawford: Alick J. Murray . . 










1004 


Robert McBride, of Burra . . 










ion 


Anlaby : H. H. Dutton 










1014 


Sidney Kidman, the Cattle King 










1023 


Keyneton : R. R. Keynes 










• 1035 


Koonoona: the late Hon. Walter Duffield 










• 1039 


Bungaree : R. M. and the late H. C. Hawker . 










• 1043 


North Bungaree: M. C. Hawker 










• 1053 


Anama : Walter Hawker . . 










• 1059 


Lucernedale: Hy. Collins & Co. 










1065 


The Downies, of Glenelg . . 










• 1074 


Government Saving Bank of New South Wales 








. 1078 


Olive-Growing in South Australia: G. F. Cleland & Sons Ltd. 






■ 1083 


Queensland Gems : Eraser Limited . . 






1084 


APPENDIX: CROWN LANDS LAWS OF AUSTRALIA 


New South Wales 














iii 


Victoria 














xiii 


Queensland 














xix 


South Australia . . 














xxiii 


The Northern Territory . 














xxix 


Western Australia 














xxxii 


Tasmania 














. xxxvii 



INDEX 



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The title ilesigiis, end-papers, and decorations from drawings hy Christian Yandell and Walter Seed. 

An Australian Pastoral . . . . Frontispiece 

Page 
Edwin J. Brady (Photo: R. Buchner) . . . . 14 

A Victorian Country Road (Photo: F. W. Littlejohn) 15 

Decorative Border: My Country (Christian Yandell) 16 



THE DAWN OF HISTORY 

The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by the Government Printers of Xew South Wales 
and Victoria; George tSell, Sydney; E. E. Fescott, F.L.S., Melbovrne (botanical subjects, pages J/O and o.'i) ; 
W. H. Cooper, Melbourne ; E. L. Mitchell, Perth; and the author. 



Title Design by Walter Seed . . 

Sunset— Torres Straits. Native Dance, Ham 

ond Island 
Dirck Hartogs' Plate 
The Lighthouse at Cape Leeuwin 
Mouth of the Blackwood River 
Goonabooka Pool, near RoebUrne 
The Harding River in Flood . . 
Gathering Guano at the Abroholos 
Cook's Monument at Kurnell, Botany Bay 
Captain Cook 
Mallacotta Inlet 
Male Australian Aborigine. Female Australian 

Aborigine 
Sir Joseph Banks 
Captain Arthur Phillip 
Statue to Governor Phillip, Sydney 
Old Colonial Home . . 
The Heads, Sydney . . 
In the Heart of Central Australia 
On the Hawkesbury River . . 
Gregory Blaxland . . 
Valley of the Grose River, Blue Mountains 



Page Page 

17 The River Tweed . . . . . . . . 41 

Hospital Sunday Procession, Broken Hill . . 42 

18 A Landing on the River Murray . . . . 43 

19 Sir Thomas Mitchell . . . . . . 44 

20 Overlanding- Cattle . . . . . . . . 45 

22 Distant View of the MacDonnell Ranges . . 46 

23 Newcastle Waters, Central Australia . . . . 47 

24 Some Australian Orchids . . . . . . 49 

25 A Native Burial-place . . . . . . 50 

26 Myall Blacks Beside a Central Australian 

27 Watercourse . . . . . . . . 51 

28 In a Jarrah Forest, Western Australia . . 52 
John Forrest (1874) . . . . . . 53 

29 Some Native Flowers . . . . . . 54 

30 An Australian Jungle . . . . . . 55 

31 Pioneers in the Bush . . . . . . 56 

33 Pioneering: Making His Bed for the Night . . 57 

34 Young Selectors: A Slab Hut in the Bush . . 58 

36 A Log Hut in the Clearing . . . . . . 59 

37 A Selector's Home . . . . . . . . 60 

39 An Australian Farmer's Home . . . . 61 

39 Bridge Street, Sydney . . . . . . 62 

40 A Station Homestead . . . . . . 63 



THE COMMONWEALTH 

The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by Lafayette, T. Humphrey d Co., F. Monteath, 
liroothorn, Mina Moore, Sarony, The Burlington, Talma, Melbourne : ■/. C. Cruden, Appleby, Judith 
Fletcher, Sydney; Vandyck, Adelaide; J. W. Beattie, Hobart (portraits, pages liZ, lH, J25, 12~i, 12i>); Dudley 
Le Souef (pages 135, 136 and 139), J. A. Kershaw (page 138), and Miss D. H. Llewellyn (page 130), for 
natural history subjects; ine Government Printers of Xew South Wales and Victoria; the Department of 
Home ami Territories; Sutcliffe d Akers, the Sears Studio, W. H. Cooper, Weston Storer, Melbourne; Greenham 
d Evans, Perth; Friend, Ingham; li. Vere Scott, and the author. 



Page 

Title Design by Christian Yandell . . . . 64 

Prime Ministers of the Commonwealth . . 65 

Federal Parliament House, Melbourne . . 67 

Panorama View of Canberra . . . . . . 70 

A Camel Team . . . . . . . . 71 

At Oodea Soak: Freshwater Bore . . . . 72 

On the Nullarbor Plain — The High Commissioner 

and Party . . . . . . . . 73 

On the Border of the Northern Territory . . 74 

A Survey Expedition Camp . . . . . . 75 

A Central Australian Scene . . . . . . 77 

Near Alice Springs . . . . . . . . 78 

Workers on the Transcontinental Railway . . 79 

Beyond the MacDonnell Ranges . . . . 80 

A Sheep Station in Central Australia . . . . 81 

On the North-South Transcontinental Route . . 82 

Typical Central Australian Country . . . . 83 

A Northern Territorian . . . . . . 84 

A Waterhole in the "Desert," Central Australia 85 

On the Murrumbidgee River, New South Wales 86 
Excavation for the Waranga-Mallee Channel, 

Victoria . . . . . . . . 87 

Inlet to Waranga Reservoir, Victoria . . . . 88 

Outlet to Waranga Reservoir, Victoria . . 89 



Pnge 

River Boats Below Murray Bridge, South Aus- 
tralia . . . . . . . . 91 

Pumping Plant at Renmark, South Australia . . 96 

Irrigation Channel, Berri, South Australia . . 96 
Water for the Kitchen Garden, Yarrie, Western 

Australia . . . . . . . . 97 

Excavating Channels for Irrigation at Berem- 

bed, N.S.W. . . . . . . . . 98 

The Bed of the Fitzroy River, Hughenden, 

Queensland . . . . . . . . 99 

Timber Workers . . . . . . . . 100 

Trucking Ore from Whim Creek to Balla Balla, 

W.A. .. .. .. .. 101 

Cedar Logs, Atherton Scrub, Queensland . . 102 

Brick and Drain-pipe Works, Lithgow, N.S.W. 103 

Electrolytic Room, Cobar Copper Works, N.S.W. 105 

Half a Ton of Rock Ling . . . . . . 106 

Martin Place and General Post Office, Sydney . . 107 

Public Works Offices, Sydney . . . . 108 

Hinton Bridge, New South Wales . . . . 109 

Panoramic View of Sydney Harbor . . . . 112-114 

The Law Courts, Melbourne . . . . . . 115 

Challis House, Martin Place, Sydney . . . . 117 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Pago 

"Wslcome and Good-bye," Port Melbourne Pier 119 
The First Unit of the Royal Australian Navy, 

1913 .. .. .. .. .. 121 

Australian Artists and Authors of To-day . . 122 

Melbourne Public Library and Museum . . 123 

The Mitchell Library, Sydney . . . . 124 

Australian Artists and Authors of To-day . . 125 
Science, Music and the Drama in Australia 

To-day .. .. .. •• 127 

Australian Scientists of To-day . . . . 129 

A Kookaburra (Laughing Jackass) . . . . 130 



Henley-on-the-Yarra Regatta . . . . 

Crowd at a Cricket Match . . 

A Big Shoot on the Burdekin River . . 

The Mountain Devil of Western Australia 

Some Australian Animals . . 

Brush Turkey. Kangaroo, with Young in Pouch 

"All in the Day's Sport" 

Melbourne Cup, Flemington Racecourse 

Snapper 

Australian Birds 

A Yacht Club Outing, Port Phillip . . 



Page 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
138 
139 
140 



NEW SOUTH WALES 

The Illustratioi^s in this Section are from photographs by the Xew South Wales Oovernment Printer, 
Water and irrigation Commission, and ^Immigration and Tourists' Bureau; George Bell, Sydney; Edgar 
Wilkinson, C'urlwaa, N.S.W., and the author. 



Circular Quay, Sydney 

Title Design by Christian Yandell 

Forest and Clearing 

A New South Wales Wheatfleld 

Burrinjuck Township, Murrumbidgee Storage 

Area 
The Burrinjuck Dam, Murrumbidgee River 
Sutherland Dock, Sydney 
Hetton Colliery, Newcastle . . 
Hauling Timber, North Coast 
Marbled Flathead . . 
The Beach, Newcastle 
Harpoon Practice, East Coast 
The Battery, Sachs' Molybdenum Mine, Kings- 
gate 
Blast Furnace, Lithgow 
Copper Mine, Cobar 

Flock of Sheep in the Riverina 

Crossing a Creek . . 

Loading Wheat at a Country Station . . 

A Cherry Tree, Bathurst Experimental Farm . . 

Wine Grapes: Thompson's Seedlings, Yanco . . 

Wyandottes, Hooper's Farm, Epping . . 

A New South Wales Bee Farm 

A Dairy Herd at Gloucester . . 

Trevitt's Seedling Apple, Yanco 

Hog-Raising Increases the Income of the Man 

on the Land . . 
Harvesting at landra, Grenfell District 
Harvesters at Work 
Botanic Gardens, Farm Cove, Sydney 

Open-Boat Sailing on Sydney Harbor 

Surf-Bathing at Manly 
Yachting on Sydney Harbor . . 

Mosman Bay, Sydney 

In George Street, Sydney 

Kuring-Gai Chase . . 

Hawkesbury River at Newport 

Tea Gardens, Como 

The Empire Falls, Blue Mountains . . 

A Trout Stream in the Victorian Alps 

Fairy Dell Falls, Blue Mountains 

The Weeping Rock, Wentworth Falls, Blue 
Mountains 

The Waratah — Flannel Flowers 

In National Park, near Sydney 

Bulli Pass, Illawarra District 

Christmas Bells 

Bangalow Palms 

A Mountain Road . . 

Skating on Mount Kosciusko 

Picnic on the Snowy River . . 

Jindabyne, on the Snowy River 

Ski-Runners at Hotel Kosciusko 

A Dog Shed, Kosciusko 

Club Lake, Snowy Mountains 

The Summit of Mount Kosciusko 

Crescent Head 

A Dairy Herd, North Coast District . . 

A Boat Harbor on the Richmond River 

A Holiday on Richmond River 

In the Big Scrub, Richmond River 

A Farm near Dorrigo 

Government Experimental Farm, Grafton 



Page 

142 "The Farmer's Friend." 

143 On the Paterson River 

144 A New South Wales Pasture 

145 Milking Machines, Manning River District 
On the Manning, near Wingham 

147 South Clifton 

148 Seal Rocks Lighthouse 

149 Water Trees, South Coast 

150 Dairying at Coolangatta 

151 Ironbark Tree, Nowra 

152 Eden 

153 Pyrmont Bridge 

154 Tumut 
An Orchard at Wagga 

155 Bloodwood Trees 

156 Good Wheat Land . . 

157 Old Police Station, Lake Cargellico . . 

158 A Darling River Steamer 

159 The Junction of the Murray and the Darling 

161 Wentworth: Wharf and Bridge, View of Town 

162 Peach-tree on Walter Sage's Block . . 

162 Sorghum, Nine Feet High . . 

163 Navelencia Oranges 

164 Irrigating Trees Between Fruit-trees, Yanco 

165 Children at Menindie 

167 A River Trading Steamer 
Shearers Leaving Tolarno, River Darling 

168 Bridge over the River Darling at Wilcannia 

169 The Bore at Pera . . 

171 "All the Time He is Being Loaded He Roars" 

172 What the Land is Growing To-day 

173 A Train from Up-country 

175 An Australian Dairymaid 

176 A Broken Hill "Landscape" . . 

177 Ore Dressing Plant, Broken Hill Proprietary 

178 Broken Hill Proprietary Silver Mine . . 

179 Open-cut Workings, Broken Hill Proprietary 

180 A Broken Hill Silver Mine . . 

181 The South Coast at Eden . . 

182 Turpentine Trees 

183 A Cream Cart 

184 Blackbutt, Bateman's Bay . . 
Moruya Cheese Factory 

185 Narooma River 

186 Benjamin Boyd's Old Home, Twofold Bay 

187 At the Whaling Station, Twofold Bay 

188 A Dairy Farm at Nethercote 

189 White Apple Tree . . 

190 Main Street, Milton . . 

191 Sluice-gate, Loch and Weir, Berembed 

192 Burrinjuck Dam (Down-stream Face) 

193 Burrinjuck Dam (Up-stream Face) . . 

194 An Apricot Tree, Yanco 

195 A Riverina Pasturage 

196 Irrigation at Yanco . . 

197 Dairy Cows on Natural Pasture, Murrumbidgee 

198 The Beginnings of an Ostrich Farm at Yanco 

199 Road and River (Tumut) . . 

200 Raymond Terrace Viticultural Station 

201 A Farm on the North Arm, Bellingen River 

203 Girls Picking Grapes, Hunter River District 

204 A Wheat Stack at Gerogery . . 

205 On the Karnah River, near Bowral . . 
207 Jones' Bridge, Tumut 



Page 
209 
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272 
273 
273 
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275 
276 
277 
278 
279 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
286 
287 
288 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



VICTORIA 

The Ilhistiatiotis in this Section are from photographs by the Victorian Government Printer, Tourist 
Bureau, Department of Agriculture, and Council of Agricultural Education; Kerr Bros., R. Vere Scott, F. W. 
lAttlejohn, Mrs. Daphne Dawes (pages 321, 32-'i and 338), E. E. I'escott, F.L.S. (pages 329, 331, 313, 37.'/, 377^ 
Scars Studio, Sutchffe cf Akers, Melbourne; t'oyle, Warrnambool, and the author. 



Collins Street, looking West, Melbourne 

Title Design by Christian Yandell 

Surgeon George Bass 

Captain Matthew Flinders 

Sorrento, on Port Phillip 

Melbourne, from the St. Kilda Road . . 

"The Block," Collins Street, Melbourne 

Town Hall, Melbourne 

Central Railway Station, Melbourne . . 

Fire Station, Melbourne 

General Post Office, Melbourne 

On the Upper Yarra 

Back Beach, Williamstown . . 

Tea-tree on Port Phillip Shores 

At Fern Tree Gully 

Nyora Gully, Healesville 

On the Beach at Mentone . . 

The River Yarra at Melbourne 

A Mountain Road in Southern Gippsland 

Rocks at Phillip Island 

The Break, Cowes, Phillip Island . . 

In the Drained Area, Koo-wee-rup 

Mathinna Falls, Healesville . . 

Olinda Road, Sassafras 

The River Yarra at Warburton 

On the Road to Sassafras . . 

Ballarat 

A Vineyard at Lilydale 

Mitchell Falls, Kyneton 

The River at Yea . . 

Pall Mall, Bendigo . . 

River Goulburn, Alexandra . . 

Jubilee Park, Daylesford . . 

Coliban River, Kyneton 

In the Grampians . . 

In the Public Gardens, Bacchus Marsh 

On the Erskine at Lome 

In the Victorian Bush 

Warrnambool 

Thunder Point and Shelly Beach, Warrnambool 

Tower Hill and Lake, Koroit . . 

Loch and Gorge, Port Campbell 

In the Grampian Ranges 

In the Grampians . . 

Public Gardens, Ararat 

Some Australian Orchids 

Stawell 

Agricultural Education in Victoria . . 

Longerenong Agricultural College 

Rolling Down the Mallee 

Saw Mill, Warrandyte 

The Lakes Entrance 

Kalimna, Lakes Entrance, Gippsland . . 

"Bull-frogs," Eastern Gippsland 

Lake Tyers 

Mitchell River, Bairnsdale . . 

A Backwater of the Mitchell 

The Citadel, Buchan 

In the Buchan Caves 

Mount Wills in Winter 

Winter in the Victorian Alps 

Carting Timber from a Bush Sawmill . . 



290 
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341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
347 
349 
350 
351 
352 



A Selector's Hut in the Gippsland Forest 

"Goods Roads rre a First Essential" . . 

Mount Feathertop and Ovens River . . 

Eurobin Valley, from Mount Buffalo . . 

North Wall of Buffalo Gorge 

The Chalet on Mount Buffalo 

Eurobin Creek in Buffalo Gorge 

At Bright 

Walhalla: A Victorian Mining Township 

On the Acheron River 

"The Hermitage," Blacks' Spur 

A Victorian Hop Garden 

Victorian Agriculture 

Crossbreeding Wheats, Rutherglen Experimental 

Station 
A Demonstration of the Value of Top-dressing 

Grass 
Pot-culture House, Rutherglen Experimental Sta 

tion . . 
Buildings and Water Supply, State Research 

Farm, Werribee 
A Wool Class, Sale Agricultural High School 
Landscape Gardening at the Botanical GardenS; 

Melbourne 
A Lily Pond at the Botanical Gardens, Mel 

bourne 
Wheat Breeding at Rutherglen Experimental 

Station 

Portion of the Burnley School of Horticulture 
Ploughing, Rochester: Grading Land, Shepparton 
A New District: Tongala in 1913 
Maize Grown by Irrigation . . 
A Hay Crop at Rochester . . 
Dookie Agricultural College 
A Veterinary Class at Dookie College 
A Victorian Forest . . 
Cohuna Main Channel 
Laanecoorie Weir, on the Loddon River 
Goulburn Weir, Nagambie. Pumping Station, 

River Murray 
Currants, Shepparton. Navel Oranges, Mildura 
Measuring Water to the Irrigators . . 
Orange Tree, Cohuna. A Home in an Irrigation 

Settlement 
Pear Trees, 32 months Old. Peach Orchard, 22 

Months Old . . 
Measuring Water, Mildura. Sultanas at Mildura 
West's, Shepparton, 30 Months After the Settle- 
ment 
Peach Trees at West's (Planted 32 Months) . . 
Dr. Wight's, Kyabram. A Kyabram Orchardist's 

Home. Apple Picking, Harcourt 
Peach Orchard, Ardmona . . 
Campaspe Weir, near Rochester 
An Old Homestead at Swan Hill 
Clearing the Land for Grass. Heavy Sorghum 

Crop 
Harvesting Lucerne. Two Weeks' Growth of 

Lucerne 
A Victorian Butter Factory . . 
Types of Australian Girlhood 



Page 
353 
354 
355 
356 
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363 
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367 

368 

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371 
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387 
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390 

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395 
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397 
398 

399 

400 
401 
402 



QUEENSLAND 



The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by Lafayette d F. Monteath (types of Australian 
girlhood), the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Stock, Government Printer, and the author. 



Lockyer Creek, South Queensland 
Title Design, by Walter Seed 
Coal Mine, Tannymorel, Darling Downs 
Gold Ore Crushing at Gympie 
Wool Teams, Wyandra 



Page 




±-ago 


404 


Canefields at Childers 


409 


405 


Kaffir Corn, Biggenden. Apples, Stanthorpe . 


410 


406 


A Queensland Settler's Home 


411 


407 


Papaw Tree 


412 


408 


Orchard, Redland Bay 


413 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Lemon Trees, Yeppoon, Central Queensland . . 
Sleepers for Africa and India. Olive Trees, 

Westbrook 
Gattan Agricultural College . . 
Central Railway Station, Brisbane . . 
General View of Brisbane (Panorama) 
The University, Brisbane 
Produce Markets, Roma Street, Brisbane 
Avenue of Palms, Botanical Gardens, Brisbane . 
Date Palms, Barcaldine 
Leaving Brisbane for Northern Ports 
Cronin's Artesian Bore, Barcaldine . . 
Sapphire Fields, Anakie District 
A Cane Farm near Mackay . . 
Cane Train Going to Marian Mill, Mackay 
Coconut Palms at Port Douglas 
A Pineapple Plantation at Woombye, North 

Coast Line 
Girls of North Queensland . . 
Townsville, the Capital of North Queensland 
Cedar Logs at Cairns 
A Queensland Railway Locomotive . . 
Manager's Residence, Kamerunga State Nursery, 

Cairns 
Para Rubber Plantation at Kamerunga 
Oil Palms at Kamerunga 
A Good Crop of Pineapples . . 
Palms. Cairns-Mulgrave Railway 
Barron Falls, Cairns Railway 
Pines for Market, Woombye . . 
Coffee Plantations at Mackay 
Cairns Railway, Showing Robb's Monument 
Aboriginal Climbing Tree, Herberton 
Mining Men of Mareeba 
Mount Bellenden-Ker 
Cutting Sugar Cane 
Cattle Creek, Mackay District 
Maize Growing at Eel Creek, Wide Bay District 
Fisher Falls, Innisfail, North Queensland 
Queensland Aborigines' Mission Band . . 
A Wayside Station on the Cloncurry Railway 
Wide Bay Creek, North Coast Railway 
A Banana Plantation 
Native Canoes on the Bloomfield River 
Tully Falls, Cairns Hinterland 
Gallet Creek, Cairns-Mulgrave Railway 
Whitsunday Passage, North Queensland 
Stony Creek Falls, Cairns Railway . . 
Gill Street, Charters Towers 
Chinese Method of Irrigation, Hughenden 
Result of Irrigation, Hughenden 
In the Kingaroy Country, Burnett District 
Hauling Timber 



Page 

414 

415 
416 
417 
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420 
421 
422 
422 
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424 
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429 

430 
431 
432 
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435 

436 
437 
437 
438 
439 
440 
441 
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442 
443 
444 
445 
447 
448 
449 
450 
451 
453 
454 
455 
456 
457 
458 
459 
460 
461 
462 
463 
463 
464 



A Queensland Cattle Camp . . 

3crub Clearing in North Queensland . . 

A Street in Longreach 

A Street View in Barcaldine . . 

Grapes at Roma 

Gidyea Forest 

A Street in Barcaldine 

Artesian Bore Drain, Balcaldine 

Sheep on a Farm near Warwick, Darling Downs 

Queensland Pastures 

A Mob of Central Queensland Cattle 

"Hills that May be Rich With Gold" . . 

Gold Mines, Mount Morgan . . 

Rockhampton, the Capital of Central Queensland 

Examining Sapphires 

Classing Sapphires . . 

Sisal Hemp, Childers 

A Herd of Hereford Cattle on Coochin Coochin, 
Fassifern District 

A Mob of Queensland Horses 

Orion Downs, Springsure District 

An Island on the Queensland Coast . . 

The Florida Bore . . 

Sheep at the Hermitage, Darling Downs 

Bullocks Drawing Timber 

Wheat Field, Allora, Darling Downs . . 

Town Hall, Toowoomba 

Hermitage Farm, Warwick District, Darling 
Downs 

An Early Homestead, Roma District . . 

Wheat at Roma 

Harvesting at Roma 

Harvesting Wheat near Warwick 

Bending Broom Millet 

Potato Field, Killarney, Darling Downs 

Picking Fruit at Westbrook, near Toowoomba . 

Crop of Young Maize at Westbrook . . 

Planting and Irrigating Tobacco, Te->cas, Darling 
Downs 

Bridge over Dumaresque River, Texas District 

Tobacco Fields, Texas, Darling Downs 

Ipswicn, Southern Queensland 

Quince Tree, Stanthorpe 

Rocks at Stanthorpe 

Coalmining at Bundamba, near Ipswich 

Coke Ovens in the Bundamba District . . 

View from Perry's Knob, Marburg, Moreton Dis 
trict . . 

Scene on the Marburg Railway, Moreton Dis- 
trict . . 

Emir Creek, Killarney District 

Scene on Marburg Line 

Bottle Tree, Burnett District 

Nambour Sugar Mill 



Page 
465 
467 
469 
470 
471 
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472 
473 
474 
475 
476 
477 
478 
479 
481 
481 
482 

483 
484 
485 
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487 
489 
490 
491 
492 

493 
494 
495 
495 
496 
497 
498 
499 
499 

500 
501 
501 
502 
503 
503 
504 
505 

506 

607 
509 
510 
511 
512 



NORTHERN TERRITORY 

The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by the Department of Home and Territories, 
C'ruden, Sydney, and the author. 



A Northern Territory Billabong 

Title Design by Christian Yandell 

Territorial Inland . . 

Sawmillers' Camp, Melville Island 

Scene in Central Australia . . 

Permanent Water — Batchelor Demonstration 

Farm 
Goats and Ant Hills . . 
Cyanide Plant 

The Wealth of Tropical Production . . 
A Flooded River 
Kapok Trees, near Darwin . . 
Coconut Palms and Sisal Hemp, in the Botanical 

Gardens, Darwin 
Date Palms 
Pineapple Plant 
Bananas 

How the Grass Grows at Darwin 
In the Sand Hills . . 
Weighing Pearl Shell, Port Darwin . . 
A Frontiersman 



Page 

514 After Ten Years' Tent Life in the Territory 

515 Pastoral and Mineral Areas . . 

516 Natives of Oodnadatta 

517 A Northern Territory School 

518 Dairy Stock — Merino Sheep at the Batchelor 

Demonstration Farm . . 

519 Stack of Upland Rice Hay . . 

520 Coconuts 

521 Spiders' Nests 

522 A Native Canoe 

523 Pearling Luggers, Darwin . . 

524 Chinese Residents at Darwin 
Papaws at Point Charles . . 

525 Darwin 

526 Guinea Grass, Residency Grounds, Darwin 

526 A Darwin Verandah — New Type of Residence 

527 Darwin 

528 An Artesian Boring Party . . 

529 Botanic Gardens, Darwin 

530 A Creek in Central Australia 

531 Government School at Pine Creek 



Page 
531 
532 
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534 

535 
536 
536 
537 
538 
539 
540 
540 
541 
542 

543 
544 
545 
547 
549 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

On the Daly River . . . . . . . . 550 

A Glimpse of Daly River . . . . . . 551 

Screw Palms . . . . . . . . 552 

A Water Lily Lagoon . . . . . . 553 

Fruits of the Tropics . . . . . . 554 

Pigs bred on the Adelaide River, near Darwin 555 

In Tropical Australia . . . . 555 

Maize, Daly River . . . . . . . . 556 

"Good Country" . . . . . . . . 556 

A Northern Territory Jungle . . . . . . 557 

Aboriginal Drawings . . . . . . 559 

Myall Blacks . . . . . . . . 560 

A Daly River Farm . . . . . . 561 

Aborigines with Buffalo Horns, Melville Island 562 

Bound for Melville Island . . . . . . 562 

On the Adelaide . . . . . . . . 563 

A Traveller . . . . . . . . 564 

A Camp . . . . . . . . . . 565 

Black and White . . . . . . . . 566 

Buffalo Hunting . . . . . . . . 567 

A Creek in Central Australia . . . . . . 569 

Repairing the Waggonette at Lawrie's . . 571 

"Like the Patriarchs of Old" . . . . . . 573 

A Northern Territory Bushman . . . . 574 

Spring near MacArthur River . . . . 575 

Edible Turtle . . . . . . . . 576 

A Hundred Miles up the Roper River . . . . 577 



Page 

Oodnadatta Railway . . . . . . 578 

Horses and Cattle in the Northern Territory . . 579 

A "Heart of Australia" Station Homestead . . 580 

A Lily Pond, Northern Territory . . . . 581 

Chambers' Pillar, Central Australia . . . . 583 

Pine Creek Railway . . . . . . . . 584 

A River of the Farthest North . . . . 585 

Crossing the Katherine River . . . . 587 

Northern Territory Forest . . . . . . 588 

Horses from the MacDonnell Ranges . . . . 589 

An Ant-Hill . . . . . . 590 

Palms, Krichauff Ranges . . . . . . 591 

A Garden at Alice Springs . . . . . . 593 

The Prospector's Camel . . . . . . 594 

Primitive Windlass . . . . . . . . 595 

Chinese Bagging Dried Concentrates . . . . 597 

Tin Concentrates . . . . . . ■ ■ 598 

A Territorian . . . . . . . . 599 

Turtles .. .. .. .. .. 600 

Robbing a Turtle's Nest . . . . . . 601 

Copper Mine, Coronet Hill . . . . . . 602 

Central Australian Aboriginals . . . . 603 

Men Who are Needed for the Territory . . 604 

King's Cove, Fort Dundas, Melville Island . . 605 

White and Black . . . . . . . . 606 

A Surveyor's Camp . . . . . . . . 607 

Camels Drinking at a Creek . . . . . . 608 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



The Illustrations in this Section are from photof/raphs by the South Australian Intelligence and Tourist 
Bureau, and the author. 



North Terrace, Adelaide 

Title Design by Christian Yandell 

Orchards in Mount Lofty Ranges 

Piccadilly, from Mount Lofty Ranges 

Ostriches on a Port Augusta Farm 

Flinders Range 

Camels in Central Australia . . 

Afghans Loading a Camel . . 

A Horse Waggon at Hergott . . 

At a Hergott Springs Race Meeting 

Smelting Works at Port Pirie 

Crushing and Sorting Plant, Wallaroo 

Traders on the Upper Murray 

Sandstone Cliff and Pool 

A Big Melon and a Little Kangaroo 

Rock Formation 

Government Reclaimed Area, Murray 

Angaston 

The Beach at Glenelg 

The "Dead Heart" of Australia 

A Forest Veteran . . 

The Bread of the Wastes 

Long Reach at Morgan, on the Murray 

Lake Bonney Landing, Murray River 

Harvesters at Work in the Pinnaroo 

Sons of the "Desert" 

Pinnaroo 





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611 




613 




614 




615 




616 




617 




618 




618 




619 




621 


Mines . . 


622 




623 




624 




625 




625 


Bridge . . 


625 




626 




627 




628 




629 




630 


ly River . . 


631 




632 




633 




634 


• . 


635 



Page 
Shipping Wheat on Land, once Condemned as 

Sterile . . . . . . . . 636 

In South Australia . . . . . . . . 637 

An Apricot Orchard . . . . . . . . 638 

Jetty, Port Lincoln . . . . . . . . 639 

Agricultural Machinery for tyre's Peninsula . . 639 

A Settler's Home in South Australia . . . . 641 

A Sheep Station Homestead . . . . . . 642 

A Forest Pool . . . . . . . . 643 

A South Australian Mail Coach — Port Lincoln to 

Eucla . . . . . . . . 645 

Grass and Water in the Interior . . . . 646 

South Australian Merinos . . . . . . 647 

An Irrigated Orchard . . . . . . 648 

Drying Raisins at Renmark . . . . . . 649 

Irrigation Drain near Beachport . . . . 650 

The Austin Excavator Working on Swamp Lands, 

River Murray . . . . . . 651 

Steam Shovels at Work on South-Eastern 

Drains . . . . . . . . 651 

Barossa Reservoir (Capacity 1,000,000,000 gal- 
lons) .. .. .. .. 653 

Drain Excavated by Machinery in Limestone 

Country . . . . . . . . 654 

Swamp Country Before Drainage, South-East 

South Australia . . . . . . 655 

Inferior Country after Irrigation, Millicent . . 655 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 



The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by E. L. Mitchell, Oreenham rf Evans, Dwyer, 
L. E. Shnpcott, and the author. 



Page 

Fremantle and Rottnest . . . . . . 658 

Title Design by Christian Yandell . . . . 659 

"An Air of Leisured Prosperity at Geraldton" . . 659 

Harvesting on Hawkhurst Estate, York . . 660 

Loading Camels for Nullagine . . . . 661 

Unloading Pearl-shell . . . . . . 662 

Diver and Crew on a Pearler . . . . . . 663 

Cleaning Pearls . . . . . . . . 663 

Pearling Luggers at Anchor, Fort Hedland . . 664 



A Pearl Blister (containing either a Pearl or 

Mud) 
Port Hedland 
The Chinese Tally Clerk 
Heaving the Lead 
A Wool Schooner . . 
O'Meara, Boss of the Gang 
On the Road to Marble Bar 
Coongan River, Marble Bar 



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666 






666 






667 






667 






668 






869 



lO 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Japanese Monument, Broome . . 

Landing at Broome 

A Westralian Mounted Policeman 

A Camel Train — A Camel Sulky 

The Camel as a Lady's Hack — as a Carriage 
Horse 

Captain Dalgleish and "Paddy" — A Baobab Tree 
Derby 

Papaws and Cabbages 

Fishing on the Estuary — Mandurah 

Date Palm, Yarrie — Prospectors of Kitchener 
Mine 

A Ship of the Desert — A Trolly Driven by Sail 

Sheep at the Harding River 

The City of Perth .. 

St. George's Terrace, Perth 

Yachting on the Swan River 

Bathers on the Swan River 

Ascot Racecourse, Perth 

The Swan River at Perth 

An Irrigated Crop . . 

Land that will be Cleared for Cultivation 

State Saw-mill, Manjimup 

A New Selector at Brunswick 

On the Busselton Road — Road near Brunswick . 

Folded Shawl, Yallingup Cave 

The Old Mill at Busselton . . 

Millar's Mill, Karridale 

Young Australians, Jarrahdale 

Unloading Jarrah Piles, Cossack 

Young Jarrah Forest, The Warren 

Hauling Jarrah Logs 

New Settlers in the Forest . . 

Karri 

Wheatley's Apple Store — A Pear Tree, Bridge 
town 

Old Homestead in Western Australia . . 

Nuggets of Gold from Ruby Well, Peak Hill 

Crowd of Miners Listening to Father Long An- 
nouncing the Locality of the "Sacred 
Nugget," Kanowna, 1908 

Characteristic Quartz Outcrop 



Page 

670 
671 

671 
672 

673 

674 
554 
675 

676 
677 
678 
679 
681 
682 
683 
684 
685 
686 
687 
688 
689 
690 
691 
692 
693 
694 
694 
695 
696 
697 
698 

699 
700 
701 



702-3 
704 



Coronation Day at Bamboo Creek . . 
Sulphide Dump at Gimblet Goldmine, Ora Banda 
Wild Flowers at Murrim Murrim — A Guamma 

Hole 
Sandstone, East Murchison Goldfield . . 
Oroza Goldmine, Black Range, East Murchison 
Frazer's Mine, Southern Cross 
A Currajong Tree . . 
The Weir, Murray River, Pinjarra . . 
Helena River, Mundaring 
Hannan Street, Kalgoorlie . . 
School of Mines, Kalgoorlie . . 
Intersection of Hannan and Maritana Streets 

Kalgoorlie 
Oranges Grown at Kalgoorlie 
A Garden in Kalgoorlie 
Goldfields Girls 
A Native of the Goldfields . . 
Early Days on the Golden Mile 
Deserted Alluvial Diggings . . 
Westralian Native Flowers . . 
On the Sheep Hills, Newmarracarra . . 
Pearling Luggers at Broome . . 
Whim Well Copper Mine 
Westralian Natives . . 
Waiting for Kangaroos 
A Prospector — Salt Formation in a Mine 
Natives Fishing in the De Grey River . . 
A Westralian Aboriginal — Curious Aboriginal 

Marking 
Murray River, Ravenswood . . 
Coppin's Gap, near Marble Bar 
Meteoric Shower, Calgardup Cave 
A Date Palm, with Fruit — Irrigated Garden 

near Carnarvon 
Avon River, York . . 
McGibben's Estate, Bruce Rock 
Bullock Wool-Team, Carnarvon 
Felling a Karri Tree 
A Camel Wool Team — Town Water Supply, 

Derby — A Wheat Waggon Drawn by 

Donkeys 



Page 
705 
705 

706 
707 
708 
709 
710 
711 
712 
713 
714 

715 
716 
719 
720 
721 
722 
723 
724 
725 
726 
727 
728 
729 
730 
731 

732 
733 
734 
735 

736 
737 
738 
738 
939 



740 



TASMANIA 

The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by fSpnrling c£- Son, Launceston; J. W. Bcattie, 
Hobart; and the author. 



Launceston . . 

Title Design by Christian Yandell 

The Nut, Stanley . . 

North Coast Railway, near Burnie 

Hartnett Falls, Upper Mersey River 

Electric Power Station, Launceston 

Freshwater Point, River Tamar 

Wool Mills, Launceston 

Trevallyn and the River Tamar 

In Denison Gorge, Scottsdale . . 

Devonport 

Mount Wellington, showing part of 

Carnaroon (Port Arthur) 

Bushy Park, Derwent Valley . . 

The River Derwent at New Norfolk 

Fern Tree Bower, near Hobart 

A Tamar River Orchard 





Page 




742 




743 




744 




745 




746 




747 




748 




749 




750 




■751 




752 


Hobart . 


753 




755 




756 




757 




759 




761 



At Devonport Station 

The Devil's Gullet, Western Tiers . . 

The Alum Cliffs, Mersey River 

Mount Lyell Copper Mine, Gormanston 

Ringtail Gully, Waratah 

A Young Orchard . . 

Table Cape, North-West Coast 

Lake Hartz, Hartz Mountains 

Gordon River Gorge, West Coast 

St. Columba Falls, George River 

Mount Olympus, Lake St. Clair 

Lobster Creek, Leven River . . 

Timber Train in Geeveston . . 

Packing Stores to the Ringarooma Tin-Mines 

A Harvesting Scene, Glenore 

On the North Coast Road . . 

On the River Mersey 



Page 
763 
764 
765 
767 
769 
770 
771 
774 
775 
776 
777 
778 
779 
780 
781 
782 
783 



PAPUA (BRITISH NEW GUINEA) 



Native Village, Port Moresby — Settler's Home, 

Samarai 
Samarai (Papua) 
Sisal Hemp at Fairfax Harbor 



Page 

786 
787 
788 



A Native Village 

A New Guinea Belle 

At Sariba, near Samarai 

Para Rubber Trees at Javarere, Papua 



Page 
789 
790 
791 
792 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



II 



NATIONAL, PATRIOTIC AND BENEVOLENT 

The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by the Government Printers of yew South Wales 
and Victoria; Geo. Bell, Hall £ Co., Sydney; Sears, Darge, Melbourne; C. P. Scott, Adelaide; Hy. Phillips, 
Katoomba ; Bartlett Bros., Bendigo. 



Page 

Soldiers of Australia . . . . . . 794 

The First Australian-made Armored Motor Car 796 

Aviation in Australia . . . . . . 797 

Small Arms Ammunition Making in Australia . . 798 

Australian Light Horse Field Artillery . . 799 

Some of the Crew of H.M.A.S. "Australia" . . 799 

Australia's Navy . . . . . . . . 801 

Infant Public School, Sydney . . . . . . 802 

A Kindergarten Class . . . . . . 804 

Sydney Technical College and Museum . . 805 

Conservatorium of Music, Sydney . . . . 805 

Junior Technical Class in a Public School . . 807 

Hawkesbury Agricultural College . . . . 808 

Field Work at Hawkesbury College . . . . 809 

Sloyd Woodwork Class, Victoria . . . . 810 

A State Infant School, Auburn, Melbourne . . 811 

Victorian State School Gardens . . . . 812 

Physical Training for Boys — Domestic Economy 

for Girls . . . . . . . . 813 

Training College for State School Teachers, Mel- 
bourne . . . . . . . . 814 

One of the Wards in Sydney Hospital . . . . 816 

Melbourne General Hospital . . . . . . 817 

"Cicada," Burwood, Sydney . . . . . . 81S 

Some Government Institutions under the Chil- 
dren's Relief Board . . . . . . 819 

A Bedroom at "Cicada," Children's Home, Sydney 820 

The late Thos. Walker, of Yaralla . . . . 821 

"Yaralla," Sydney .. .. .. .. 822 

The Entrance Hall, Yaralla . . . . . . 823 

The Thomas Walker Convalescent Hospital, 

Sydney .. .. .. .. 824 

Dutch Tower on the Wharf . . . . . . 825 

Joanna Walker Memorial Children's Cottage 

Hospital . . . . . . . . 826 

In the Garden at "Yaralla" . . . . . . 827 

"Yaralla" (Entrance Front) . . . . . . 828 

George Fife Angas, the Father of South Aus- 
tralia .. .. .. .. 829 



The South Australian Company: 1st Board of 

Directors 
The Hon. John Howard Angas 
Lindsay House, Angaston 
Collingrove House, Angaston 
The Church at Collingrove . . 
Angas Shorthorns, Collingrove 
The Angas Memorial, Adelaide 
Chas. H. Angas on "Fleetwing" — Charles 

Howard Angas 
Rugias Prince 40th — Charming Oxford 51st 
Hackney Stallion :"Shirley Freelance" (imp.) 
Capt. Ronald F. Angas — Lieut. Dudley T. Angas 
"Fortuna," Bendigo . . 
George Lansell 

The Entrance Hall, "Fortuna" 
The Music Room, "Fortuna" . . 
City of Bendigo 
A Cabinet, "Fortuna" 
Lansell's "180" Mine 

Statue to Mr. George Lansell at Bendigo 
Sydney Cove in "First Fleet" Days . . 
Mrs. Eleanor K. Abbott — Mrs. Frances A. Abbott 
Sir Joseph Palmer Abbott — Macartney Abbott, 

M.L.A. 
W. E. Abbott— Thos. Kingsmill Abbott 
House Built by John Kingsmill Abbott at 

Wingen 
The Younger Generation, Abbott Family 
The Old Tank Stream at Sydney Cove . . 
Jameson Valley, Blue Mountains (Panorama) 
Hon. Archibald Bell, M.L.C. . . 
The Homestead, Pickering . . 
Pure-bred Durham Cattle at Pickering 
Lieut. William Cox . . 
Wm. Cox, jun. — John Cox 
Chas. H. Cox, J.P.— John A. H. Cox . . 



Page 

831 
832 
833 
834 
835 
837 
838 

839 
841 
842 
843 
845 
846 
847 
848 
849 
850 
851 
852 
853 
854 

855 
856 

857 
858 
859 
860-1 
862 
863 
864 
865 
866 
866 



THE AUSTRALIAN PASTORAL INDUSTRY 

The Illustrations in this Section are from photographs by C. P. Scott, Adelaide; Geo. Bell, Hall d Co., 
Freeman rf Co., Sydney; Greenham Studios, Newcastle; Lafayette, Sears Studio, Melbourne; the Dobson Studio, 
Rockhampton; J. W. Beattie, Hobart, T. J. Killen, P. J. Nally, E. .4. Vidler, and others. 



Page 

Wool Store, at Port Adelaide, South Australia 870 

Title Design by Christian Yandell . . . . 871 

Reserve Feed on a Riverina Station . . . . 871 

Hand-Shearing in a Riverina Woolshed: Merribee 872 
A Beef Shorthorn — Windmill and Trough, 

Yooroobla . . . . . . . . 873 

A Mob of Merino Ewes in the Riverina . . 874 
Private Bridge over the Light River, Anlaby 

Estate . . . . . . . . 875 

A South Australian Pastoral: Keyneton .. 876 

Romney Marsh Ewes and Lambs, Victoria . . 876 

The Homestead, North Yanco Station . . 877 

The Hon. Sir Samuel McCaughey, M.L.C. . . 878 

The Homestead — Turbine Windmill, Coonong . . 879 

Blacksmith's Shop, Upper Yanco Station . . 880 

Era Grader Making Drains, Upper Yanco . . 881 

Men's Omrters at North Yanco . . . . ?8t 

Sawmilling Plant, North Yanco Station . . 882 

Woolshed at North Yanco (45 stands) . . 883 

One of ITiree Haysheds at North Yanco . . 884 

Mr. and Mrs. James Mitchell, Table Top . . 885 

View from Verandah, Table Top Homestead . . 886 

Table Top Homestead (looking South) .. 887 

Table Top Mountain . . . . . . 888 

Murgha Stud Rams (Pure Wanganella) . . 889-890 

Murgha Stud Rams: No. 94 and one of his Sons 891 



Murgha Stud Ewes (Pure Wanganella) 

Uardry Homestead . . 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Mills . . 

The Murrumbidgee in Flood 

Loading MTieat for Echuca at Uardry 

Annual Classing of Young Rams 

Young Rams brought in to be Classed 

A Typical Uardry Stud Ram 

Kismet: Uardry Special Ram 

The Homestead, Yooroobla . . 

The late Geo. Ferguson Simpson 

George F. Simpson . . 

The Woolshed, Yooroobla 

Typical Sires, Yooroobla Sale Rams . . 

Perfection: Yooroobla -bred Ram 

Yooroobla-bred Ewes (under 18 months) 

Typical Nowranie Stud Rams 

A Flock of Merino Ewes, on Nowranie 

Herd of Cattle, on Nowranie . . 

The Woolshed, Nowranie 

"Rose," Champion Brood Mare, Nowranie 

Ferguson Simpson . . 

Nowranie Stud Merino Ram . . 

The Homestead, Wangamong 

X Wangamong Riverina Ram 

Double-Stud Ewe, Wangamong 



Page 

892 
893-894 
895 
895 
896 
897 
897 
898 
898 
899 
900 
900 
901 
902 
902 
902 
903 
904 
904 
905 
905 
906 
906 
907 
908 
908 



12 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Big Springs Homestead, from the Lake 

The Woolshed and Huts 

In the Centre of Big Springs Station, looking 

West 
A Good Field of Wheat 
O'Brien's Creek, on Big Springs Estate 
A Part of the Garden, Big Springs . . 
Merribee House 
William Wilson Killen 
The Merribee Stud Merinos . . 
Merribee Merino: a Good Staple 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Killen and Family 
Merribee Country, with Mount Binya in the 

Distance 
A Flock of Merribee Ewes and Lambs 
On Goobragandra and Blowering Stations 
The Tantallon Lineolns 
Mr. and Mrs. William Hood . . 
Tantallon Lineolns — Yearling Filly by Earlston — 
"Wentworth," 4-year-old Draught Stallion .... 
Three Lincoln Ram I/ambs, 9 months old 
Gunner Tom Edols Hood 

Welsh Mountain Pony Stallion, "Tantallon" . . 
The Homestead, Tantallon 
Burrawang House and Lagoon 
The Late Thos. Edols— C. Hedley Edols— Thos. 

Reginald Edols 
Typical Burrawang Stud Rams 
Mount Burrawang — Shearing Sheep by 

Machinery 
Champion Tocal Hereford Cow: Minerva 
The late Charles Reynolds . . 
Imported Hereford Bull: Twyford Horace 
Frank Reynolds — The Homestead, 'Tocal 
The Garden, Mooki Springs . . 
Devon Long-Woolled Sheep — Suffolk Punch 

Horses 
Mooki Rotherwood: Shorthorn Stud Bull 
Baron Oxford 21st: Mooki Shorthorn Stud Bull 
Young Durham Bulls 
The Home Paddocks, Mooki Springs . . 
Mooki Springs Stud Shorthorn Cows . . 
Shaded Water-troughs on the Plain Country . . 
The Original Edinglassie 
Five Generations of the "Edinglassie" White 

Family 
Edinglassie 

A Farm on the Edinglassie Estate 
An Imported Bull, Edinglassie 
The Hon. .las. C. White and His Divining-Rod 
Belltrees Homestead 

Manager's Residence — Bachelors' Quarters 
Typical Belltrees Stud Merino Ram . . 
Private .Suspension Bridge over the Hunter River 
Henry L. White 
"Palmerston," Armidale 
Part of the Rose Garden, Palmerston . . 
The late A. A. Dangar 
View from Palmerston House 
Devon-Merino Cross-bred Ewes and Lambs 
Devon Merino Cross-bred and Hereford Bullocks 
The Woolshed, Noorindoo 
Sinking No. 3 Artesian Bore, Noorindoo 
- No. 2. Artesian Bore, Noorindoo 
A Herd of Shorthorns at Yetman 
G. W. Dight, Senr. . . 
Shannon Vale Homestead 
The late Edward White 
Shannon Vale Country 
Major Jas. F. White 
The Mann River, Shannon Vale 
Old Shannon Vale . . 
At Ramornie, on the Clarence River . . 
Charles Grant Tindal 
The Homestead. Ramornie 
"Bona Vista," Armidale 
Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Tindal and Family 
Typical Ramornie Bulls 

Australian Meat Company's Works, Ramornie . . 
Donald Campbell, of Glengower 
Manager's House and Barracks 
The Homestead, Dungalear . . 
J. A. Campbell 

The Home.stead, Gracemere . . 
Hereford and Shorthorn Herd Bulls, Mount Scoria 
The Garden, Gracemere Homestead . . 
Hereford Cattle, Gracemere . . 
The Homestead, Hidden Vale 



Page Page 

909 Alfred -John Cotton— Mrs. A. J. Cotton . . 982 

910 "Elected," A. .J. Cotton's Champion Stallion 983 
Hidden Vale Suffolk Punch Family Group . . 983 

911 Hidden Vale Shorthorn Bulls— Stud Shorthorns 984 

912 "Mintoburn," Mr. Cotton's Tasmanian Home . . 985 

913 Mr. A. J. Cotton's Motor Launch . . . . 985 

914 "Canobie," Mr. Cotton's Steam Yacht . . . . 986 
915-917 The Cotton Family . . . . . . . . 986 

916 The Standard of the Home of Edmund Jowett . 987 

918-919 Edmund Jowett, M.P. . . . . . . 988 

920 "Manningham," Toorak, Melbourne . . . . 989 

920 Captain Arthur Craven Jowett . . . . 990 
Mr. Jowett's Book-Plate . . . . . . 991 

921 Ormiston House, near Brisbane . . . . 992 

921 John Arthur Macartney . . . . . . 993 

922 Hereford Cattle at Waverley . . . . 994 

923 Lagoon at Waverley . . . . • • 995 

923 Kooralbyn Homestead . . . . . . 996 

View on Kooralbvn Station, from the Homestead 997 

924 Chas. Wyndham"Bundock .. .. .. 997 

925 Cattle and Horses on Kooralbyn Station . . 998 

925 General View of Kooralbyn Station . . . . 999 

926 Willoughbv House . . . . . . . . 1000 

926 Part of the Garden at Willoughby . . . . 1001 

927 Typical Willoughbv Stud Rams . . . . 1002 
Stud Merino Rams, Willoughby . . . . 1002 

928 Stud Merino Ewes, Willoughby . . 1003 

929 A Willoughby Stud Ewe . . . . . . 1003 

Albert Durer .Alexander . . . . . . 1003 

930 Murray Vale House and Outbuildings, Mount 

931 Crawford . . . . . • . . 1004-5 

932 Mount Crawford Country . . 1006 

933 The late John Murray . . . . ■ • 1007 

934 Murray Vale House . . . . - . 1008 

935 .'^lick J. Murray — John Murray, Junr. . . 1009 
Radium II.— Lion II. .. .. ■■ 1010 

936 Murray Merino Stud Ewes . . . . . . 1010 

937 The late Mrs. McBride— R. J. M. McBride— 

938 Mrs. McBride . . . . . . 1011 

938 Mr. R. J. McBride's Residence, Kooringa . . 1012 

939 Grandsons and Great-Grandsons on Active 

940 Service . . . . . . • • 1013 

940 The Woolshed, Anlaby — Anlaby Merinos . . 1014 

941 Anlaby House, near Kapunda . . . . 1015 
Francis Stacker Dutton . . . . 1016 

942 Frederick Hansborough Dutton . . . . 1016 

943 A Medal of 1832 . . . . . . . . 1017 

944 Anlaby House in 1850— The Kennels . . . . 1018 

944 The late Henry Dutton— H. H. Dutton . . 1019 

945 Anlaby House . . . . • • . • 1020 
947, 948 The Gardens of Anlaby House . . . . 1021 

949 St. Matthew's, Hamilton — Dutton Memorial 

950 Church . . . . . . . . 1022 

951 "Eringa," Kapunda . . . . . . . . 1023 

952 Sidney Kidman Drafting Horses, Oakland 

953 " Downs Station . . . . . . 1024 

954 Six Hundred Horses "rounded up" at Bulloo 

954 Downs . . . . . . . . 1025 

955 Shorthorn Cattle at Nundorah Station . . 1025 

956 Sidney Kidman Starting Drovers for Cattle, 

956 Queensland . . . . . . . . 1026 

957 Sidney Kidman .. .. .. .. 1027 

958 Salt-Bush— Wool-Waggon Camels. Yantara . . 1028 

958 Merino Sheep at Yancanna Station . . 1028 

959 A Waterhole on Allandale Station . . . . 1029 

960 A Camel Team carrving Cases, Oodnadatta . . 1030 

961 The Homestead, Fulham Park . . . . 1031 

962 Blood Stallion, "Passing-By" . . . . 1031 

963 Sidney Kidman's Daughters .. ., 1031 

964 Allandale Homestead. Central Australia . . 1032 

965 Artesian Bore. Allandale . . . . . . 1033 

966 An Artesian Bore. Central Australia . . 1034 

967 Joseph Keynes— R. R. Keynes . . . - 1035 

968 The Homestead, Keyneton . . . . . . 1036 

969 Keyneton Country . . . . . ■ 1037 

969 Typical Keyneton Ram— Tyoical Ewe . . 1038 

970 Gunner Joseph Kevnes — R. N. Keynes . . 1038 

971 Koonoona Country . . . . . . . . 1039 

972 Hon. W. Duffield— W. S. Hawkes . . . . 1040 

973 Special Stud Rams: Lord Kitchener — Lloyd 

974 George— Admiral Beatty . . . . 1041-2 

975 Bungaree . . . . . . . . 1043-50 

976 North Bungaree . . . . . . . . 1051-56 

977 Anama .. .. .. .. .. 1057-62 

978 Lucernedale . . . . . . . . 1063-1071 

979 The Downies, of Glenelg . . . . . . 1072-1075 

980 Queensland Gems: Opal-fields . . . . 1078-9 

981 N.S.W. Government Savings Banks . . . , 1080-1084 



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T7" 



MfIS(DlIIJ(DTII®EJ 



MY work on Australia Uitlitnited began defi- 
nitely with the year 19 12. Prior to 
that I flattered myself that I knew the 
Australian Continent better than most people. 

I had spent many years in the bush, where I 
was cradled and reared. I had driven a covered 
waggonette from Parramatta to Townsville, and 
taken a motor boat down the Murray from 
Albury to Lake Alexandrina, establishing a 
world's record for an internal-combustion engine 
over river distance — in a country which is credited 
with having no rivers. 

I had ridden, driven, motored and booted 
thousands of miles in New South Wales, Queens- 
land, Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania. 

I had worked as a surveyor's assistant, 
draughtsman, timekeeper, clerk, accountant, sales- 
man, settler, vigneron, orchardist, journalist, 
editor, photographer, canvasser and proprietor. 

I had personally fenced, cleared, ploughed, 
harrowed, builded, and planted on my own small 
Australian acreages. 

I had a technical education, supplemented by 
scientific reading, a general business experience, 
and the width of knowledge which is imparted by 
the eclectic school of the newspaper press. 

I flattered myself also that I was familiar with 
Australian conditions: I had organized Labour 
and organized Capital, and was in a position 
thereby to know the needs and claims of Aus- 
tralian producers and investors. 

But I did not consider that this knowledge, 
such as it was, entitled me to undertake the com- 
pilation of the book I wanted Australia Unlimited 
to be, without a more exhaustive travel and a 
closer investigation of my subject. 

So I set out for South Australia early in 19 12, 
and, with a note-book and kodak, began to collect 
special material for this volume. 

I travelled over the Central State from Ade- 
laide to Hergott and from Pinnaroo to Port 
Lincoln. I examined for myself the wheat- 
growing possibilities of the Mallee, the problems 
of development in the Far North, the settlement 
of the Murray Valley — all the big and little 



things that go to make the prosperous and slowly 
progressive life of that small community. 

I travelled across the great Australian Bight, 
and established my literary headquarters in the 
fair city of Perth for a period. 

Thence I radiated to the goldfields, the wheat 
lands, the timber areas, the agricultural districts, 
and finally along the great tropical North-West 
as far as Derby, in Kimberley. 

From there I went over to the Malay States 
and Java, to study the agriculture and production 
of contiguous tropics and learn, as far as I might, 
how the Dutch and English had met the problems 
of European life in tropical climates. 

I returned to Australia from Sourabaya in 
Java, and secured first-hand information and 
impressions regarding our great Northern Terri- 
tory. 

From Port Darwin I came home to Melbourne, 
and, setting out a few days later in a light motor 
car, travelled the glorious little State of Victoria 
from end to end. » 

Then I went back to New South Wales, the 
State of my birth, and saw the western wheat 
belt, the rich red lands beyond the Darling River, 
and those parts of coast and mountain which had 
not found a place in previous itineraries. 

From Sydney I went north into Queensland as 
far as Cairns, and worked down the map until I 
had been over practically the whole of that mag- 
nificent northern State. 

In the summer of 19 14, I did the southern 
coast of New South Wales and the happy little 
island of Tasmania. 

This is merely a rough summary of the jour- 
neys which have been made in search of literary 
material, but it shows that the compilation of 
this book has not been undertaken in a casual 
manner. 

The author feels called upon to express by a 
general acknowledginent his lasting obligations 
for the assistance which he has everywhere 
received from Australian Governments and 
Government officials, from the pastoral com- 
munity, the public, and the press. 



13 



14 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



To the administrative staffs of the various 
State and Federal Governments I am especially 
indebted. Sources of information have been 
freely opened to me, valuable data placed at my 
disposal, Premiers, Ministers, secretaries, heads 
of departments, sub-officers, district officials have 
aided my efforts to obtain correct information 
and facilitated my progress through the continent. 

Under an arrangement made common to all 
the States, Australia UnUmited contains sections, 
specially prepared, on behalf of New South 
Wales, Victoria, Queensland and the Northern 
Territory, and also a proportion of matter com- 
piled from data furnished by the Governments 
of South Australia, Western Australia and Tas- 
mania. 

Such national statistics as are quoted have 
mainly been taken from Mr. G. H. Knibbs' 
Official Year Book of the Commonwealth, to 
which the author is greatly indebted. 

Mr. Edward A. Vidler has prepared this 
volume for publication, exercising a valuable 
editorial supervision over the whole production. 
He has brought to the onerous task great 
organisation, good judgment, and rare patience. 

As Australia UnUmited evolved, the most per- 
plexing consideration became, not what it should 
contain, but what would have to be left out in 
order to keep it within the limits of one volume. 

Much interesting material had to be jettisoned, 
and the claims of many places which called for 
descriptive attention reluctantly denied. 

One would like to have dealt in detail 
with the educational and agricultural systems of 
each State, and made an exhaustive survey of 
subjects like industrial legislation. State-owned 
railways, and various civic and Government enter- 
prises on which casual attention is bestowed here 
and there throughout the book. 

Anything like a complete survey of Australian 
mining proved out of the question. It was felt 
that the pastoral industry, being the oldest, most 
permanent and important feature of our material 
development, merited the fullest possible exten- 
sion of space. 

Readers may find the author's Australia to be 
unlike the Australia of pre-conception. They 
may conclude that his outlook is over-optimistic. 
But this optimism is no more than a reflection 
of facts. I have travelled the country and studied 
it to the best of my ability, hoping to forecast 
the future from the efforts and achievements of 
the present, drawing conclusions from compari- 
sons, endeavouring to bring to the task judicial 
methods, in order to reach sound judgments. 

Everywhere — prejudiced I believe by no over- 
sanguine temperament — I found Wonder, Beauty, 
unequalled Resource. Under the arid seeming 



of the plains I saw the possibilities of marvel- 
lous tilth. Barren hills poured out a golden 
recompense in minerals. The whole continent 
has proved to be a vast storehouse of mainly 
undeveloped Wealth. 

Nor is the message of Australian Nature 
uttered in tones of predominant melancholy, as 
many alien souls have affected to believe. Acci- 
dental conditions, personal, social and material, 
have been and still are depressing to certain indi- 
viduals, but Australia, in itself, is nowhere 
depressing. To the foreigner, at first, it is a dif- 
ferent, unusual country. To the sane, healthy 
native-born it is a mother of everlasting youth 
and beauty, and the freest, richest, happiest land 
on earth. As a crude expression of the main 
features of this glorious land, I launch this book, 
hoping that its literary shortcomings may in part 
be atoned for by its patriotic intentions. 

If it helps to give the outside world an impres- 
sion of the real Australia, and assists Australians 
to a greater faith in their own country, its mission 
will be at least partially fulfilled. 






A Victorian Country Road 




MY COUNTRY. 

The love of field and coppice, 

Of green and shaded lanes, 
Of ordered woods and gardens. 

Is running in your veins. 
Strong love of grey-blue distance, 

Brown streams, and soft, dim skies- — 
/ know but cannot share it. 

My love is othei-wise. 

I love a sunburnt country, 

A land of sweeping plains. 
Of ragged mountain ranges. 

Of droughts and flooding rains. 
I love her far horizons, 

I love her jewel-sea, 
Her beauty and her terror — 

The wide brozvn land for me! 

The stark white ring-barked forests. 

All tragic to the moon. 
The sapphire-misted mountains, 

The hot gold hush of noon. 
Green tangle of the brushes, 

IVhere lithe lianas coil. 
And orchids deck the tree-tops 

And ferns the warm dark soil. 



An opal-hearted country, 

A wilful, lavish land — 
All you who have not loved her, 

You will not understand — 
Though earth holds many splendours, ■ 

irherever I may die, 
I know to what brown country 

My homing thoughts will fly. 

Dorothea Mackellar. 



V 






I THE DAWN OF HISTORY 



im I U »li^^ 



■ " " " " " 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




BOOKS on Australian history have too 
often begun with a dirge and ended with 
an apology. Australia Unlimited, to 
be in keeping with its subject, should open with 
an anthem and close with a march of triumph. 

If twenty years' close personal study of a coun- 
try be time enough to form correct conclusions, 
then the writer of this volume should be com- 
petent to offer a compilation of some value. 

The body of the material for Australia Un- 
limited has not been gathered from printed 
pages, but collected carefully. State by State, 
district by district, mile by mile, year after 
year, from the wide circle of a continent — a con- 
tinent of potentialities still unrealized, for Aus- 
tralia is yet like a flower in the seed, or a song 
written — but unsung. 



For unrecorded years Australia remained a 
Cinderella among the countries of the world. 
Centuries of written history had practically 
passed her by. The ancients had some hazy 
knowledge of the existence of a great country to 
the south of India. The learned of Chaldea, 
Greece and Rome doubtless possessed indefinite 
information on the subject. From the 4th cen- 
tury, B.C., to the 15th of the Christian Era, this 
information remained like most ancient geog- 
raphy — open to much question. 



Then, as the story of maritime discovery be- 
gan, an occasional line, with long spaces between, 
fell to her share in the earlier volume of events. 

It is difficult for the twentieth century mind to 
realize how wide the world was in the year 15 1 1, 
when the first blunt Portuguese keel Is said, on 
questioned authority, to have accidentally drifted 
towards the Australian shore line. 

Asian canoes, junks, and praus had doubtless 
visited our northern coasts at intervals for cen- 
turies before, driven out of their courses by storm 
or lured by the ancient sirens of Trade and 
Adventure. 

The Malays, who were ever hardy sailormen, 
came down regularly in their lean ships for tre- 
pang, mayhap for pearls and gold. The Arabs, 
it is believed, preceded the Portuguese. The 
Continent at least appears on Saracenic maps of 
the 13th century. As far back as 1489 the 
undoubted shore of Australia is shown on a 
European map. The oldest globe extant (1492) 
also shows part of the Austral Coast. 

While European colonization was pushing 
westward to the Americas and southward to the 
Indies, the Spanish and Dutch in turn interested 
themselves in a Great Southern Continent, then 
— and for centuries to come — a disputed problem 
of geographers. ♦ 

In 1567 Alvaro de Mandana sailed out of 
Callao in search of this Continent. He discov- 
ered the Solomon Islands. 



i8 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Sunset: Torres Straits 

It is contended that authentic evidence exists 
of Spanish ships having visited and remained for 
some time at Port Curtis and Port Jackson on 
the eastern coast of Austraha. 

But the first recorded discovery — unless future 
geographical research alters present conclusions 
— lies to the credit of the Dutch, who are still 
our nearest colonial friends. 

Gold, which played an important part in 
our subsequent history, was the attraction. In 
1605 Frederick de Houtman, Governor of Am- 
boyna, in the Moluccas, outfitted a local expedi- 
tion under the auspices of the Dutch East India 
Company, for purposes of exploration on the 
coast of New Guinea, where gold was rumored to 
exist. 

So the yacht Duyfken (Willem Jansz, com- 
mander) sailed out of Bantam on the i8th of No- 
vember, three centuries ago. 

In March of 1606 this Little Dove was timidly 
touching the shores of York Peninsula, her stout 
commander believing all the while that he be- 
held the west coast of New Guinea. 

At Cape Keer Weer ("Turn Back"), some- 
thing more than three degrees below the extreme 
northern point of the Continent, Jansz put his 
tiny ship about. He had written an important 
paragraph in the history of exploration without 
being aware of the significance of his discovery. 

The journal of good Captain Jansz has eluded 
the search of the archivists, but his memory de- 
serves a tablet on Cape Keer Weer. 

In December of 1605, Mandana's pilot, Pedro 
Fernando de Quiros — accompanied by Luis Vaz 
de Torres — had come out of Callao with three 
Spanish ships to find, if they might, this elusive 
Tierra Austral. They sighted instead one of the 
New Hebrides, and named it Austratlia del 
Espiritu Santo. Hereabout Torres, on the nth 
June, 1606,. went wide of de Quiros. Finding 
that their joint discovery was no more than an 
island, he bore westward and passed through 
the straits that now bear his name, sighting, un- 



awares, the Continent that New Spain was seek- 
ing. 

In the earlier years of the 17th century the 
Dutch East India Company made at least one 
abortive attempt to determine and take posses- 
sion of the "Lands to the Southward of Java." 

In the third year of the present century, an 
interesting "find" was made in the State Museum 
at Amsterdam. 

It proved to be the original tin plate nailed 
to a post by Captain Dirck Hartogs at Shark Bay, 
Western Australia, In the year 16 16. 

The inscription on the plate, translated from 
the Dutch, reads : — 

Anno 161 6, the 25TH of October. — 
Arrived here the ship Eendracht {Con- 
cord), OY Amsterdam; the first mer- 
chant GiLLIS MiEBAS of LiEGE. DiRCK 

Hartogs, of Amsterdam, Captain. 
27TH DO. Sailed for Bantam. 

On the lower part, cut with a knife, probably by 
the ambitious Jan himself. Is added: — 

The Under Mercluuit Jan Stiiis, Upper 
Steersman, Picter Dockes, of Bit. Ao., 1616. 

This plate stood for 81 years at the north end 
of Dirck Hartogs' Island. It was removed by 
another Dutch navigator — Captain Willem de 
Vlaming — in 1697, and forwarded to Holland 
by the then Governor of Batavia In due course. 
From the board room of the Seventeen Directors 
of the Dutch East India Company it had pre- 
sumably been conveyed at some subsequent period 
to the RIjks-Museum, where It lay unnoticed 
while two hundred years were setting Australia's 
feet firmly In the path of progress. 

Vlaming substituted for Dirck Hartogs' plate 
another bearing a similar Inscription, which was 
removed by De Freyclnet In the early part of 
the nineteenth century, transferred to the Mu- 
seum of the French Institute, and lost. 




Native Dance, Hamond Island 



THE DAWN OF HISTORY 



19 



The alleged post, of cypress pine, on which 
Vlaming nailed his duplicate is preserved in the 
Perth (W.A.) Museum. As the first European 
memorial erected on our territory, Dirck Har- 
togs' plate remains of particular interest to Aus- 
tralians. 

Dirck Hartogs' Island, low and flat, is now 
an Australian sheep station. Steep Point, at its 
southern end, marks the extreme western reach 
of the Australian mainland. The Island runs 
north and south, fifty miles in length, by four to 
six miles wide. It is separated from the coast by 
a narrow passage. On its northernmost sandy 
headland, Cape Inscription Lighthouse guides the 
modern shipmaster on his ocean way. 



that portion of the Continent nearest to their 
East Indian possessions. 

The mainland was sighted by the Zee-wolf, in 
May, 16 1 8. Later, in the same year, another 
Dutch ship, the Mauritius, touched the north-west 
coast and found the Ashburton River. In 16 19 
Houtman's fleet discovered the Abrolhos Islands, 
45 miles west of the present town of Geraldton. 
These islands nine years later were destined to be 
the scene of a vivid tragedy. 

In 1622 the Dutch ship Leeuwin rounded the 
Cape now bearing her name and explored the 
coast as far as the present site of Albany 
(W.A.). 

The year 1623 found the Dutch busy further 




Dirck Hartogs' Plate 



Just inside the lighthouse is a little bay, where 
Hartogs, "bound outward from Holland to the 
Indies," landed in 16 16, in the fullness of a West 
Australian spring. Hartogs sailed along and ex- 
amined the coast between the latitudes of 26 deg. 
30 min. and 23 deg., and named it "Eendracht's 
Land." At that time of the year the country 
would be ablaze with wildflowers. The days 
would rise bright and sunny, the nights fall starry 
and cool; but the Dutchman and his ship's com- 
pany recorded no favorable impressions. Still 
the homely tin plate which has turned up, after 
nearly three hundred years of oblivion, at the 
State Museum of Amsterdam is an eloquent ex- 
pression of high achievement. 

Between the time of Dirck Hartogs' accidental 
visit and the year 1627, the Dutch seem to have 
carried on a fairly systematic investigation of 



north. An expedition from Amboyna, headed by 
one Jan Carstenz, with the vessels Peru and 
Arnhem, had an adventurous time along the 
shores of the present Northern Territory. The 
skipper of the Arnhem was killed by the natives, 
and the explorers' report of the country was not 
favorable. 

In 1627 came Peter Nuyts, afterwards am- 
bassador to Japan and subsequently Governor of 
Formosa, in the Golden Sea Horse, round the 
Leeuwin and across the Bight as far as Nuyt's 
Archipelago. The Golden Sea Horse put about 
somewhere near the present margin of the wheat- 
growing belt of South Australia. 

On the 4th June, 1629, the Bata-'a, Pelsart's 
ship, having been driven out of her reckoning, 
struck on one of the islands of Houtman's Abrol- 
hos and became a total wreck. 



20 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Pelsart's ship was part of a Dutch East Indian 
expedition. It was intended originally that the 
fleet should consist of eleven vessels. But the 
Batavia and two others, being earlier equipped, 
sailed out of Texel under the command of Com- 
modore Francis Pelsart on the 28th October, 
1628. After leaving the Cape of Good Hope the 
Batavia separated from the other two during a 
storm, and so met her fate alone. Among Pel- 
sart's company were a number of youths and men 
who, even in an age of piracy, might be classed 
among the most godless ruffians afloat. 

These scourings of the Low Countries had 
already found a suitable ringleader in one Jerome 
Cornells, the supercargo, a sometime chemist of 
Harlem City, with, as it proved, an overweening 
vanity, a plausible tongue, and neither conscience 
nor humanity. Some attempt has been made to 
elevate this soulless scoundrel into a figure of 
adventure, but from first to last he seems to have 
been a blundering assassin at best. 

On board the Batavia were a number of Dutch 
emigrants and their families, bound for Java. 
Among them the handsome Frau Lucretia Jansz, 
whom Cornelis coveted. 

From subsequent evidence it was made clear 
that after leaving the Cape a mutinous plot had 
been hatched under the auspices of the atrocious 
Cornelis to seize the ship, slay commodore, sol- 
diers, and passengers, and go pirating upon the 
high seas. 

The skipper of the Batavia, Adrian Jacobs, 
and fifty or more of the ship's company, were 
in the conspiracy, which, for one reason or ano- 
ther, did not come to a head until after the vessel 
was wrecked. 

Panic and drunkenness followed the wreck. 
After grinding heavily on the coral the ship 
burst. But Pelsart, who forms a fine historic 
figure, despite torrential rain and rapidly rising 
seas, succeeded in safely landing 180 of his 
people and a supply of provisions on two of the 
neighboring islands. 

The weather forced him to leave Cornelis and 
seventy others aboard. 

As the Batavia had settled quickly, submerg- 
ing her casks, a very inadequate supply of fresh 
water was got away with the ship's boats. 

The Abrolhos apparently contained none, so, 
after consultation, Pelsart and the captain sailed 
in two of the ship's boats towards the mainland. 
Bad weather drove them north, and the skipper's 
boat parted company and was heard of no more. 
It was eighteen days before Pelsart discovered 
water. They were then a hundred miles from 
the Abrolhos, with the wind behind them. Nine 
days later their boat made the coast of Java, 
where they were picked up and carried into Ba- 
tavia. 




The Lighthouse at Cape Leeuwin 

After remaining for ten days on the wreck, 
Cornelis and his group succeeded in getting 
ashore on the Abrolhos. Here, in a short time 
the conspiracy was fully hatched, and on an ap- 
pointed day the work of extermination began. 

It had been resolved and sworn to that all but 
forty of the survivors were to be killed, the yacht 
which Pelsart had promised to return in seized, 
and a career of piracy begun under "Captain 
General" Jerome Cornelis. 

So these bloodthirsty ruffians stole upon the 
weak and unsuspecting victims, awaiting wearily 
and anxiously the return of the Commodore, and 
the cruellest and ugliest chapter in the history 
of Australia was written in blood upon the lonely 
Abrolhos. 

The callous band of putative pirates succeeded 
in exterminating most of the men upon the 
islands. It chanced that Webbe Hayes, corporal 
in the Dutch East Indian Service, who had taken 
charge in Pelsart's absence, was that day away 
in one of the ship's boats seeking water. He 
returned with glad news of successful quest, only 
to be met by chance survivors with a hastily-told 
account of piteous tragedy. 

With 47 stout men behind him, Hayes rapidly 
improvised his defences, and being attacked in 
force by the rebels eight days later, beat them 



THE DAWN OF HISTORY 



21 



off. A second sortie from Cornelis left the gal- 
lant corporal again the victor. 

Cornelis and his gang meanwhile apportioned 
the women, the leader taking the coveted Frau 
Lucretia to himself, after seeing to it that her 
husband was foully murdered. 

Having helped themselves to the ship's stores, 
the blood-drenched company went about their 
island domain arrayed in much gold lace and 
scarlet cloth, awaiting the return of Pelsart, 
whose ship they had determined to secure. 

Failing to suborn the men who stood with 
Hayes, they made repeated attacks upon them. 
In one of these sorties the "Captain General" 
was captured and remained the Corporal's pri- 
soner. 

While these stirring events were disturbing the 
quietude of the Abrolhos, Pelsart, comforted 
with a stout ship by the Governor General at 
Batavia, was bravely hurrying back to the rescue 
of his shipwrecked company, little dreaming of 
the tragedies that had been enacted in his ab- 
sence. 

He came down in the Saerdam, upon the 
Abrolhos, on September the 13th. 

Putting out a boat laden with bread and wine, 
he had barely landed when Hayes came rowing 
to him with evil news. Pelsart hurriedly re-em- 
barked his company and gained the Saerdam, 
hotly followed by a boatful of armed ruffians. 

From the commanding position of his quarter- 
deck, with trained guns to emphasize his order, 
the Commodore promptly called on the conspira- 
tors to throw their weapons into the sea, or be 
blown to the inferno they had earned. 

Whereupon, without further show of resis- 
tance, the boat's company surrendered and were 
clapped into irons. 

Having transferred Cornelis to the Saerdam, 
Pelsart went methodically to work. The grim 
commander, as God-fearing and righteous as men 
may be in any age, first surrounded the remaining 
mutineers on the island which had proved the 
Batavia's graveyard, and forced them also to lay 
down arms. 

Then he set to the recovering of his Company's 
plundered property and the trial of the offenders. 

Jerome Cornelis, being duly sentenced and 
condemned by the "noble court," was hanged 
with several of his companions. 

Justice accomplished, Pelsart weighed anchor 
on the 28th October, 1629, and, after maroon- 
ing two of the mutineers on the coast near 
Champion Bay, sailed for Batavia. 

What became of those two unworthy first set- 
tlers is a matter of conjecture. They may have 
died of thirst or been speared by the blacks. 
Many relics of castaways have been found along 



the Westralian coast, dating back no doubt to 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

Pelsart bore to Europe in time some definite 
information about the mainland, upon which he 
reported very unfavorably. It had been an un- 
lucky discovery for him. 

In the Public Library at Perth (W.A.) there 
is a valuable volume accidentally picked up in 
a secondhand bookstall in London a few years 
ago by one Broadhurst, the then lessee of the 
Abrolhos Islands. The only copy extant, it is 
printed on beautiful old linen paper, in bold 
black type, and sets out to be the 

Ongeluckige Voyagie 

Dant 

ScHip "Batavia" 

The "Unlucky Voyage of the Ship Batavia" 
bears the imprint of Jan Jansz, Amsterdam, 
Anno 164J. It tells in detail the story of the 
mutiny of the shipwrecked men of the Batavia 
and contains several gruesome woodcuts of the 
methods of justice dealt out by Pelsart to the 
mutineers on the Abrolhos, all in keeping with 
the manners of the period and the enormity of 
the crime. The severing of hands, the racking 
of the offenders, and their executions on stout 
gibbets erected from the Batavia's timbers, show 
that the Commodore carried out his stern pun- 
ishments to the letter. 

There is some evidence, worthy of investiga- 
tion, — that the Dutch at one time attempted a 
settlement in the Kimberley districts of North- 
Western Australia. Pearlers who went into 
Yampi Sound for the first time some years ago 
report having found European fruits growing 
wild in the gullies and other signs of civilization 
where no white man had been known to penetrate 
since Australian colonization began. 

It is quite possible that the climate, seasons, 
and physical conditions of the Kimberley having 
a certain affinity to those with which the Dutch 
were familiar in their adjacent East Indian pos- 
sessions — Java being even then only a few days' 
sail, Timor much less — a permanent station may, 
during the course of two centuries, have been 
established somewhere in the region of Yampi 
Sound. There were many reasons for keeping 
secret any such Dutch activities in New Holland. 

From 1628 to 1644 Dutch ships touched fre- 
quently on the West Australian coast. In 1642, 
Abel Janszoon Tasman, in command of the two 
vessels Heemskirk and Zeehaen, set out definitely 
to ascertain the trend and extent of what was now 
known to be a great Southern Continent. 

Touching the island of Tasmania, he mistook 
it for part of Australia proper, naming it Van 



22 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Diemen's Land, which name it retained until 
1853. Shaping then a north-easterly course, Tas- 
man discovered and named New Zealand. 

In the year 1644 Tasman, on a second voyage, 
made a closer examination of the shore line from 
Arnhem Land to Exmouth Gulf. This includes 
the seaward boundary of the present Northern 
Territory, the Kimberleys, and north-western 
West Australia. Tasman landed at various 
points. It was he who gave the name of New 
Holland to the western half of the Australian 
Continent. The Island State of the Common- 
wealth perpetuates his own name. Among the 
earliest Australian explorers of all nationalities 
there is no name more deserving of honor. 



merchandise and treasure to the amount of 
78,600 guilders (£6,550). Leaving 68 of the 
survivors on the mainland to protect these, one 
of the Dragon's boats made for Batavia, which 
it reached in due course. Some of the achieve- 
ments of open boats along this coast, for practical 
heroism and stolid endurance, parallel anything 
in maritime history. The Dutch at Batavia 
promptly despatched two ships south to rescue 
the castaways and salvage the lost Dragon, which 
was supposed to be still fast on a reef, not more 
than 80 miles north from the present Port of 
Fremantle. 

Castaways and cargo were never seen again. 

The quest of the two ships Jfliitc Falcon and 




Mouth of the Blackwood Eiver 



Henceforward, to the Dutch, New Holland 
comprised all that part of the Continent to the 
westward of a meridian line passing from Arn- 
hem's Land in Northern Australia to the islands 
of St. Peter and St. Francis in Nuyt's Archipelago 
south. Their navigators and explorers bad dur- 
ing forty years considerably increased the know- 
ledge of the Netherland's government as regards 
the great Southern Continent. But all the lands 
to the eastward classed as the Terra Australis, 
remained, then and long afterwards, compara- 
tively unknown even in secretive Holland. 

In 1648 the Dutch ship Lark, Jan Janszoon 
Zeeuw, master, made another voyage of explor- 
ation to the West Coast. 

Eight years later De Ver guide Draeck (The 
Golden Dragon) was wrecked at night on a reef 
in latitude 30 deg. 40 — as given by her master 
— and 118 lives were lost. There is much ro- 
mance and mystery about the subsequent his- 
tory of the Golden Dragon, Pieter Albertsz, 
master. She had on board a valuable cargo of 



Good Hope proved quite fruitless. The follow- 
ing year, 1657, the Finch, on a voyage from the 
Cape to Batavia, made another resultless search. 
In 1658 a third expedition of two ships set out 
from Batavia on the same mission, and after an 
exhaustive search and survey returned without 
tidings of the Golden Dragon or the 68 people 
left ashore. 

It is probable that the actual reef on which 
the vessel was wrecked lay much south of the 
latitude given by the master. The natives of 
the Blackwood River, which enters the Southern 
Ocean a few miles eastward of Cape Leeuwin, are 
said to have possessed definite traditions of white 
men, which were still current among them when 
the first English colonists entered that district. 
Some of the survivors of the Dragon may 
have either landed at the Blackwood or worked 
their way to the southern corner of the Conti- 
nent and remained long enough to pass into the 
oral history of the tribes. On the other hand, 
the presence of the 78,000 odd guilders and 



THE DAWN OF HISTORY 



23 



a valuable cargo may have led to another such 
tragedy as that enacted twenty years previously 
on the low-lying Abrolhos Islands. 

In the middle of the 17th century the world 
was still very wide, piracy and buccaneering in 
their heyday, and the average ship's crew were 
always of uncertain character. It was the in- 
cidence of a buccaneering cruise that brought 
the first Englishman, William Dampier, to the 
coast of Western Australia in 1688. 

The Cygnet, in which Dampier was serving 
enforced probation as a pirate, was beached in a 
suitable haven now known as Cygnet Bay 
in the north-western corner of King Sound 
not far from the lighthouse on Cape Leveque. 
She remained here for over two months, during 
which time Dampier took some notes of the sur- 
rounding country. The lighthouse stands on a 
red sandv point with white beaches running north 
and south from it. A ten-knot tide surges in 
and out of the Sound, where one gets some of 
the most wonderful atmospheric effects in the 
world. A sunset in King Sound such as Dam- 
pier must have often witnessed, with the camp 
fires of his rowdy buccaneers reddening the white 
beaches of Cygnet Bay, would be a scene to 
remember. 

Low, wooded shores, mangrove swamps, and 
distant jungles the deft genii of the Tropics drape 
at sunset time with purple, rose, and gold. 

Even the barren islets, standing sentinel-wise 
at the gates of Kimberley, become like the lighted 
bastions of ancient cities. 

The skies are an opaline splendor, a gigantic 
palette on which unheard-of combinations of 
color are set up by celestial artistry. The 
visitor of to-day stands before these portals of 
the gods somewhat in awe, but Dampier seems 
to have had a peculiarly prejudiced mind. On 
his escape from the buccaneers and subsequent 
return to England, he published an account of his 
adventures and "discoveries" in New Holland. 

Having thus become an authority on his sub- 
ject, he was sent in 1699 by William III., in the 
Roebuck, under an Admiralty Commission, to 
make further explorations and determine if pos- 
sible whether or not New Holland was a con- 
tinent; or, as some believed, merely "a succession 
of Islands." 

He entered and named Shark Bay, W.A. on 
the I St August, 1699. Here he spent eight days 
searching for water without success. 

One of the finest crops of Irrigated lucerne 
the writer has seen, he found growing near Car- 
narvon on the eastern shore of Shark Bay In the 
year 191 2. But Dampier missed the Gascolgne 
River and all other sources of supply, and so, 
proceeded slowly northward. 



At last, basing his conclusions on the merest 
superficial information, this writer of adventur- 
ous books decided to abandon his mission and 
proceeded straight to New Guinea ! 

His Voyage to New Holland in the Year i6qg 
was published in 1703. It was the first of a long 
series of literary libels on Australia, and passed 
through many editions. Like the drunken Vlam- 
ing, who three years before had landed at the 
Swan River and discovered "neither good coun- 
try nor saw anything of note," time has proved 
that Dampier, although an Interesting writer, 
was a very casual and unreliable observer. 




Goonabooka Fool, near Boebume 

It has taken over two hundred years to cor- 
rect the erroneous impressions of Australia which 
his books created in the mind of Europe. The 
dismal pictures which he painted of a land bar- 
ren and sandy, "destitute of water except you 
make wells," became part of the world's mental 
equipment as far as Australian physical geog- 
raphy was concerned. It has been Australia's 
misfortune that other writers of repute have con- 
fidently compiled books about the country, based 
on casual visits or misinformation supplied by 
untrained observers. Even in these days a flying 
trip from one Australian city to another on a 
lecturing tour entitles an author to express 
opinions on all matters Australian. 



24 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




The Harding River in Flood 



Yet there are quiet, strong men in this country 
who have spent 40 or 50 years of their lives 
studying perhaps one aspect of agriculture or 
stock raising, and they hesitate to pose as authori- 
ties, knowing well that the country is young, vast, 
and largely unproven. 

Dampier described the North-west as a land 
"destitute of water." 

Accompanying this letterpress is a photograph 
of "The Harding River in Flood." 

The Harding is an insignificant stream near 
Roeburne, which place, according to official 
returns, receives the smallest annual rainfall of 
any part of that coast along which Dampier 
cruised. 

"Goonahooka Pool, near Roeburne," shows 
another phase of the western water question 
which Dampier missed. 

The impression created in England by Dam- 
pier's Voyages was so unfavorable to the South- 
Land, that it practically prevented further inves- 
tigations. Not till 1770, when Cook landed and 
took possession of Eastern Australia, did Eng- 
land resume her work of exploration in the south. 



In the early years of the eighteenth century 
a Dutch expedition out of Timor explored and 



mapped the north-western coasts of New Hol- 
land, traversing more systematically the courso 
pursued by Abel Tasman. 

In the Perth Museum is an interesting collec- 
tion of relics from the wreck of the Dutch ship 
Zeezvyck, which went ashore off Gun Island in the 
Abrolhos, in 1727. 

The crew of the Zeewyck, 82 in all, spent 
nearly nine months on the Abrolhos, where, from 
portions of the wreck, they constructed a small 
vessel, which they called the Sloepye. In the 
Sloepye they finally reached Batavia. 

Among these relics may be seen a patched clay 
pipe, much worn where the thumb of the long- 
dead mariner clutched it, and an old tobacco box, 
bearing the motto — 

" Eerst't gelt verbruijt 
En Dan 't zeegat Uijt." 

" First the money spent, 
And then to sea again." 

These, with crusted and oxidised cannon balls, 
fishing sinkers, bullets, square bottles and jars, 
copper vessels, spoons, fishhooks, stems of wine 
glasses, and broken blue delft of the old willow 
pattern, have a homely interest to those who are 
concerned with pre-colonial history. 



THli DAWN OF HISTORY 



With a pewter flagon, some Dutch bottles and 
broken churchwardens, collected from the wreck 
of the Batavia, they will long remain as eloquent 
mementoes of stirring days, when the spirit of 
great ad\enturc per\aded the high seas, and the 
Southern Continent still lay unexplored, un- 
mapped, unknown^ 

The Zeezvyck had on board ten treasure chests, 
containing no less than 315,836 florins, which 
were taken safely to Batavia. The Abrolhos — 
once of evil fame to shipmen — have yielded 
many thousands of pounds' worth of guano, dur- 
ing latter years. In 1897 the deposits were esti- 



mated at 101,500 tons. Fallowfield & Co., of 
Geraldton (W.A.), the present lessees of these 
low-lying, historic islands, still actively engage 
in this industry. None of the group attain a 
greater altitude than fifty feet, but they are the 
home and breeding-place of countless thousands 
of noddy terns and other sea-birds. In the har- 
bor at Geraldton may be seen a rakish little 
schooner, a one-time blackbirder with a history — 
she can sail like the wind — equipped with a sixty- 
horse power auxiliary engine. Her humble but 
useful mission nowadays is to freight the precious 
brown guano in bags from the islets to Cjeraldton 
pier. 




Gathering Ouano at the Abrolhos 



(26) 




Cook's Monument at Kumell, Botany Bay. 



THE GENESIS OF AUSTRALIAN SETTLEMENT. 



ALTHOUGH Dutch ships visited the West 
Coast of AustraUa at intervals during the 
1 8th century, the march of European 
events, and the decreasing activities of the Dutch 
East India Company threw the hardy Hollanders 
more into the background. 

Meanwhile Britain extended the radius of her 
sea power, and found fresh soil for the roots of 
her Imperial ambitions. And, what makes for 
the enduring greatness of nations, she had not 
allowed her progress to become entirely material- 
istic. 

When the Royal Society, in February, 1768, 
addressed a memorial to King George the Third 
petitioning for an expedition to the South Seas to 
enable accurate observations of the Transit of 
Venus to be made "for the improvement of 
astronomy on which navigation so much 
depends," the Government of the day saw fit to 
grant the request. It was the expansive period 
of Chatham and Burke, a meaty time in English 
history. 

Being also the period of Commodore Byron, 
Wallis and Cartaret, British authority decided 
that the expedition should have a geographical 
mission as well. Having finished their observa- 
tions of the Transit of Venus, they should pro- 
ceed with further exploration of the unmapped 
Southern Continent. 

The Commission issued to Lieutenant James 



Cook with his command gave that intrepid, if 
not flawless, navigator his passport to Fame. 

He was fortunate in having as scientific 
associate on the Endeavour a man of wealth, 
influence and imagination in Joseph Banks, to 
whose memory Australia pays grateful tribute. 

Although sixteenth-century charts have been 
discovered since this great navigator's time, which 
indicate that the eastern coastline had been visited 
by forgotten shipmen, it is not likely that Cook 
knew of their existence. 

The work he carried out was original and 
invaluable. It was the genius of Britain that 
established the existence of a Southern Continent 
other than Antarctic, and the blundering but 
irresistible genius of Britain that later on turned 
the knowledge to practical account. 

Cook belonged to the age of great captains. 

Prefixed to the log of the Resolution, in which 
his second voyage of discovery to the South Seas 
was made, is a personal statement, signed James 
Cook, in which he admits : — 

"/ have neither natural or acquired 
abilities for writing. I have been, I may say, 
constantly at sea from my youth, and have 
dragged myself (with the assistance of a few 
good friends) through all the stations 
belonging to a seaman from a prentice boy 
to a commander." 



THE GENESIS OF AUSTRALIAN SETTLEMENT 



27 



The success of his first voyage was due 
greatly to sanitary organization. The health 
and efficiency of his crew were kept constantly in 
mind. Cook seems to have been a man of 
precision and resource — a trained man fitted by 
special services in the wonderful English maritime 
school of the period to accomplish what proved 
practically the last great work of planetary dis- 
covery. 

After carrying out their astronomical observa- 
tions successfully at Tahiti, Cook's expedition 



tentous line in history 
Cook's private log on 
1770, 6 a.m. : — 



than that inscribed in 
Thursday, 19th April, 



"Saw the land extending from N.E. 
JVest." 



to 



The land was that part of the eastern coast- 
line on which Cape Everard lighthouse now 
stands. It is still the only place of human habita- 
tion in a hundred miles. It was named by Cook 
"Point Hicks," after Lieutenant Zachary Hicks, 




Captain Cook 



bore away for New Zealand. Having circum- 
navigated and geographically proved these 
Islands, discovered by Tasman 128 years pre- 
viously and generally believed until then to be 
part of a Continent, it was decided "to stand 
immediately to the westward, fall in with the 
coast of New Holland as soon as possible, and 
after following that to the northward as far as 
seemed proper, to attempt to fall in with the 
lands seen by de Quiros in 1606." Leaving Cape 
Farewell, the Endeavour made for Van Diemen's 
Land; but being driven somewhat to the north- 
ward by heavy weather, encountered instead the 
coast of Eastern Gippsland. 

To Australians there can be no more por- 



of the Endeavour, who was on watch that historic 
morning. To Lieutenant Hicks fell the honor 
of sighting the first point of Eastern Australia 
beheld by English eyes. Point Hicks was 
renamed Cape Everard, out of compliment to 
a Victorian politician of the 'Sixties. It forms 
the one inglorious instance of a name given by 
Cook being blotted from the map of Australia. 

Had Cook been able to land between Cape 
Everard and Cape Howe he would have found a 
country well stocked with fish and game, and 
amply provided with fresh water. At the 
Wingen River his crew might have refreshed 
themselves with the finest white oysters on the 
coast. 



28 



Australia unlimited 




Mallacoota Inlet 



At Red River, where subsequently some great 
European ship unknown left her timbers to rot 
among the sedge, the Endeavour's botanist might 
have spent delighted days among a world of new 
species. Further north, under the heel of Gabo 
Island, in romantic Mallacoota, the fairest spot 
along the Australian coasts, his ship's company 
could have "cast the seine" and been rewarded 
by hauls of good black bream, red schnapper, and 
other succulent fishes which spawn and feed in 
these cool waters in great abundance, and form 
part of the vast unexploited wealth of our ever- 
teeming Australian Seas. 

The shores, between Point Hicks and Two- 
fold Bay, where the E)ideavoiir's people "saw 
the smoak of fire in sever'l places," are yet as 
unknown to the majority of Australians as the 
shores between Cook-town and Cape York, 
where the smoke of native fires are still seen daily 
from the decks of passing steamers. 

Yet the first is good temperate, and the second 
excellent tropical country; each capable of sup- 
porting white population. 

Sailing slowly past all this romantic coastland, 
Cook kept a careful northern course for ten clear 
days and nights, marking and naming the new 
coast line as he went. 

On the afternoon of Sunday, 29th April, 1770, 
the hawse-holes of the Endeavour purred to the 
caress of outrunning cables, and the anchor of 
His Britannic Majesty's bark took the ground in 
seven fathoms at Stingray Harbour — known later 
as Botany Bay. Cook's actual landing-place is 
marked by an obelisk at Kurnell, on the south side 
of the bay. 



The Endeavour remained at Botany for six 
days. Here, on May is^, died Forby Suther- 
land, seaman, and was duly interred at the ship's 
watering place. The Illawarra suburb of 
Sutherland perpetuates the memory of this first 
recorded European burial in eastern Australia. 

Here, too, for the first time the European Age 
of Iron came in conflict with the Australian Age 
of Stone. 

For never-to-be-known centuries man in a 
primitive stage of evolution had, without moles- 
tation, been the sole occupant of a continent. Of 
art and agriculture he had remained entirely 
ignorant. He was, from north to south, over 
all its many thousand miles purely a tribesman, 
living according to his tribal laws and traditions. 
A nomad, hunter, and fisherman, he possessed 
such crude weapons and implements as enabled 
him to supply his needs. He had not risen to 
the use of metals. His axes and spear-heads 
were of stone, such as the European neolith 
chipped from primal flints. On the writer's 
desk lie two stone spear-heads from Northern 
Australia. One example, chipped newly from a 
piece of quartz by Myall blacks, is still made 
in Central or Northern Australia; the other 
was found by a prospector in the Northern 
Territory under twenty feet of drift. To the 
inexpert eye there is scarcely any difference 
between them. But one must have been shaped 
thousands of years before the other. Aboriginals 
of the North, when the older flint was shown to . 
them simply said they do not make their spear- 
heads that way now. 



THE GENESIS OF AUSTRALIAN SETTLEMENT 



29 




Male Australian Aborigine 

During the enormous interval which elapsed 
between the chipping of those two primitive 
weapons- — -perhaps a hundred thousand years- — 
the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia had been 
free from outside interference. But the hour was 
approaching when the Hunter would be called 
upon to make room for the Artificer; when, 
despite a probable common ancestry, the Man of 
Iron, by virtue of his superior knowledge and 
attainments, was to dispossess the Man of Stone. 

The aborigines became extinct in Tasmania in 
1876. One hundred years of contact with 
Europeanism had completely exterminated a race 
which thousands of years of tribal wars and 
uneven battling against the forces of nature had 
failed to affect. 

The neolithic races of Australia, since the 
elaboration of the theory of Evolution, have 
become of peculiar interest. During later years 
scientists of v-arious nationalities have collected 
valuable information concerning our aboriginals, 
now only to be met with in an absolutely primitive 
state in certain parts of Northern and Central 
Australia. 

Cook's log of 29th April, 1770, tells how, hav- 
ing come to anchor in Stingray Harbor, "I soon 



after landed with a party of men, accompanied 
by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander and Tupia (a native 
of Otaheite). As we approached the shore the 
natives all made off, except two men, who at first 
seemed resolved to oppose our landing. We 
endeavoured to gain their consent to land by 
throwing them some nails, beads, etc., ashore, but 
this had not the desired effect, for as we put in 
to shore, one of them threw a large stone at us, 
and as soon as we landed they threw two darts at 
us, but on the firing of two or three musquets 
loaded with small shot they took to the woods and 
we saw them no more." 

This was the beginning of the inevitable con- 
flict between Stone and Steel, which could only 
have the one ending. It was under very similar 
circumstances that Cook lost his life at the Sand- 
wich Islands nine years later. 

Leaving Botany Bay on May 6th, 1770, the 
Endeavour resumed her voyage to the northward, 
her captain again charting new seas and naming 
new shores as he sailed. 




Female Australian Aborigine 



30 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



On the 22nd August, 1770, after many vicissi- 
tudes, having rounded Cape York and being "in 
great hopes he had found a passage into the 
India Sea," Cook landed with a party of men on 
Possession Island, and a little before sunset took 
possession of the country {i.e., the whole of the 
eastern coast and adjacent islands) in the King's 
name, and "fired three volleys of small arms on 
the occasion, which was answered from the ship." 

Conjure up this picture, on which depends may- 
hap the whole future of the Pacific. The bark 



He is a man 42 years of age, bewigged, clean- 
shaven, and wearing the uniform of a naval 
lieutenant in the service of His Majesty King 
George III. The oars fall together and 
reappear, scattering pearls of saltwater as, with 
rhythmic strokes, the pinnace makes for a landing 
place. 

Finding on examination from the higher points 
of the Island that he has rounded the Con- 
tinent at last, and knowing by the Dutch 
charts and his own its magnitude and extent, the 




Sir Joseph Banks 



Endeavour, 370 tons burthen, with her comple- 
ment of mariners, marines, officers and scientific 
attaches clothed in the uniforms and costumes of 
the latter half of the eighteenth century, rides at 
anchor. 

The blue waters of Endeavour Straits flow 
6j fathoms deep under her keel. 

It is a tropic afternoon, warm and clear — the 
sunlight lending its usual glamor to this Sea of 
Islands where the Indian and Pacific Oceans unite 
in sucking tides. The ship's bell strikes the hour. 
It is half-past 4 p.m. and slack tide. Loudly 
the command of an English naval officer is heard; 
quickly the boats (pinnace and yawl) are 
lowered. Quickly the red-coated marines take 
their places with muskets loaded and primed. 
Without undue delay the commander follows. 



uniformed lieutenant re-assembles his boats' 
company on the shore and formally proclaims 
British sovereignty over the eastern coasts of 
Australia. 

After the words have been slowly and solemnly 
uttered, an officer gives a sharp order. The 
barrels of the long "Brown Besses" drop to the 
level and — crash! the echoes of a British volley 
for the first time roll down the gullies of 
eastern Australia. 

As the smoke of the third volley is drifting 
over the pandanus trees, the flag of England is 
broken from the peak, and crash! come answering 
volleys from the ship, followed by the sound of 
her whole remaining company cheering lustily. 
For many long years the Briton had been at war 
upon the high seas, and he had learned to carry 



THE GENESIS OF AUSTRALIAN SETTLEMENT 



31 




Captain Arthur Phillip 



out these functions with a proper formality. But it 
is a fine incident; for as the Union Jack, burst 
from its folds at the Endeavour's peak, there 
broke with it from the folds of the Past, the 
Future of a Nation which, if it proves worthy of 
its opportunities, may yet become the greatest 
that the world has known. 



forth with renewed splendor from the gunpowder 
clouds of Cape St. Vincent. 

Four years after the Government of the 
British nation had passed into the hands of the 
youthful Pitt, then only 25 years of age, the his- 
tory of Australia began. Twenty-three years 
previously, in 1765, had come the invention of 
Watt's steam engine, which may be accepted as 
the genesis of modern industrial civilization; as 
the French Revolution, beginning two years after 
the establishment of settlement at Port Jackson, 
is accepted by most writers as the genesis of a 
new political age. 

Much opprobrium has been cast upon the 
system of transportation which led to the found- 
ing of the first settlement, but without transporta- 
tion it is doubtful if the occupation of eastern 
Australia by the British would have ever taken 
place. 

Slightly more than 83,000 convicted persons 
were deported during the whole period in which 
transportation prevailed in New South Wales. A 
large number of these were political prisoners; a 
larger number victims of laws which have long 
been obsolete, and a still greater number were 
petty offenders, whose transgressions in these 
days would be considered amply punished by a 
five-shillings fine. Taking these facts into con- 
sideration, it will be seen that the early convict 
system was no more than an inverted line in the 
chapter of Australian beginnings, having little 
or no effect upon the future Australian race, which 
had its real foundation in the unimpeachable 
pioneer strain of vigorous and enterprising early 
colonists. 



The actual annexation of the country did not 
take place until eighteen years later, when on the 
26th January, 1788, Captain Phillip read to the 
people of the First Fleet, assembled at Sydney 
Cove, the words of his commission. 

Meanwhile much water had passed under the 
bridges of European and trans-Atlantic history. 
The American War of Independence had been 
fought, and the Republic of the United States 
established. Bunker's Hill, Brandywine, Sara- 
toga, Charlestown and Yorktown had become 
names of historic importance. "Broken with 
age and disease," the Earl of Chatham had been 
carried into the House of Lords to utter his last 
eloquent indictment of the policy which had 
driven loyalty to rebellion, and reddened Ameri- 
can soil with the blood of fratricide. Spain, 
France and Holland had banded in futile alliance 
for the overthrow of Britain, who saw her pos- 
sessions in America slip from her grasp, while 
the sun of her ascendancy in India rose 
triumphantly, and that of her sea power burst 



The loss of the American Colonies led 
England to seek not only an outlet for her large 
prison population — chiefly induced by the brutal 
laws and conditions of the period — but a new 
field for her colonizing activities. By a splendid 
naval organization — the result of generations of 
sea fighting — she greatly controlled the ocean 
highway and might, in comparative safety, plant 
her flag upon the most distant shores. 

As an opportune result of her maritime 
exploration, there had already come the first 
authentic contradiction of Dampier's adverse 
judgment on Australia. The scientific eye of 
Joseph Banks, trained to correct vision, had 
beheld possible fertility where another Dampier 
would only have seen a land destitute of all good 
qualities. Cook, although he was no agricul- 
turist, had pronounced some of the coun*-ry he 
saw near Botany as "fit for the production of 
grain of any kind." 

There is no country more paradoxical than 
Australia; no country which can be judged less 



32 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



by surface indications; no country so full of 
unexpected surprises. After a hundred and 
twenty-five years of occupation, Australians 
themselves have hegon to realize that the whole 
volume of previous conclusions will have to be 
re-written; that parts of Australia which were 
regarded in early days as waste lands are destined 
to prove among the richest sections of the Com- 
monwealth. In place of a continent containing 
edges of fertility and large areas of sterility, it is 
found that the whole Commonwealth can be put 
to account, leaving ultimately only a few arid 
strips in the remote interior, and these not actual 
desert. Of alleged Australian "deserts" the 
writer will have more to say in future chapters of 
this book. 

When in 1779 Banks was examined before a 
Committee of the House of Commons as to the 
suitability of Eastern Australia for settlement, he 
strongly commended Botany Bay, the climate of 
which he considered approximated to that of the 
South of France; also "he did not doubt but our 
sheep and oxen, if carried there, would thrive and 
increase." 

The Australia which Banks had seen was "'well 
supplied with water, and had an abundance of 
timber and fuel." 

Being asked how a colony of the nature sug- 
gested could be subsisted in the beginning of their 
establishment, he tendered the Committee some 
sound commonsense advice which indicated that 
during the nine years since which he had visited 
the site of the suggested settlement, he had given 
the subject considerable attention. Sir Joseph 
Banks, from the time he first set foot 
in Australia to the time of his death in 
1820, never ceased to look upon the new land 
with an eye of faith and confidence. His counsel, 
his money and his influence were alike at the 
service of the infant settlement. 

Banks was perhaps the first European with 
mind and imagination to dimly realize its possi- 
bilities. 

To his influence, exerted over fifty years, more 
than to any other cause, can be credited the 
fact that the biassed conclusions of lesser minds 
did not find oflicial acceptance in England; that 
the false counsels of malcontents did not prevail, 
and that a flower which will yet blaze brightest in 
the wreath of England's glory was not cankered 
in the bud. Through all the failures and 
vicissitudes of the original settlement, Banks 
remained a practical optimist. It was in the 
light of this spirit that the Australian Colonies 
grew to success. In the light of this spirit the 



Australian Commonwealth is destined to become, 
without doubt, a rampart of Imperial strength. 
* ♦ + * 

The first definite proposal for a settlement in 
Eastern Australia came from an Englishman with 
a foreign name, James Maria Matra. 

In 1783 — Pitt's first year of office — Matra 
submitted his scheme. Primarily it was intended 
to offer relief and compensation to those Ameri- 
can colonists who had remained loyal to Britain 
during the War of Intiependence, and had suffered 
in consequence. Many of these people had 
already migrated to British North America, that 
is, Canada. 

The Home Office, at ihat time, administered 
all colonial matters, and unluckily Lord Sydney 
administered the Home Office. 

Banks favored Matra's scheme; so, later, did 
Sir George Young; but Sydney treated it flip- 
pantly. He was not disposed to view, or capable 
of viewing, the proposed colony in any other 
light than that of a convict settlement. 

Having duly pigeon-holed Matra's proposal, — 
containing many wise, humane, and excellent 
suggestions, which might e\en to-day be perused 
with profit by some Englishmen and Australians 
— the British Government de\'ised a plan of its 
own, and passed an Act (1784) in accordance 
with statutes of previous reigns relating to trans- 
portation. 

By an Order-in-Council, made on 6th Decem- 
ber, 1786, the eastern coast of New South 
Wales was declared and appointed to be the place 
whereto the provisions of the statute should 
apply. 

By an Act (27 George III. c. 2) passed in the 
year 1787 the Colony of New South Wales was 
established. 

And on April 2nd, in the same year, was 
issued — "To our trusty and well-beloved Arthur 
Phillip, Esquire," his commission as first Governor 
of New South Wales. Three weeks later came 
his instructions; under which he was to embark 
and proceed in the Sirius, and convey certain 
tenders and transports to the port on the coast of 
New South Wales, called bv the name of Botany 
Bay. 

Phillip's fleet of eleven vessels, total tonnage 
3,000 tons, with two years' provisions for all on 
board, sailed out of Portsmouth on the 13th May, 
1787. Five months later they left the Cape of 
Good Hone, having taken on board there a small 
supply of live stock and fruit trees for the infant 
colony. On the 20th January, 1788, they were 
all safely at anchor in the harbor of Botany Bay. 



(33) 



S:^Vi5-?'!'&-Wfcl^: 




statue to Governor Phillip, Sydney 



OLD COLONIAL DAYS. 



FROM many causes, writers on Australian 
subjects have adopted a subdued tone. 
As the mists of this literary timidity are 
dispelled by warmer rays of faith, based on 
knowledge, our native writers will find in early 
colonial history something more than their pre- 
decessors ever imagined. 

Behind the purely functional records of 
officialdom, there lies a splendid volume of human 
effort and accomplishment. 

Epics of endurance as heroic as any that 
marked the conquest of the Americas, thrilling 
tales of exploration, romantic stories of adven- 
ture, and gentler incidents of pioneer settlement 
will furnish gallant and graceful themes for the 
future. 

In that sparse, hardy, little first Governor, 
Arthur Phillip himself, there was a quality that 
silhouettes his personality clearly against the 
twilight of Time; as sometimes stands out, upon 
an Australian hillside, a rugged gum tree in the 
gloaming. 

His father was a German master of languages 
from Frankfurt; his mother an English lady of 



some family. His school was a naval college; 
his apprenticeship the Seven Years' War. When 
there was a temporary lull in English fighting- 
growing tired of farming in the New P'orest — he 
volunteered, and fought for Portugal against 
Spain. His activities found scope when English 
guns began to bark again in the Narrow Seas, 
and when, in one of the lulls that enabled the 
giants of Europe to draw breath, England looked 
about her for a blood and iron man to plant her 
flag across the furthest seas, she chose this little 
Commodore, with shrivelled face and thin 
aquiline nose, who had learned courage behind 
the carronades and acquired discipline on the 
tarry decks of British men-o'-war, probably the 
finest seminaries ever instituted, in all the world's 
history, for the propagation of these rigid 
\irtues. 

So, in his brown camlet coat, lined with green 
baize, we see the first Governor standing reso- 
lutely to his charge. A fine figure he makes in 
the foreground of a New World. Nor did he 
permit discontent or malcontent to prevail against 
him. He found that Botany Bay was unsuited 



34 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



for his purpose. Promptly he had three boats' 
crews piped, and set northward in person looking 
for a better landing. 

Presently he rounded a precipitous headland, 
and found himself in Port Jackson. In due 
course he makes a plain statement to Lord Sydney 
of the fact: — 

"/ have had the satisfaction of finding the 
finest harbor in the world, in which a thou- 
sand sail of the line may ride in most perfect 
security." 



London in the latter part of the year 1788, 
said : — 

"If the Minister has a true and just description 
given to him of it (the country) he will not 
surely think of sending any more people here 
for there is not one article that can ever 
be necessary for the use of man, but which must 
be imported into the country." 

Against opposition of this character — almost 
general among the people who surrounded him — 
against conspiracy, famine, and the blunders of 




Old Colonial Home 



For five strenuous years Phillip stood by the flag 
on the shores of Sydney Cove. There were 
among his officers men like Ross and Johnson, 
who were eager to have it lowered. In order 
to effect their purpose — the abandonment of the 
colony — these men and others did not hesitate to 
paint the blackest pictures of the country to the 
Home authorities. The mantle of these false 
prophets in the course of time fell upon others. 
Entirely erroneous impressions of Australia have 
in consequence been sustained abroad, and half 
accepted as facts at home. Major Ross, who, 
mentally, fathered three generations of Anti- 
Australians, writing to the Under-Secretary in 



distant authority, Phillip, of the lean face and 
aquiline nose, presented a fine unyielding deter- 
mination; to which, as much as to his inspired 
faith in the future of the country, we can largely 
attribute the fact that Australia is to-day a part 
of the British Empire. 

Upheld by the cleanly figure of Captain Arthur 
Phillip, the stage on which is presented the first 
group of actors in Australian history, lacks 
neither interest nor dignity. 

He brought a band of most unsuitable colonists 
safely across the seas, to a country which had 
only been visited by one previous ship, and, in the 
face of difficulties that seemed at times insur- 



OLD COLONIAL DAYS 



35 



mountable, he bedded the roots of European 
Colonization so firmly in Australian soil that they 
can nevermore be torn from it. 

The miseries and inconveniences of early 
settlement were occasioned largely by these 
facts : — 

(i) The population, instead of being 
husbandmen and artificers, were by a large 
majority untrained convicts or soldiers and 
marines. 

(2) Absolute ignorance of all concerned 
as to the nature and capabilities of a country 
entirely new to European experiences. 

{3) Mismanagement and incredible lack 
of foresight of the home authorities; who 
were responsible for the preservation and 
sustentation of a body of first colonists far 
removed from all sources of established 
supply. 

(4) The natural discontent of people 
exiled from their native country to an 
unknown territory at the extremes of the 
earth, then from six to twelve months' voy- 
age distant, inhabited only by savages, and 
subject as they were to probable attack from 
foreign nations, who might, without their 
knowledge, become at war with the Mother 
Country. 

It was only to be expected that evil reports of 
Australia would be circulated abroad by those 
whose only apparent relief lay in the withdrawal 
by the English Government of its suffering and 
struggling subjects at Port Jackson. 

Time has proved that the early impressions of 
Australia were entirely wrong. 

The first recorders spoke of it as a land either 
devoid of timber, or "covered with trees of an 
immense size, but scarce worth cutting down." 

The fact is that Australia possesses the largest 
areas of valuable timbers in the world. She has 
hundreds of species of useful and ornamental 
commercial woods; and the essential oils and 
by-products of her fever-preventing eucalypts are 
of incalculable value. 

She was described as a country where there was 
"neither ore nor mineral except iron and a small 
portion of copper." 

Every useful earth and valuable gem, every 
known mineral, not excluding helium and radium, 
have been discovered in Australia. Her output 
of precious metals has exceeded that of any other 
country. She possesses supplies of coal already 
proved sufficient for thousands of years, and 
illimitable deposits of ore, containing the highest 
known percentages of non-phosphatic iron. 



It was said that Australia is a land almost 
destitute of animals and birds. 

The scientist knows now that it is the most 
interesting of all countries to him; a country 
which contains not only "living fossils," such as 
the platypus, the echidna, and the lung-fish, but 
in ornithology (apart from those birds which are 
sui-generis) , has representatives of all the world's 
feathered families, excepting vultures and wood- 
peckers. 

It was most freely asserted that the soil of the 
country at large was one of extreme poverty, on 
which European fruits and grains could never 
thrive. This assertion has been repeated with 
variations of almost every new district opened 
for settlement throughout the Commonwealth 
during the last hundred and twenty-five years. 

One of the objects of this book is to finally 
refute the many libels to which Australia has 
been so undeservedly subjected. 

It may be stated in advance, that there is prac- 
tically no botanical product of either Europe, 
Asia, Africa, the Americas, Polynesia or Malay- 
sia for which suitable soils and climates can not 
be found within the boundaries of the Australian 
Com m o nwealth ! 

Oranges from the irrigated areas of Ren- 
mark (S.A.) were last year proclaimed to be the 
finest ever exposed for sale in Covent Garden 
Markets, London, where they would find com- 
petitors from the citrus orchards of the world. 
It will be more fully shown in subsequent pages 
what the agricultural lands of Australia are really 
capable of producing. 

The despair of the early colonists was pitiable. 
Hear the disgruntled voice of one of Phillip's 
officers complaining from the Past: — 

"The country, my lord, is past all dispute 
"a wretched one — a very wretched one — 
"and totally incapable of yielding to Great 
"Britain a return for colonizing it. There 
"is no wood fit for naval purposes; no fibrous 
"grass or plant from which cordage can be 
"made; no substance which can aid or 
"improve the labours of the manufacturer; 
"no mineral productions, no esculent 
"vegetable worth the care of collecting and 
"transporting to other climes; and, lastly, 
"which is of the most serious consideration, 
"no likelihood that the country will be able 
"to support itself in grain or animal food 
"for many years to come" (Major Ross said 
for a hundred years) "so that a regular 
"annual expense is entailed on the mother 
"country as long as it shall be kept." 

Only last year the author heard in Port Dar- 
win, Northern Territory, homesick officials utter- 



OLD COLONIAL DAYS 



37 




In the Heart of Central Australia 



ing the same complaints. The enforced exile has 
rarely been known to praise the place of his 
imprisonment. Contrast the accusations of the 
disaffected with Phillip's plain statement: — 

"The climate is equal to the finest in Europe. 
All the plants and fruit trees brought 
from Brazil and the Cape thrive exceed- 
ingly well, and we do not want for vegetables. 
The colony is the most valuable 
acquisition Great Britain ever made." 

But Phillip stood practically alone in his faith 
among the "First Fleet" men. He was the one 
true believer among the six or seven hundred who 
landed with him. Australia is at all times a 
difficult country to understand. To the eyes of 
the first pioneers, without precedents or experi- 
ences to reassure them, the newness of their sur- 
roundings added to the natural nervousness of 
an outpost. This fear of the Unknown has al- 
ways been a poignant sentiment in human affairs. 

Very early in the country's history there grew 
up a stereotyped conception of the interior as a 
dry and waterless desert, composed for the most 
part of shifting sands, scorched by everlasting 
suns and swept by constant hot winds. 

Book after book has been written perpetuating 
this fallacy, which has become so firmly rooted in 
peoples' minds that it will probably be another 
two or three generations before it is finally con- 



signed to the limbo of ancient fallacies. It is 
doubtful if there are a hundred square miles of 
true desert within the whole area of the Austra- 
lian Continent, and it is now an established fact 
that millions of acres, once regarded as useless 
for agricultural purposes, are among the most 
fertile and productive lands in the world. 

Ignorance and prejudice, at home and abroad, 
have militated very greatly against settlement. 

Until quite recently Australian children were 
taught a local geography quite as absurd as that 
evolved by a series of foolish writers, from 
Dampier to quite recent times. The geography 
of Australia imbibed by scholars in foreign 
schools is still full of mischievous statements. 
Until the Commonwealth takes the matter 
systematically in hand, and proclaims the truth 
about itself far and wide, the great mass of out- 
siders will continue to believe that "five-sixths 
of the whole block of land is desert," as one of 
the early Governors declared. 

The writer of this book learned at an Austra- 
lian bush school, thirty years ago, to regard large 
widths of his native land as sterile wastes, which 
he has since found covered with crops and sweet 
with rain. 

The work of exploration, which commenced 
with Governor Phillip, has gone on down to the 
present day. But neither Phillip nor his imme- 



38 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



diate successors seemed to realize that the know- 
ledge they won, at the price of much effort and 
hardship, was purely local. They were prone 
to judge the whole Continent by the necessarily 
restricted areas of their own observations. It 
is yet only partially realized that there is more 
than one Australia, that the range of our climate 
and conditions are continental, that for nutmegs 
and gooseberries an equally suitable habitat can be 
found. 

Nor is the national consciousness yet fully alive 
to the fact that climates, varying as much as those 
of Berlin and Naples, must ultimately lead to 
pronounced variations even in human types. 

The accounts of first Australian discovery make 
curious reading nowadays. Journeys to dis- 
tricts which are now reached readily by electric 
tram or suburban train service called for armed 
expeditions. Where the red-coats of King George 
the Third marched wearily, laden with coarse 
provision and heavy accoutrements, the motor car 
bears a prosperous generation to business or 
pleasure; the naked upland has become an 
orchard slope, the crude camps of stunted abori- 
gines are busy townships, and the pulse of 
industry throbs day and night where the silence 
of primal solitudes was broken only by the 
voices of wind and wave. 



Twenty-five energetic years had converted the 
children of the First Fleet into men and women 
before hardy explorers surmounted the Blue 
Mountains which, on sunny days, were plainly 
visible from the heights of the Settlement. 

Phillip's pessimists did not know, or did not 
care to know, that beyond these great Dividing 
Ranges and their spurs lay countries of perennial 
richness, and mineral fields of incalculable wealth. 

Still less could they have foreseen that the site 
of their rough barracks and struggling gardens 
would in the future be a city of half a million 
prosperous inhabitants; or that rutted roads, 
where lumbering ox-waggons crawled through 
tedious dust or were bogged in the deep un- 
metalled mud, would give place to the modern 
streets and handsome buildings which make that 
city's pride. 

At the end of Phillip's five years of office — • 
when he begged to be removed owing to bad 
health — Botany Bay, Port Jackson, Broken Bay, 
and the country about the Hawkesbury and 
Nepean Rivers, were fairly well surveyed and 
known. The settlement had survived threatened 
extinction by famine, and the discovery of the 
fertile Hawkesbury lands promised to provide 
against a recurrence of that danger. 




On the Hawkesbury Biver 



(39) 



INLAND EXPLORATION. 



VERY early in its history, the new colony 
began to attract men of the adventurous 
type. Among these was Gregory Blax- 
land, a Kentish stockbreeder, who migrated to 
Australia in 1806. He was then a vigorous man 
of 35. Lured by the hope of better pasturages 
inland, he set out with Lawson and Wentworth 
in May, 18 13, to find a passage across the Blue 
Mountains. 

The easy success of this, the first properly 
organised attempt to surmount an ordinary 
natural difficulty, paved the way for a hundred 
years of rapid exploration and settlement. 

Before Blaxland died in 1835 he had seen the 
first page of achievement, at the head of which 
he had put an honorable signature, covered with 
illustrious names. 

His track was quickly followed by Surveyor 
George W. Evans, whose astonished eyes in the 
same year (1813) were the first to behold an 
enchanting country of well watered valleys, 
abounding in fish and game, and beyond that 
again fertile expanses of still better lands. 

Evans discovered and named both the Mac- 
quarle and Lachlan Rivers. 

As a result, Macquarie, the most industrious of 
early Governors, journeyed with his wife and a 
military equipage, by a good road, to the new 
settlement of Bathurst, 100 miles inland, on the 
26th April, 1 8 15. The Conquest of the Interior 
had now definitely commenced, and was destined 
to go on steadily down to the present day. 

Australia had already proved to be a land 
entirely different from that depicted by the first 
geographers and earliest settlers. Cattle and 
sheep were thriving in the new country as well as 
or even better than European stock had ever 
thrived in the old world. Enterprise, untram- 
melled by sentiment, perceived opportunities for 
success in many directions. There was no longer 
any serious talk of abandoning the work 
of colonization, but the complete realiza- 
tion of its boundless possibilities has not 
come in a hundred years. Even now 
groundless fears haunt many minds that those 
large unoccupied tracts of the interior of Aus- 
tralia, which are yet imperfectly known, will not 
prove fit for future settlement. Errors, like 
weeds, are hard to eradicate. Truth is a sensi- 
tive plant of slower growth. 



The early explorers, although their work was 
good, were too often guilty of serious errors of 
judgment. Among this honorable band no names 
stand higher than John Oxley and his successor, 
Charles Sturt, both of whom made pronounce- 
ments about country they crossed which we now 
know to have been foolishly wrong. 

Oxley condemned the flats of the Lachlan 
River, as "certainly not adapted for cattle," and 
stigmatised as "desert" some of the best grazing 
country in Australia; the "desert plains" which he 
doubted on crossing "would ever again be 
visited by civilized man" are now covered by 
woolly sheep or waving grain. 

Poor Oxley. He was a good-looking young 
ex-lieutenant of the King's Navy, who had come 
to Australia in 18 12, and received the appoint- 
ment of Surveyor-General. Baffled by difficulties 
incidental to the exploration of new country, he 




Gregory Blaxland 




40 



INLAND EXPLORATION 



41 



sat down by the Lachlan River and desolately 
wrote in his journal : — 

"For all the practical purposes of 
"civilized man, the interior of this country 
"westward of a certain meridian is unin- 
"habitable." 

Oxley's "habitable meridian" lay somewhere 
about the mid-Macquarie region, and the "unin- 
habitable country" is now crossed by profitable 
railways, which have lately proved inadequate to 
carry away the enormous quantities of wheat 
which it is producing. 

His final conclusion that "the interior of this 
vast country is a marsh and uninhabitable" was 
as far wide of the mark as some classical specula- 
tions regarding the size and shape of the Earth. 

But for many years, like Dampier's "Dis- 
coveries," Oxley's baseless and utterly erroneous 
conclusions colored impressions which the world 
at large held of all our wonderful interior. 

Despite his chronic despondency, Oxley in his 
explorations found compensations like the Liver- 
pool Plains, Port Macquarie, the Tweed and the 
Brisbane Rivers. 

Of another temperament was Hamilton Hume, 
a native Australian. Born at Parramatta in 
1797, Hume was by nature a bushman, between 
whom and the man of the cities there is ever a 
marked difference. 

Every Australian schoolboy knows how, in 
1824, Hume, after discovering Lakes Bathurst 
and George, and the Yass and Goulburn Plains, 
led his party of eight from Lake George to 
the Southern Ocean; beholding for the first time 
the white caps of the Australian Alps, and cross- 



ing and naming en route the Murray, the finest 
river in Australia which, rising beneath their 
snows, pours its waters into the Indian Ocean, 
1,700 miles away. 

Hume, fortified with colonial experience, cheer- 
ful, resourceful, patient, and, above all, correct 
in his judgments, is a pleasant antidote to the 
depressing Oxley. 

Four years later, as a member of the ambitious 
Sturt's exploring party, he did good and useful 
work. 

Captain Charles Sturt, an Anglo-Indian by 
birth, who had been Governor Darling's private 
secretary, had neither Hume's knowledge of, nor 
his sympathy with Australia. Like Oxley, he 
erred grievously in his estimate of districts which 
have long since been profitably occupied. 

Where' Oxley thought he had found a vast 
inland marsh, Sturt imagined that he was dis- 
covering a drought-stricken desert. Both were 
the sport of seasons; both were wrong. 

Sturt's pictures of the Australian back-country 
have some literary interest, but like other word 
paintings which have followed them, they are 
much more imaginative than real. 

In point of fact, the Australia that Sturt and 
some of his literary successors describe is no more 
to be accepted as typical than that of Dampier or 
the French navigator. La Perouse, who for- 
tunately thought the country so poor that "it was 
not worth his while to examine it." 

Hume and Sturt discovered the Darling River, 
which is probably destined to form the future 
base for an inland population that will number 
many more millions than the whole of Australia 
is carrying at present. 




The Eiver Tweed 



42 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




In Sturt's "Worst Country in the World" —Hospital Sunday Procession, Broken Hill 



In spite of his errors of judgment, Captain 
Sturt's second great journey in a whaleboat down 
the Murrumbidgee River to its junction with the 
Murray, and thence past the junction of the Dar- 
ling to the mouth of the Murray at Lake Alexan- 
drina, is one of the most heroic and picturesque 
chapters in the splendid story of southern explora- 
tion. 

With three soldiers (Harris, Eraser and Hop- 
kinson), and three prisoners (MacManee, Mul- 
holland and Clayton), Captain Charles Sturt put 
to his credit one of the most courageous feats ever 
accomplished on any frontier. 

Whether facing, as they did, an armed and 
hostile band of five hundred sable warriors at 
the junction of the Murray and the Darling, or 
toiling manfully at the oars of their heavy whale- 
boat; or enduring the pangs of hunger on their 
woefully reduced return ration, this little com- 
pany, working its way alone to the Murray mouth 
and back again in the teeth of a thousand diffi- 
culties, dangers and privations, stands forth for- 
ever famous on the foreground of our Early 
Days. 

But, with all praise to the courage and personal 
character of Sturt, it has to be admitted that he 
was greatly lacking in judgment. 

His last great expedition proves this. 



Returning from England to the newly-formed 
province of South Australia, where he was in turn 
Surveyor-General and Commissioner of Lands, 
he set out on his last arduous journey to the 
interior in 1844. 

At the time of this outsetting it must be remem- 
bered that Sturt was a partially-blind and dis- 
appointed man. He had received instructions 
from the Home Office to reach, if possible, the 
heart of the Continent, and determine whether or 
not the supposed inland sea existed there. He 
decided to follow up the Darling River, and 
struck out in a north-westerly direction from a 
point near the present township of Menindie. He 
was accompanied by Poole, Dr. Browne, and 
McDouall Stuart — a name destined to become 
famous in the annals of Australian discovery. He 
crossed and condemned the Barrier Range, since 
become one of the richest silver-lead fields in the 
world, and ultimately reached the 28th parallel; 
but the story of the expedition is one of tragedy 
and failure. Poole died of scurvy. After putting 
up a fine record of courage and honorable 
effort, the exhausted leader and his party came 
back with what appeared to be negative results. 
Country crossed by Sturt (in an exceptionally bad 
season), and which he classed as "hopeless 



INLAND EXPLORATION 



43 



desert" has since yielded fortunes to stockowners. 

Broken Hill, on the site of which Sturt had 
written a despairing entry in his journal, is 
to-day a city of 30,000 inhabitants — another 
proof of the erroneous deductions which were 
drawn from local conditions by men of the finest 
personal quality but unfamiliar with the true 
nature of a remarkable, new country. 

The journeys of Sturt's celebrated rival. Major 
Sir Thomas Mitchell, proved more resultful to 
our young colonization. Late in the year 1831 
Mitchell, then Surveyor-General of New South 
Wales, set out from Liverpool Plains; located the 



whose bones now rest under the obelisk erected 
to his memory in Sydney Botanic Gardens. 
Mitchell set out again in 1836, under instructions 
from the Government of the parent Colony to 
take up his exploration of the Darling at the 
point where he had left off on the previous 
expedition; follow the river to the Murray, and 
return to Yass Plains via its southern bank. 

This programme, Mitchell, a soldier of the 
Peninsula, greatly extended. 

Having finally determined that the Murray 
received the waters of the Darling and its vast 
network of feeders — which constitute, from their 




A Landing on the Eiver Murray 



Nandewar Ranges, touched the Namoi and 
Gwydir Rivers, and discovered that these two 
watercourses junctioned with the Darling. 

In 1833 he left Parramatta with a well- 
equipped expedition, struck westward to the head 
of the Bogan River, and followed it down to the 
Darling; where he established and re-named Fort 
Bourke. Leaving this temporary stockade, he 
followed the downward course of the river for 
three hundred miles, and decided that it really 
joined the Murray; a fact which had been con- 
tested, despite the earlier reports of Sturt. 

Mitchell was always unfortunate in his deal- 
ings with the natives, who frequently attacked his 
party. They practically drove him back to Fort 
Bourke, whence in time he made his way to 
Bathurst, having lost his botanist, Richard Cun- 
ningham — brother of Allan Cunningham, capable 
scientist and intrepid explorer and discoverer, in 
1827, of the fertile Darling Downs country, 



source in south-western Queensland to Murray 
mouth, the longest river system in the world — 
Mitchell transferred his expedition to the 
unexplored southern side of the great river, and 
entered what is now the State of Victoria. So 
rich and beautiful was the country he traversed 
after leaving Swan Hill (locating the Loddon, 
Avoca, and Wimmera Rivers en route) that he 
called it "Australia Felix." Across this glorious 
land went slowly but securely the brave soldier of 
Badajoz, until he found the picturesque Glenelg, 
and so reached the southern coast. Here the 
expedition turned homeward via Portland Bay. 
Striking across country, he ascended Mount 
Macedon and from its summit, greatly exultant, 
beheld Port Phillip. Mitchell's triumphant news 
gave an immediate impetus to settlement in the 
south. The "Great Desert" theory had received 
its first immersion in the acid of fact, but much 
time must yet elapse before it reached its final 
reduction. 



44 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Mitchell's work did not pass unrecognised. It 
was not until 1845 that he set out again; this time 
to examine the unknown lands in the north-west. 
Grazing was now being rapidly extended into new 
districts, and settlement followed closely on the 
heels of exploration, if it did not even precede it. 

Crossing the Darling above Fort Bourke, the 
third Mitchell expedition passed through what is 
now south-western Queensland, a well-watered 
and fertile country, suitable for immediate pas- 
toral occupation. Leaving Mount Abundance, 
near the present site of Roma, he touched the 
Maranoa River, and, keeping on, discovered the 
Warrego and Belyando. Turning west again 
from the head of the Nogoa (where he had 
established a base) he crossed the red soil plains 
covered with Mitchell grass, that brought him to 
the Barcoo, which stockmen claim to be the best 
country in Australia. The Barcoo crosses the 
25th parallel 560 miles from the eastern coast. 
The existence of pastoral and agricultural 
country plentifully supplied with surface waters in 
good seasons, and perennially blessed with an 
abundant artesian supply — although Mitchell did 
not know this — gave the Central Desert delusion 
further refutation. 

Mitchell's work throughout was well done. He 
possessed all the courage of his compeers, and 
was gifted with the organization they too often 
lacked. Six years after his triumphant return 
from the North, he had the distinction of taking 
to England the first gold specimen and the first 
diamond found In Australia. Besides being the 
most successful of our explorers, this soldier of 
Badajoz was both author and inventor. 

The glory Mitchell achieved by organization 
and forethought Leichhardt, on his first journey, 
secured by mere good fortune. In these days 
Ludwig Leichhardt would probably be regarded 
as a "crank." But with a continent of mystery 
spreading away from a narrow fringe of know- 
ledge, In the vigorous "forties," a man like 
Leichhardt, with no bushcraft, no tact, but possess- 
ing inordinate self-confidence and vanity plus 
audacity, might, like the gambler at the roulette 
table, break the bank at his first sitting. 

Despite his one accidental success, Leichhardt, 
the hero of a hundred Australian stories, cannot 
be accepted seriously as an explorer. 

Arriving In Australia as a botanist in 1842 — 
eager to gain glory in the fields of geographical 
discovery, we find him at the head of a party 
leaving Jimbour Station, Darling Downs, on the 
1st of October, 1844. 

Luckily the northern route which he had 
selected took him nearly all the way through 
country where it would be difficult for the veriest 
new-chum to come to grief. 



Leaving the Condamine, he met and named 
the Dawson; passed on to the splendid Peak 
Downs districts, crossed the Mackenzie, Isaacs 
and Burdekin, struck across to the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, on the eastern shore of which he was 
attacked by natives, and had three men speared — 
Including the botanist, Gilbert, who was killed 
outright. 

From this point to Port Essington, which he 
reached on the 17th December, 1845, the story 




Sir Thomas Mitchell 



of Lelchhardt's expedition Is less cheerful read- 
ing; but the long journey he accomplished 
through a well-grassed, well-watered Northern 
Australia, reduced still further the area of sup- 
posed desert, and paved a way for the establish- 
ment of many fine colonial fortunes. 

The glory which fell to Leichhardt was his 
undoing. He now became seized with a vaulting 
ambition to cross the Australian continent from 
east to west In a direct line. His first attempt 
ended in rank failure. The second expedition, 
hastily organized, was composed of six white men 
and two natives, with twelve horses, 13 mules, 50 
bullocks, 270 goats, and a supply of provisions 
and ammunition. 

This expedition started from McPherson's 
Station, Muckadilla Creek, on the south-west of 



INLAND EXPLORATION 



45 



the present State of Queensland — early in April, from Streaky Bay he made the head of Spencer's 



1848, and was never more heard of 

The Gregory Search Expedition — sent out in 
1858 to determine, if possible, what had become 
of Leichhardt, discovered only such traces of him 
as a marked tree and an old camp on the Barcoo. 

In 1856 Gregory had found traces of the lost 
explorer on Elsey Creek upper waters. The 
Elsey is a tributary of the Roper, and the general 
theory is that Leichhardt, being forced to retreat 
from the dry country west of the Thomson River, 
struck back to the Roper, and then travelled west 
or south-west until he got into hopeless difficulties 
and perished. If this were so, it is a remarkable 
thing that not as much as a shoe buckle of the lost 
expedition has ever been recovered. 



Gulf, and located Lake Torrens. 

On the 1 8th June, 1840, Eyre left Adelaide to 
discover, if possible, a stock route from South 
Australia to the Swan River settlement in West 
Australia. He worked northward from Mount 
Arden, at the head of Spencer's Gulf, along the 
Flinders Ranges, which he named. 

Being unable to find a way round Lake Tor- 
rens, which was a mere salt mud bed of enormous 
area, at that period, he returned to Mount Arden, 
and struck westward, intending to get around to 
King George's Sound, if possible, by keeping 
closer to the coastline of the Great Australian 
Bight. 




Overlanding Cattle 



There is another theory among bushmen that 
quarrels among the party led to a tragedy, that 
the survivors of this tragedy, if any, found it 
expedient to destroy all traces of the expedition, 
and either spent the rest of their days with the 
natives, or quietly departed to another country. 
It may be that Leichhardt's temper, which was 
known to be violent and provocative, has lenl: 
color to this belief. 

While new lines were being written on the map 
of Australia, north and west, the quiet excursions 
of one Angas McMillan, from Currawang Sta- 
tion, had made known the existence of the fertile 
Gippsland districts in the south. In 1838 
Bonney and Hawdon had overlanded the first 
cattle from the settled districts of the South-East 
to the infant city of Adelaide (S.A.) They 
were followed by Edward John Eyre, who left 
Port Lincoln on the western shore of Spencer's 
Gulf (S.A.) in August, 1839, ^"^ crossed the 
Peninsula now bearing his name. He found no 
surface water in a journey of 300 miles. Eyre, 
accompanied by a black boy, pushed on to within 
50 miles of the then S.A. border. On his return 



Between Fowler's Bay and the Sound lie eight 
hundred miles of difficult country. Eyre, with 
one white companion, Baxter, and three natives, 
set out on the 31st January, 1 841, to cross it. Two 
of these natives treacherously shot Baxter one 
night during Eyre's absence. He returned to his 
camp to find the greater part of his provisions 
and his two shot guns and ammunition gone, and 
his companion in his death agony. 

With the remaining native Eyre pushed on to 
Thistle Cove, where he had the good luck to find 
a French whaling vessel at anchor. After ten 
days rest the indomitable Eyre resumed his heroic 
journey and arrived at King George's Sound in 
July, 1 84 1. 

Eyre, who was afterwards Governor-General 
of Jamaica — where he added to his celebrity — 
despite his early hardships, lived to the age of 
ninety-one years, dying so recently as 1906. 

His was another of the heroic yet profitless 
journeys which brought brave but unsuitable 
explorers celebrity, and helped to perpetuate 
pessimistic Impressions of Australia. 



46 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



The lands where Eyre suffered and despaired, 
the supposed-to-be-waterless peninsula that bears 
his name, are being rapidly converted into wheat- 
growing areas. The Mallee scrubs wherein he 
thirsted and struggled are known to be invariably 
fertile wheat soils, and below the surface Nature 
has conserved, under immense areas, the water 
which her wisdom thus protects against surface 
evaporation or too-rapid drainage. 



different from those he had met in the western 
plains along the Warrego and Cooper's Creek. 

Here were savages of a different type to the 
Southern natives; warriors who would "step over 
their dead and fight," and here also were matted 
growths and tangled vines and a climate not so 
conducive to European activity as the hot but 
stimulating temperatures of the interior. 




Distant View of the MacDonnell Bange 



As this book is being written, gangs of men, 
with all the appliances of engineering to hand, 
are rapidly levelling a track for the great rail- 
way, which, running to the northward of Eyre's 
route, will put the wharves of Port Augusta in 
direct touch with the wharves of Fremantle, and 
join in solid links of transcontinental steel, Aus- 
tralia — East and West. 

The tragic effort of E. B. Kennedy was made 
in 1848, the year of Leichhardt's disappearance. 
In the endeavour to open up a northern route, 
Kennedy and nine men of his expedition perished. 
After some preliminary experience, gained with 
Major Mitchell, he landed at Rockingham Bay, 
at the base of York Peninsula, at the end of May 
with twelve men. 

But the jungled mountains of Tropical Aus- 
tralia presented a series of difficulties altogether 



Kennedy's party succeeded in crossing the 
mountains, which formed part of the fertile 
Atherton Tableland, by cutting their way through 
the dense scrubs, and, falling a little to the west- 
ward, made better progress in more open country, 
where the Gulf rivers begin their courses. But 
the object of the exploration being the eastern 
slope, they recrossed into the jungles, and painfully 
struggled northward to Weymouth Bay. Here 
Kennedy left seven of his men in camp, woefully 
short of provisions, and with three white men and 
an aboriginal, endeavoured to push on to Port 
Albany. From there he promised to send back 
the schooner he expected with relief to the party 
left behind. Of Kennedy's party, only Jacky 
Jacky, the aboriginal, hotly pursued by the wild 
blacks, reached Albany Pass alive. 



INLAND EXPLORATION 



47 




Newcastle Waters, Central Australia 



He brought the story of Kennedy's death at the 
hands of hostile natives, and news that the other 
three men had been left at Shelbourne Bay. 

The schooner, the "Ariel," made all sail down 
the coast to this point, only to find evidence that 
the men had been killed by the fierce tribesmen of 
York Peninsula. 

Of the party left at Weymouth Bay, only two 
were found alive — the rest had perished of star- 
vation one by one. Kennedy's expedition is one 
of the tragedies of Australian exploration; but 
the country through which he struggled to his 
doom is classed nowadays among the fat lands 
of the Far North. 

In 1863, '^he two Jardine brothers, young 
native-born Queenslanders, carried an expedition 
with cattle through hostile country via the Gulf, 
and established themselves near Cape York. 

These lads literally cut and fought their way 
to Somerset, where their father, John Jardine, 
was awaiting them. The Jardine family still 
remains in occupation of the most northern pas- 
toral holding on the Continent. 

In 1872 William Hann, accompanied by Dr. 
Tate, the botanist, and Taylor, geologist, took 



another expedition through the difficult York 
Peninsula country, and located the Palmer gold- 
field. 

From South Australia, during the fifties, much 
exploration northward was carried on, by Bab- 
bage, Goyder, Freeling, Hack, Warburton, and 
Swinden. 

But to John MacDouall Stuart belongs the 
honour of first crossing the Australian Continent 
from south to north. Prior to his first attempt 
in i860 he had had many years' experience as an 
explorer, first with Captain Sturt, and later in 
charge of minor expeditions. Leaving Chambers's 
Creek (S.A. ) in that year, he penetrated to the 
MacDonnell Range, which he named after the 
South Australian Governor of the period. On 
the 22nd of April, i860, Stuart camped on the 
centre of Australia, naming a high hill, about 
two and a half miles distant. Central Mount 
Sturt, after his former leader. Posterity altered 
it to Central Mount Stuart, a deserving if acci- 
dental honor to his own achievement. 

Being met to the northward of this point by 
water difficulties, and unprovoked attacks by 
natives, Stuart, in view of the weakness of his 



48 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



expedition, retired on the 27th June. He arrived, 
much worn, at Hamilton Springs on the 26th 
August. 

Seeing that his work was good, the South Aus- 
tralian Government, which has never been slow to 
recognise the services of its explorers, promptly 
voted £2,500 to equip a better organized party, 
and placed Stuart again in command. 

Once more this intrepid hero of the Great Cen- 
tral Unknown set forth, and following closely 
upon his previous route, took up the northern 
trail where he had left off the year before. 

This time he got as far as Newcastle Waters 
before he cried retreat. 

The authorities in Adelaide, with creditable 
confidence in the man who stands forth in the 
records of Australian history as a Man indeed, 
promptly placed him at the head of a third 
expedition. On the 14th of April, 1862, he was 
again at Newcastle Waters. From there, 
patiently overcoming his difficulties as they pre- 
sented themselves, he followed a persistent route 
to Daly Waters, and deviating eastward, went 
onward to the Roper River. 

Following up a tributary which he named the 
Chambers, he struck out in a northerly and 
westerly course, over the Katherine to the head 
waters of a splendid river which he called the 
Adelaide. Down the tropical black-soil country 
of the Adelaide went MacDouall Stuart and his 
band, and on the 24th of July, 1862, after turning 
a little to the north-east from the river's mouth, 
he had the sublime satisfaction, like Balbao from 
his peak in Darien, of beholding the sea. 
Dipping his feet and hands in the salt water, 
2,000 miles from Adelaide, he knew that after 
years of effort his splendid task had been at last 
accomplished. 

Clearing a space in the scrub and stripping a 
tall sapling for his flagstaff, Stuart with his own 
hands hoisted the British flag that he had carried 
with him for so long. 

The Overland Telegraph line now flashes 
hourly along Stuart's track the little and greater 
happenings of the world. 

The journey back was one of tremendous dlfli- 
culty. Stuart reached the outposts of civiliza- 
tion, a mere skeleton, with Impaired eyesight, his 
right hand powerless, and his body grievously 
afflicted by scurvy. The Colony of South Aus- 
tralia gave him honor and reward and he was 
decorated with the gold medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society, but he never recovered his 
health, and died In England in 1869, leaving a 
heritage of achievement to immortalize his name. 

While Stuart was battling bravely on his trans- 
continental journey, an expedition was outfitted in 
the Colony of Victoria, at great public and 



private expense, which added another to the list 
of human tragedies. Its defeat arose — as did 
most of the early failures — from the Inexperience 
of brave, ambitious men. 

Burke and Wills can no more be accepted as 
explorers than I-elchhardt. Between men of this 
type and Hume or Stuart, there was as wide a 
difference as that between the most Intelligent 
saloon passengers of a ship and the experienced 
navigators who command it. 

It was predicted, by men who knew, that under 
the leadership of their Impetuous and spectacular 
leader, Robert O'Hara Burke, the expedition was 
certain to meet with disaster. 

The Burke and Wills expedition left Mel- 
bourne amid music and cheers. With camels and 
a more complete outfit than has ever been carried 
by an exploring party before or since, it arrived 
at Menlndle, on the Darling River. A small 
party under Burke left this place on the 19th 
October, i860. It was a good season, grass and 
water were plentiful, and the journey, by a known 
route to Cooper's Creek, was accomplished 
safely. 

Here Burke suddenly determined to take three 
men with him and attempt to cross the belt of 
then-unknown country which lay between 
Cooper's Creek and the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Of the four men who attempted this journey 
of 500 miles — Burke, Wills, Gray and King — not 
one had the slightest knowledge of bushcraft. 
They set out, a quartette of picturesque adven- 
turers, eager to cover themselves with glory. By 
good fortune they struck the DIamantina, down 
which, and by a northern tributary, they worked 
through excellent pastoral country over the 
ranges and out to the head of the Cloncurry. 
From this they got on to the Flinders, and in due 
course came to the mangrove swamps at Its mouth 
in the Gulf. 

As the subsequent fate of the Burke and Wills 
expedition has frequently been instanced as a 
proof of the harshness and sterility of inland 
Australia, it must be stated here that, from first 
to last, the route followed by this party lay 
through districts which are producing nowadays 
the finest sheep and wool that Australia exports 
or consumes. 

Having touched salt water, Burke hurried his 
companions homeward on short rations, and by 
long marches. 

Gray died on the way back to Cooper's Creek, 
under highly suspicious circumstances; the 
first life needlessly sacrificed. The three sur- 
vivors found, on reaching Cooper's Creek, that 
the party at the Depot had started back to the 
Darling that very morning — having cached a 
store of provisions and left a letter informing 
Burke of their movements. 




Eria Fitzalani 





Pterostylis longifolia . Diurls alba 

SOME AUSTRALIAN ORCHIDS. 



49 



.^o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



After a few days' rest, Burke insisted that, 
instead of making for Menindie by their old 
route, they should follow the creek down to South 
Australia. 

The rest is a pitiful record of blundering, star- 
vation and death. They failed to reach their 
destination in this direction, and endeavoured to 
return to the depot. Wills, being the strongest 
of the trio, left his two exhausted companions and 
journeyed wearily up the creek and placed a note, 
appealing for help, in the cache (where Burke 



After Wills rejoined his companions, the party 
were reduced to still worse straits. Wills and 
Burke perished in turn. King fell in with 
friendly natives, <<ind lived with them until found 
by E. J. Welch, of Howitt's relief party, in Sep- 
tember, 1 86 1. 

The bodies of Burke and Wills were removed 
to Melbourne, and accorded a public funeral. 
In keeping with the hysterical foolishness of the 
whole expedition, a hideous piece of statuary was 
erected to their memory in Melbourne. 




A Native Burial-Place (Weeping-Caps in Foreground) 



had previously left a letter announcing his 
return from the Gulf and his departure by the 
South Australian route). 

Such amateur bushmen were they that, on either 
occasion, after carefully removing all traces of 
the cache having been disturbed — a precaution 
against natives — they did not think to mark a 
tree, or leave some indication of their visits to 
attract the attention of a relief party if it did 
arrive. As was subsequently known, Brahe and 
Wright, of the depot party, had returned to 
Cooper's Creek and, finding the cache apparently 
untouched, rode away again, thinking that Burke 
had not yet made his way back from the north. 
How Burke's camel tracks and fires were not 
recognised is one of the many mysteries of this 
deplorable expedition. 



The latter part of the nineteenth century 
brought, into the narrowed field of exploration, 
men better equipped by character and experience 
for the work. 

John McKinlay added to the knowledge of 
Central and Eastern Australia, and Wm. Lands- 
borough also filled in gaps on the map in the 
latter direction. 

Gosse and Warburton, in 1873, extended the 
radius of exploration to the westward of Stuart's 
route, Warburton owing much to J. W. Lewis, 
his second in command. His small expedition 
travelled from Alice Springs (S.A. ) to the Oak- 
over River (W.A. ). 

In the early seventies Ernest Giles did useful 
work in the middle North-West. He succeeded 
finally in crossing to the settlements of Western 



INLAND EXPLORATION 



51 



Australia, his starting point being Beltana in 
South Australia. 

His return journey from east to west brought 
him from the Murchison to Peake Station, on the 
overland telegraph line. 

In the year 1875 the last exploring expedi- 
tion sent out by the Queensland government, 
established the fact that the whole of the north- 
ern colony was known. This, with New South 
Wales and Victoria well-mapped from border 
to border, left little to be done on the eastern 
side of the continent. 

By this time also the telegraph line had cut 
through the centre of the continent, establishing 
a series of bases from north to south. 

In 1878 Ernest Favenc crossed from the Dia- 
mantina through what is now the Northern Terri- 
tory to Powell's Creek telegraph station, dis- 
covering some fine new country. 

In the same year H. V. Barclay worked east- 
ward from Alice Springs towards the Queensland 
border, discovering several new tributaries of 
Lake Eyre. 

By the beginning of the twentieth century, the 
whole of Central Australia was known, and a 
great part of it occupied by the flocks and herds 
of enterprising pastoralists. 

* * * * 

Meanwhile Western Australia had been writ- 
ing a somewhat independent story of exploration 
and advancement. 

The area within its boundaries comprising 
nearly a third of the continent, there was ample 
field for the activities of westerners. 

From the establishment of the first settlement 
at Swan River in 1829, the work of discovery 



was carried on. Beginning with Captain Jno. S. 
Roe, in 1830, the long list of Westralian explorers 
comes down to the present day. 

To the late Sir George Grey, the Gregorys, 
and the Forrests, the greater share of credit has 
fallen. 

During 1 837-1 839 George Grey explored 
sections of the North-West Coast, and traversed 
the country from Shark Bay to Perth. He dis- 
covered and named the Glenelg and Gascoyne 
Rivers. 

But it was in fields other than exploration that 
the name of George Grey afterwards became one 
of the most famous in the Southern Hemisphere. 

In 1829 a certain Lieutenant J. Gregory, of the 
78th Highlanders, being wounded and invalided 
from the Egyptian war, came to take up a grant 
of land near Perth given him by the Imperial 
Government as compensation. 

Here his sons learned to be bushmen. Three 
of them were destined to write their names as 
explorers very large upon the map of Australia. 

In 1846 the brothers Gregory made their not- 
able journey westward from Perth. 

At the head of the Irwin River they located the 
first seam of coal discovered in the West. 

In 1855-6 A. C. Gregory was put in charge of 
an expedition organized and financed by the 
Imperial Government. 

The object of the expedition was to explore the 
centre of Australia, and also to discover, if pos- 
sible, traces of Leichhardt. 

H. C. Gregory served as lieutenant under his 
brother. The famous botanist, Ferdinand Von 
Mueller, J. S. Wilson, geologist, J. R. Elsey, sur- 
geon and naturalist, and T. Baines, artist, were 




Myall Blacks beside a Central Australian Watercourse. 



52 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



members of the party, which numbered eighteen 
in all and was well equipped with horses, 
provisions, and stores. 

The expedition was taken by sea to the Vic- 
toria River, in the present Northern Territory. 
After some useful preliminary exploration, the 
Gregorys, Von Mueller and Baines, with six men 
and thirty-six horses, left their base (January 
4th, 1856) to cross the interior. Gregory 
ran the Victoria down to its sources. Here he 
established a temporary camp, and then, being a 
sound bushman, picked up the first river system 
with a southern flow. This, in the shape of 
Sturt's Creek, named by him after the explorer, 
carried him safely a good 300 miles, accompanied 
only by his brother, Von Mueller, and a member 
of the expedition named Dean. He returned to 
his temporary camp on the 28th March, to find 
everything in order and security. The 9th May 
found them all safely back at the Victoria. F^rom 
here he despatched his schooner to the mouth of 
the Albert River in the Gulf, and with most of 
his party started overland to Brisbane, which 
they reached in due course. Supposed traces of 
Leichhardt were discovered at the Elsey Creek. 

Two years later A. C. Gregory was put in 
command of a light search expedition to follow 
up these traces of Leichhardt. The party crossed 
from the Dawson (Q.) to the Barcoo, and subse- 
quently reached Adelaide. Although it failed 
to solve the mystery of Leichhardt, it added 
largely to the geographical knowledge of the 
period. < t 

From 1857, F. T. Gregory, another of this 
famous family, is prominent in the annals of West 
Australian discovery. In that year, as leader 
of a lightly equipped party of horsemen, he tra- 
versed a wide range of country to the northward 
of the Swan River Settlement, and established its 
useful character. In 1861 F. T. Gregory, con- 
ducting an English expedition from Nickol 
Bay, on the N.W. Coast, discovered the Fortes- 
cue, and followed it through to the Hammersley 
Range. From here he turned southward, and 
discovered the Ashburton : subsequently the De 
Grey and the Oakover rewarded the persistent 
efforts of this indomitable explorer, who estab- 
lished the fact that large areas of the West, pre- 
viously supposed to be waterless and barren, were 
in reality excellent country. 

Among the heroes of West Australian explora- 
tion stands Robert Austin, who, in 1854, took out 
a Government exploring party in search of pas- 
toral and mineral possibilities. Although 
Austin's expedition was practically profitless, it is 
remarkable for the conduct of its leader, who, 
beset by more than usual difficulties, showed in 
a marked degree the determination and endur- 



ance which have been a feature of all our gallant 
attacks on the wilderness. 

In the year 1870, John and Alexander Forrest 
made their celebrated journey from Perth to 
Adelaide, via Eucla. 

John Forrest was the first to take the bitter 
edge off Eyre's conclusions. He discovered that, 
although the lands at the head of the Bight were 
not plentifully supplied with surface water, they 
were profitably grassed, and, moreover, under- 
ground water could be obtained almost anywhere 
at a shallow depth. 




In a Jarrah Forest, W.A. 



Forrest classed the tableland as the finest pas- 
toral district of Western Australia, if water 
supply could be established. This pronounce- 
ment from a practical man will doubtless be veri- 
fied to the fullest degree within a few years — 
after the Transcontinental Railway is completed. 

In 1874 the Forrests again set out on an ex- 
tended expedition, seeking to discover a practical 
stock route to South Australia, and also to deter- 
mine more fully the nature of the Great Inland 
of Western Australia. From Geraldton to 
Weld Springs, and then to Peake Telegraph Sta- 
tion this remarkable expedition was successfully 
carried. 



INLAND EXPLORATION 



53 



Alexander Forrest, in 1879, crossed from the 
De Grey River to the telegraph line, and, return- 
ing to Beagle Bay, followed the Fitzroy River to 
the Leopold Range, which he named. Skirting 
the southern edges of these difficult mountains, 
he struck across country to the Victoria River, 
discovering the Ord en route. From the Victoria, 
Forrest made his way with great difficultytowards 
Daly Waters, on the Overland Telegraph, near 
where, almost at the point of starvation, he had 
the good fortune to strike a line-repairing party. 

Since the days of the Forrests, gaps in Western 
Australian maps have been filled by the good 
exploratory work of W. J. O'Donnell, Carr Boyd, 
Harry Stockdale, L. A. Wells, David Lindsay, 
Carnegie, Tietkins, W. P. Rudall, Hann, Brock- 
man, and Conigrave. 



Little now remains for the geographical 
explorer to do; but for the scientific investigator 
there is still an almost limitless field in Australia. 
For practical and original minds there await 
both fame and profit in the acquisition of know- 
ledge, which will turn the Far Interior to better 
account. 

On courage and enterprise, backed by faith 
and energy, the foundations of Australian for- 
tunes were laid in the past. But the wealth of 
to-day is but a beggar's moiety of the unlimited 
wealth of the future which will be won by the 
application of modern knowledge to local condi- 
tions. The explorers, despite their failures and 
their faults, have proved that the whole continent 
is good. 




John Forrest (1874) 




54 



(55) 



AUSTRALIA'S POLITICAL EVOLUTION. 



THE political evolution of the Australian 
Colonies has been along advanced demo- 
cratic lines. The Commonwealth of 
to-day presents as great an interest to the econom- 
ist as the colonies of yesterday offer to the his- 
torian who wishes to study the rise and progress 
of self-governing communities. 

The 112 years which passed between the land- 
ing of Phillip's first contingent at Sydney Cove, 
and the 17th of September, 1900, which made 
the Federation of the Six Australian Colonies a 
date in national history, were strenuous and 
active for the generations which came and went, 
steadily growing in numbers, experience and 
quality at each decade. 



It will be remembered that in 1770 England 
formally annexed the eastern side of the con- 
tinent only. It was not until the year 1829 that 
the British flag floated over Western Australia. 

The Colony of New South Wales was created 
in 1786, Tasmania 1825, Western Australia 
1829, South Australia 1834, Victoria 1851, 
Queensland 1859. Since the foundation of the 
Commonwealth the Federal Government has 
taken over bv consent Papua or British New 
Guinea from Queensland (1906), and the North- 
ern Territory from South Australia (1907). 

With the final definition of its geographical 
boundaries and the establishment of autonomous 
goverment, each colony set itself to its work of 




An Australian Jungle 



56 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



internal development and government on lines 
which have received little alteration since Federa- 
tion. The construction and maintenance of roads, 
railways, telegraph lines, ports and various 
utilities have always made the Minister for Public 
Works in each State Government a highly respon- 
sible functionary. 

Transport — railways, and in some instances 
tramways and ferries — being entirely State- 
owned and controlled, has added to the respon- 
sibilities of administration. Many of the func- 
tions which in other countries are still left to 
private enterprise are carried out by Government 
in Australia. 

As all his institutions show, the Australian is a 
great lover of liberty and justice. Philanthropy, 
for example, is nowhere relegated to the caprice 
of individuals, but is overlooked or carried out 
by the State. Extreme pauperism, so lamentably 
common elsewhere, is unknown in Australia. Tlie 
idea of human want or suffering continuing un- 
relieved is absolutely abhorrent to the Austra- 
lian mind. That one man, woman, or child 
throughout the whole circle of our bounteous 
Commonwealth, should be without food, clothing 
or covering would be taken as a reflection not only 
upon our humanity, but upon our generous 
country — the freest and most prosperous of all. 

So to-day, from ocean to ocean, in Australia it 
may be said that there is not one single individual 
in utter want, not one cripple without a refuge, 
not one unfortunate within reach of assistance 
for whom assistance is not somehow provided; no 
orphan without a home, no aged or infirm citizen 
for whom provision has not been attempted. 

Moreover, it has come to be tacitly accepted 
by our Governments that employment must be 
found for every man who is genuinely seeking 
work. Unemployment, under normal conditions, 
is a thing almost unknown in Australia; indeed, 
the whole country is suffering from a scarcity of 
labor. 

Australia can support two hundred millions 
in the same standard of comfort and security as 
readily as she is carrying five millions. Intend- 
ing immigrants to the Commonwealth need have 
no fear that if accident or ill-fortune meet them 
they or their families will be permitted to starve. 
Nowhere else are public benevolences more all- 
embracing; nowhere do such opportunities for 
personal advancement exist. 

Although our legislation is being constantly 
amended and improved, although the Party 
System naturally lends some acidity at times to 
political utterances, it must be admitted that the 
collective political brain of Australia has been 
just, sound, and progressive. Critics who have 
not been long enough in the country to catch its 
true national consciousness, have accused us of 



habituating our people to depend too much on the 
State. If this were so, it would only be because 
Australian legislatures have always been com- 
posed of men from the people, whose sympathies 
remain democratic when they have risen to the 
highest administrative positions in the land. 

Our governments continue to be popular and 
paternal, inclined to err rather on the side of 



ilHHIHElir?^39Pf^HBiE!i8^^^^^H^HlB 




ii 'm>{ • 1 






1 



Pioneers in the Bush 

leniency than harshness. The spirit of the whole 
community is evolutionary. We want to estab- 
lish for ourselves and our children the best laws 
and the best conditions that human judgment and 
experience can suggest. Each political party is 
honestly actuated by these motives. To a stu- 
dent of political economy from abroad the differ- 
ence between the declared policies of parties 
would be regarded on analysis as very slight. On 
the questions of a White Australia and national 
defence, they are both in accord. They only 
differ as to method of application in regard to 
some important questions of legislation. There 
are obviously few laws on the statute books of 
the State or Federal Parliaments that either 
political party is burning to repeal, and it is 
mainly around greater problems of reform legisla- 
tion or of expenditure that the wordy battles of 
legislators are waged. 



AUSTRALIA'S POLITICAL EVOLUTION 



57 



Despite the larger measure of freedom en- 
joyed by all citizens of the Federation, despite 
social mixture and geographical remoteness and a 
wide divergence of outlook — particularly on social 
and industrial questions — between the people of 
Britain and Australia, there prevails throughout 
the Commonwealth a genuine loyalty for that 



destined to become something more than a place 
of exile and punishment for offenders against laws 
which were already beginning to come under the 
more humane criticism of the progressive Nine- 
teenth Century. 

By that time, Eastern Australia had been 
proved a profitable field for both pastoralist and 



British motherland which the vast majority of agriculturist. Thousands of broad acres under 

Australians have never visited. Back of all the cultivation and a vast increase In cattle and sheep 

platitude and formula. It Is recognised that foreshadowed the boundless developments of the 

solidarity of Empire means something more than future. 

a mere expression; that the spirit, if not the From Macquarle's period onward, Australia 

letter, of Occidental civilisation has found Its began to attract settlers and emigrants from 




Pioneering: Making his Bed for the Night 



highest expression In British laws and Institutions, 
and these must be preserved. 



The edifice of Australian nationalism is yet 
incomplete, but its foundations have been well 
and truly laid. Some phases of our nation-build- 
ing are worth at least a passing reference. 

From the establishment of the first penal settle- 
ment, under Governor Phillip, the earlier years, 
down to the time of Governor Macquarle, were 
largely occupied in finding firm rootage for a 
white community in alien soil. The creation of 
a local food supply was naturally a first considera- 
tion. Until a safe base had been established 
there would be no expansion. 

When Governor Macquarle left Sydney In 
1 82 1 the success of Australian Settlement was 
assured. He seems to have been the first of the 
early Governors to realize that the Colony v.as 



abroad, of whom a very small proportion found 
occasion to return to their native land. 

This migration of Europeans southward to a 
country conforming to the climate and physical 
conditions of Europe would have been more rapid 
but for the great distance between the Old and 
New Worlds. The wonderful possibilities of 
Australia have not yet been fully realized, and 
quick transport and a faith In the country, based 
upon fuller knowledge, are still necessary to keep 
the tide of European migration directed south- 
wards. For the white races, Australia offers a 
field of equal opportunity such as exists nowhere 
else. 

Laws and conditions prevailing In the Com- 
monwealth are still but the dreams of reformers 
in some other countries. 

This is the ripened fruit of much strenuous 
political cultivation. The growth of Australian 
legislation has been comparatively rapid, but not 



58 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITKD 




Young Selectors 

altogether unattended by agitation and public 
excitement. 

As far back as 1823, the V'oice of the People 
was beginning to be heard. First the Eman- 
cipists and those who believed that purgation of an 
offence and continued good conduct should entitle 
the convict to the full rights of citizenship, began 
their remote battle for an instalment of that 
freedom and justice so large a measure of which 
all Australians enjoy nowadays. A more en- 
lightened and humane sentiment was growing in 
regard to the treatment of offenders. Into the 
old order of soldier-master and convict-slave 
the thin end of disruption was inserted by the 
Free Settler. 

Gradually the interests of Emancipists and 
Free Settlers converged. Then the "exclusives," 
the official class, found themselves facing a unit- 
ed democracy determined to secure such privi- 
leges as full trial by jury and taxation by an 
elected Legislature; with this early agitation 
William Charles Wentworth came into promin- 
ence as a reformer. 

At the back of it all there lay the clashing of 
interests and the prejudice of caste to gall and 
irritate the contending forces. 

Wentworth seems to have been a highly 
acquisitive colonist, with education and a consider- 
able genius for newspaper fighting — two qualities 
that have laid the foundation of more than one 
colonial reputation and fortune. 

Whatever Wentworth's minor motives may 
have been, whatever his cupidity, his was the 
first big personality in the political arena. As 
the great Australian constitutionalist of his 
period, his name is reverently preserved. The 



Governorship of Sir Richard Bourke (1831-37) 
marked the ending of the old assignment system 
in New South Wales. Bourke apparently saw 
that the original use for which eastern Australia 
was intended by the British Government had 
become a mere appendix affecting the health of a 
Colony already approaching robust growth. The 
country had conclusively proved itself to be too 
good for such an expedient — it was pre-ordained, 
not as a depot for British convicts but as a 
maternal matrix for the moulding of nationality 
and the breeding of freemen. 

The Governor who preceded him. Darling, had 
vainly struggled against a growing tide of popu- 
lar interest. Bourke was as popular as Darling 
had been disliked. He favored the system of 
assisted immigration, and advocated the cessation 
of transportation. What Bourke sowed in 
theory, his successor, Sir George Gipps 
(1838-46), reaped in fact. New Zealand had 
ceased in 1840 to be a dependency of New South 
Wales. Her career of expansion had already 
begun and was destined to continue on indivi- 
dual lines, broadly similar to those pursued by 
the other colonies of British Australasia. 

By the time Gipps held the reins of Govern- 
ment in New South Wales, the agitation for self- 
government had taken a definite form. The 
method of Government had been altered, with 
Brisbane in 1823, from a military satrapy to a 
limited Governorship with a partly autonomous 
legal system presided over by a Chief Justice and 
enlarged by a modified form of trial by jury. 
The Governor's power was also checked by an 
advisory Council of seven, holding office under 
his own nomination, but permitted to appeal to 
the English Colonial Office if they saw fit. The 
Governor could introduce no new law for the con- 
sideration of his Council until the Chief Justice 
had approved it as conforming to British law 
applied to the Colony. 




A Slab Hut in tbe Bush 



AUSTRALIA'S POLniCAL INVOLUTION 



59 




A Log Hut in the Clearing 



The number of Councillors was increased in 
1828 to fourteen, with additional powers. 

Fourteen years of further progress advanced 
the Colony to an importance befitting some less 
paternal form of administration. England recog- 
nised that the young brood in the South were 
beginning to stretch their wings and, wise in the 
experience of her American Colonies, prepared 
to give them a fuller measure of liberty. In 
1840, transportation, at the urgent request of the 
people of New South Wales, ceased. 

In 1842 the nominated Council became to some 
degree a selected body of representatives. 

In the re-organised Council, twelve members 
were nominees, the other 24 were elected by the 
freeholders of the colony owning property valued 
at £200, and householders worth £20. 

Full legislative powers under the British Con- 
stitution were given to this body, with control of 
all colonial revenues, except the revenue from the 
sales of land, and a fixed civil list. 

The Governor still appointed and directed the 
Colonial Ministry, but the inauguration of this 
reform practically placed in the hands of the 
people the moulding of their own political 
destinies. They had had some strong men for 
Governors, and some of no particular distinction 
or capacity, but henceforward the young Colonies 
were not to be absolutely dependent for their 



peace and happiness on the accident of a Downing 
Street appointment. 

Five years previously (1837) the ten-acre 
block which now constitutes the heart of Mel- 
bourne was sold for £500; but destinies were 
shaping which would convert the constitution of 
1842 into a full measure of responsible Govern- 
ment and in a little time make Melbourne the 
capital city of a new southern colony. 

Already a Land and Emigration Commission 
appointed in London had recommended the split- 
ting of eastern Australia into three divisions. 
Whatever might happen to the western part of 
the continent, the east had now become a factor 
of Empire. It would never be abandoned, and 
it must not be lost either by outside aggression 
or internal disruption. The eastern colonists 
were loyal, but evidently determined to enjoy a 
full measure of freedom and home rule. The 
province of South Australia had recently been 
founded as an experimental Whig Utopia. Tas- 
mania was still regarded as a convict depot, and 
Western Australia as a delicate infant In leading 
strings. 

The colony of New South Wales, which ex- 
tended from Cape York to Mount Gambler, had 
developed from stock of earlier planting, and its 
growth had been accelerated by favorable 
natural causes. It was ripening for change. 



6o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



The next great question of colonial importance 
which rose and demanded an answer was — to 
whom do the waste or spare or new lands of the 
great eastern colony belong? Are they to 
remain the property of the British Government 
for its right and revenue; or are they to become 
the heritage of the colonists? The new 
Assembly, under Wentworth, entered a vigorous 
claim for the rights of the Colonial Government 
to hold and control the public lands within the 
boundaries of the colony. Governor Gipps intro- 
duced a system of grazing licenses under which 
the squatting or pastoralist class were called upon 
to pay a fee of £io a year for their stock runs. 
This offered a bone of contention until a ukase 
from the home Government decreed the licensees 
a fixed tenure of their holdings for a number of 
years, with pre-emptive rights at the end of the 
term. 

An attempt on the part of the British authori- 
ties to revive transportation in 1848-9 brought 
into existence the first "People's Party" in Aus- 
tralia. Wentworth and his followers in the 
New South Wales Council, being chiefly repre- 
sentatives of the squatting class, were in favor of 
the re-introduction of cheap convict labor, but the 
smaller landowners, free settlers, and a majority 
of the population were determined that the bad 
old system should not be resurrected from its 
dishonored grave. 

So when Earl Grey and the Colonial Office in 
1849 P"t ^ tentative hand upon the collar of 
Young Australia, they were suddenly faced by a 
clenched fist. 

Grey, as if to try the temper of the colonists, 
despatched the Hashemy with a contingent of 212 
convicts to Sydney, and nearly succeeded in bring- 
ing about a rebellion. The whole town surged 
down to the water front and threatened to repeat 
at Circular Quay the history of Boston Harbour. 

Governor Fitzroy ordered the Hashemy and 
following ships north to Moreton Bay. 

So great was the subsequent pressure brought 
to bear in England by the People's Party, led by 
Charles Cowper, that Earl Grey had to give in, 
and presently we find the Imperial Government 
pledged to discontinue transportation to eastern 
Australia for evermore. 

On the very eve of the great gold discoveries 
— which threw a vivid beam of limelight over 
that part of the world-screen occupied by Austra- 
lia — the Imperial Parliament passed its memor- 
able Australian Colonies Government Act of 
1850. 

Under this Act, and under the amended New 
South Wales Constitution Act of 1855 and simi- 
lar measures, the eastern Australian colonies 
began a development which has gone on steadily 
to the present time. 



The two main objects of the 1850 Act were the 
establishment of an improved and practically uni- 
form system of government in the Australian 
colonies, and to permit of the Port Phillip Dis- 
trict becoming a separate colony under the name 
of Victoria. 

On the issue of writs for the first election in 
Victoria, Separation was to be accepted as an 
accomplished fact. 

The Act provided that the existing Legisla- 
ture in New South Wales should decide the num- 
ber of members of which a new Council was to 
consist in that colony, and should perform the 




A Selector's Home 

same task for Victoria. One-third of the num- 
ber of members of the Council in each colony 
was to be nominated by the Crown. The 
existing Legislatures in Van Diemen's Land and 
South Australia were to decide as to the number 
of members in the new Council in each, but they 
were not to exceed twenty-four. Power was 
given to the Governor and Legislative Council 
in each colony to alter the qualifications of 
electors and members as fixed by the Act, or to 
establish, instead of the Legislative Council, a 
Council and a House of Representatives, or 
other separate Legislative Houses, to be ap- 
pointed or elected by such persons and in such 
manner as should be determined, and to vest in 
such Houses the powers and functions of the old 
Council. 

Under this and subsequent Acts and amend- 
ments the Colonies of New South Wales, Vic- 
toria, Tasmania and South Australia took up the 
burdens of local government with full powers to 
make laws, impose taxation (including customs 
duties) and appropriate to the public service the 
whole of the public revenue arising from taxes, 



AUSTRALIA'S POLITICAL LVOLUTION 



6i 



duties, rates and imposts. The Act of 1855 con- 
ferred a fuller measure of responsible Govern- 
ment on the colonies with the entire manage- 
ment and control of Crown lands and additional 
powers to pass laws amending the Constitution. 

The colony of Queensland was created under 
similar conditions in 1859. Western Australia 
did not receive full legislative responsibility until 
1890. 



Governor may see fit to grant a dissolution of 
Parliament. 

The Executive Council, composed of govern- 
ing Ministers, is in each case presided over by the 
Governor of the State, always a nominee of the 
British Government. 

The Royal assent is only necessary for Bills 
altering the constitution of a Legislature or 
affecting a State Governor's salary or for some 




An Australian Farmer's Home 



Briefly, the legislature in each State is com- 
posed of two Houses, a Lower House or 
Assembly, invariably elected by the people voting 
nowadays on the one person one vote principle, 
and an Upper House or Legislative Council — 
either nominees as in New South Wales and 
Queensland, or elected, as in the other States, on 
a slightly restricted franchise. 

Majority government is universal, the admin- 
istrative offices being filled by the party having 
the voting strength in the Lower House. All pub- 
lic appointments, distribution of revenue, and the 
government of the country generally, remain 
entirely in their hands as long as their majority 
prevails on the floor of Parliament. State and 
Federal general elections for the Lower Houses 
are held every three years, or at such times as the 



measure that is required to be reserved under the 
Australian States Constitution Act of 1907. 

Outside of these reservations the power of the 
British Government over Australian State Legis- 
latures may be regarded as nil. The Governors 
are still appointed from Westminster, but nowa- 
days their influences are social rather than 
political, and their energies run in non-contentious 
grooves. 

Although the governments of the States were 
modelled largely on the English system, the legis- 
lation which has emanated from Australian Par- 
liaments during the last half-century has naturally 
been much more radical in character than that of 
the Home Parliament during the same period, 
particularly in regard to industrial matters. 




62 



AUSTRALIA'S POLITICAL EVOLUTION 



63 



The Upper Houses, elective in all the States 
except New South Wales and Queensland, are 
supposed to fill a function of check, and revision, 
similar to that accredited to the House of Lords. 
In the two States which have held to the nominee 
system, a protracted struggle between the two 
Houses can be terminated by the party with a 
majority in the Lower House swamping the 
Council with its nominees, unless the Governor 
should veto an undue exercise of the nominating 
power. 

South Australia, the Constitution of which has 
been subject to more amendments than any of the 
others — has a device for preventing deadlocks by 
a double dissolution. Victoria, Tasmania, and 
Western Australia are satisfied to leave the 
trouble, if it occurs, to find its own remedy. 

The Executive Councils are an imitation of 
the British Cabinet. The Governor of each 
State stands for the Sovereign, and exercises his 
powers on the "advice" of his Executive. He is 
at the same time an official of the British Colonial 
Office, to which he is supposed to report on 
matters of Imperial import. He is called upon 
to reserve for the Sovereign's assent such Bills as 
may aflFect his State's relations with the Home 
Government or with foreign nations. 

The number of Ministers and their functions 
are constitutionally determined. During the 
last ten to fifteen years the fluctuations of politi- 
cal parties have been considerable. The advent 
of Federation naturally brought about a disturb- 
ance in political conditions which has re-acted on 
the State legislatures. The extension of the 
franchise to women must also have had its effect. 



The detailed history of Colonial politics over 
fifty years would require a volume to itself. 

In each of the Australian colonies the land 
problem has called for frequent legislation. This 
is to be expected in a young country where ques- 
tions of occupation and settlement are continually 
demanding consideration. 

For many years prior to Federation the sub- 
ject of tariffs caused contention in the State legis- 
latures. 

The Federation of the colonies brought about 
interstate free trade with excise and bounties, 
and a protective tariff against certain imports. 
Seventy-three per cent, of the excise revenues col- 
lected have been from beer, spirits and tobacco, 
which with starch, sugar (and licenses for the 
manufacture of stimulants and narcotics) make 
up the customs charges under this head. The 
Interstate Tariff Commission, recently appointed, 
should greatly facilitate the adjustment of cus- 
toms duties, and open the way for the building up 
of a rapidly-increasing Australian manufacture. 

During the last two decades industrial legis- 
lation has received considerable attention all over 
Australia. The best efforts of all sides are being 
exerted to devise just and peaceable solutions of 
those economic problems which have become a 
poignant feature of modern civilization. 

With majority rule and universal franchise 
these matters can safely be left to the contending 
parties, who are lacking neither exponents nor 
organization. 

The broader issues of effective occupation, 
defence, and development of natural resources 
will give Australian legislators constant occupa- 
tion for generations to come. 




A station Homestead 



(64) 



0^ON^, 




FEDERATION OF THE AUSTRALIAN STATES. 



F 



OR nearly half a century the five eastern 
Colonies had flourished and grown under 
their five separate but similar Constitu- 
tions. 

The fifty years, from the granting of respon- 
sible government to the end of the century, were 
full of achievement. Australia had proved a 
golconda of mineral wealth; the virtues of her 
lands were widely established, her production had 
expanded to a degree which the pessimists of a 
preceding generation would not have dreamt 
possible in five hundred years. 

A new type of colonist had come into being, 
evolved by over a century of new conditions. It 
represented the best of the Anglo-Saxon, the Scot 
and the Celt, with a dash of the best of Europe 
and America to give it tone. Behind it there 
stood the character and stamina of a selected 
stock: it was not the weaklings or the cowards 
who had turned their faces southward, but the 
strong. 

Under clear cold stars their camp fires had been 
lighted. On the edge of odorous eucalyptus 
forests, their broad axes had flashed in the sun- 
light. Mountain fastnesses had echoed the 
report of their rifles. Over great plains their 



horses had galloped — north, south, east and 
west they had been staking out a continent for 
the White Race. 

The land was no longer filled with exiles long- 
ing for home, but with freemen, mostly native 
born, to whom Australia was a gracious and 
generous motherland. State boundaries to them 
were doors to different rooms in the one family 
house. Constant and unrestricted migration 
took place across their borders; everywhere the 
same language was spoken; everywhere the 
people were of the same kindly, resourceful char- 
acter. There might be a little good-tempered 
rivalry betwen cities, but the Bush was big- 
hearted, democratic, close-knit by a common 
experience and interest. 

From the beginning of self-government, wise 
men foresaw that a closer union of the Australian 
Colonies was ultimately certain to result. Such 
an "alliance would naturally have to come before 
any small intercolonial angles of difference had 
become wide arcs of disunion. As the widest 
differentiation in nature may date from an 
apparently casual deviation, so, in time, some 
chance divergence might have developed into a 
cause of serious disunion. 




65 



06 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Nor was it wise that six separate provinces 
should continue on the lines of growing into six 
separate nations as the years added to their popu- 
lation and wealth. 

Behind first cautious steps towards Federation 
stood an instinct of mutual danger. 

Theoretically, the collective mind of Australia 
— educated and humanitarian — was, and is, 
against war. But the commonsense mind of Aus- 
tralia saw that as long as war exists, even non- 
aggressive people may have trouble thrust upon 
them. In which case it is necessary to meet 
attack with resource and organization. Without 
a complete Australian Federation no effective 
defence system could possibly be evolved. The 
weaker and more vulnerable colonies would be 
helpless, unaided by their stronger neighbours. 
To protect them in case of war it was obvious 
that some general defence system under a central 
control must be established. 

The constant problem of revenue tariffs, more- 
over, could only be settled by a common agree- 
ment among States ; an agreement which was im- 
possible to ensure without a Federal Union. 

Great national requirements generally find 
individuals Into whom a necessary element of 
greatness has entered to strengthen them for the 
task. 

By character and experience the late Sir Henry 
Parkes was well fitted to lead the way to unity. 

This he undertook as the crowning effort of a 
vigorous political career. Sir Henry Parkes 
was one striking example among thousands of 
that success which Is certain to young men of 
energy and ambition In Australia. 

B. R. Wise, once a political associate, in his 
Making of the Aiistrtilian Commonwealth, gives 
a comparison which Sir Henry Parkes made to a 
friend between the life of Mr. W. E. (iladstone 
— a contemporary Prime Minister — and his own: 

"When he was at F^ton preparing himself for 
"Oxford, enjoying the advantages of a good 
"education, with plenty of money, and being 
"trained in every way for his future position as a 
"statesman, I was working at a rope walk (In 
"England) at fourpence a day, and suffered such 
"cruel treatment that I was knocked down with 
"a crowbar, and did not recover my senses for 
"half an hour. From the rope walk I went to 
"labor in a brickyard, where I was again brutally 
"used; and when Mr. Gladstone was at Oxford I 
"was breaking stones on the Queen's highway 
"with hardly enough clothing to protect me from 
"the cold." 

He landed in Australia a penniless youth, to 
become in due course the most prominent political 
figure of that half century of responsible Colonial 
Government which led up to Federation. 



In the year 1889, being then Premier of New 
South Wales, he formally initiated a campaign 
which, after assuming many phases and passing 
through stage after stage, ended with the Federa- 
tion of the Colonies, five years after the veteran's 
death. 

The movement was greatly strengthened by the 
eloquent enthusiasms of a fervent band of 
Federalists in the different colonies, among whom 
Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin — each 
in turn subsequently Prime Minister of the Com- 
monwealth — were most prominent. 

In the galaxy of famous Federationlsts the 
names should be recorded of Sir John Forrest, 
Mr. Kingston, Sir John Downer, Mr. B. R. Wise, 
Sir Samuel Griffith, Sir George Turner, Sir Gra- 
ham Berrv, Mr. James Service, Mr. Isaacs, Mr. 
R. E. O'Connor, 'Mr. P. Glynn, Mr. Henry, Sir 
Frederick Holder, Sir Josiah Symon, Sir Joseph 
Carruthcrs, and ultimately Sir Cieorge Reld. 

Some of these were late converts to the Federal 
idea, but they all played their parts at various 
stages of the movement. 

The first National Australasian Convention, 
presided over by Sir Henry Parkes, was assembled 
on 2nd March, 1881. A bill was drafted and 
considered by the Parliaments of New South 
Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, 
but did not reach the House in either Western 
Australia, New Zealand (which had also been 
represented at this Convention) or Queensland. 

A Conference of Australian Premiers, held In 
Hobart in 1895, declared that "Federation was 
"the great and pressing question of Australian 
"politics and the framing of a Federal Constitu- 
"tlon an urgent duty." 

Enabling Acts were afterwards passed by each 
of the States except Queensland. A People's 
Federal Con\entIon was held at Bathurst, New 
South Wales, in November, 1896, and the 4th of 
March was fixed as a date for the election of 
Federal representatives for each State. 

On the 22nd of March these representatives 
met at Adelaide. 

Constitutional, Finance, and Judiciary Commit- 
tees were appointed, and a Bill drafted. This, 
reported to the Convention on the 22nd April, 
was adopted on the following day, and the Con- 
vention adjourned till September. The Parlia- 
ments of New South Wales, Victoria, South Aus- 
tralia, Tasmania, and Western Australia dis- 
cussed the question before the Sydney session of 
the Convention, which opened on the 2nd Sep- 
tember, 1897. The business of this Convention 
Involved the general reconsideration of the whole 
Bill, and the consideration of no less than 286 
suggested amendments. The Melbourne ses- 
sion of 1898, extending over three months, 
reached finality. 



TFIE COMMONWEALllI 



67 




Federal Parliament House, Melbourne 



Eleven weeks after this last Convention the 
first popular vote was taken on Federation in New- 
South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, and Tas- 
mania. Though the decision was o\erwhelmingly 
in favour of Federation in three of the States, 
and a smaller affirmation in New South Wales, 
the majority was legally insufficient to bring about 
the desired result. 

A Conference of the six Colonial Premiers fol- 
lowed in 1899, and seven amendments were 
effected in the Bill. 

A second referendum in which Queensland 
joined: — but Western Australia stood out — was 
held, and the majority for Federation more than 
doubled. 

A delegation of representatives from the 
Federating Colonies visited F'.ngland on the occa- 
sion of the submission of the Commonwealth Bill 
to the Imperial Parliament. The Bill was 

promptly passed through all its stages by the 
House of Commons and received the Royal assent 
on 9th July, 1900. 

A referendum on the tjuestion of Federation 
was taken in Western Australia on the 31st of the 
same month, and resulted in a large "Yes" 
majority. The Western Houses put forward a 
petition for inclusion as an original State in the 
Union, and on the 17th September, 1900, Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria signed a Proclamation 
declaring that on and after ist January, 1901, the 
people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Aus- 



tralia, Queensland, Tasmania, and Western Aus- 
tralia, should be united in a Federal Common- 
wealth under the name of 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF .AUSTRALIA. 

Although New Zealand had been represented 
at some of the deliberations, the possibilities of 
her entering the Federation were at all times 
regarded as very remote. 

Having reached an important milestone on the 
road to nationalism, Australia celebrated the 
event with befitting festivities. The First Par- 
liament of the Commonwealth was conxened by 
proclamation dated 29th April, 1901, by the Earl 
of Hopetoun, first Governor-General, and opened 
on 9th May by the present King of England, 
George V., then Duke of Cornwall and York. 

Of the legislation effected by nine Ministries 
which have at various intervals during thirteen 
years past controlled Federal affairs, those Acts 
relating to Colored or Alien Immigration, 
Tariffs, Land Fax, and Defence, are probably the 
most important. 

The establishment of a High Court and a Com- 
monwealth Bank, the taking over of Papua and 
the Northern territory, the appointment of a 
High Commissioner in London, the fixing of a 
Federal Capital site, and the commencement of 
an Australian Navy and the trans-Australian 
railway are among the greater events of the 
Federation. 



(6S) 




General View of Canberra, the Federal Capital Site, 



CANBERRA, THE FEDERAL CAPITAL. 



IN entering the Federation New South Wales 
imposed a condition that the Federal capital 
should be within territory of the Mother 
State. 

Under the Constitution the seat of Common- 
wealth (jovernment was to be determined by Par- 
liament. The capital and the surrounding area — 
not less than lOO square miles — should remain 
vested in and belong to the Commonwealth. 

An exhaustive examination of suggested sites 
took place during following years, and the ques- 
tion was hotly debated in Parliament on several 
occasions. 

In 1908 the Houses agreed that the Common- 
wealth Seat of Government should be at Yass- 
Canberra; that the territory to be Federally' 
acquired should not be less than nine hundred 
square miles, and have access to the sea. 



The then Minister for Home Affairs, Hon. 
Hugh Mahon, in his instructions to the District 
Surveyor, admonished him that the Federal Capi- 
tal "should be a beautiful city, occupying a 
commanding position, with extensive views, and 
embracing distinctive features which will lend 
themselves to the evolution of a design worthy of 
the object, not only for the present, but for all 
time." 

The necessity for adequate water supply and 
sanitation was also emphasised. The site chosen 
was to be "easy of access from Sydney and Mel- 
bourne, and through them to the other capital 
cities, also from a suitable harbor on the coast." 

The surveyor, Mr. C. R. Scrivener, reported 
in due course. An advisory board was then 
appointed, consisting of Mr. Scrivener, Col. . 
David Miller, Lieut.-Col. Percy T. Owen, Col. 



CANBERRA, THF, FEDERAL CAPITAL 



69 




showing, in the centre, the Military College, Duntroon 



W. L. Vernon — all gentlemen oi expert knowl- 
edge and wide experience in public works. 

In 1909 New South Wales surrendered an area 
of about 900 square miles at Yass-Canberra for 
the Federal capital, two square miles at Jervis 
Bay for a Commonwealth port, and areas aggre- 
gating 2302 acres for its defence. 

The Mother State also conceded "the right to 
construct, maintain and work a railway from die 
territory to Jervis Bay. The right to use the 
waters of the Snowy River, or such other rivers 
as may be agreed upon, for the generation of 
electricity for the purposes of the Territory, and 
paramount water right over the catchment areas 
of the Queanbeyan and Molongolo Rivers and 
their tributaries." 

During the regime of Hon. King O'Malley as 
Minister for Llome Affairs the capital received 
enthusiastic attention. A complete system of 
Federal administration for the Territory was 



evolved, and premiums offered for the best plan 
for the laying out of a city. Designs were sent 
in from all over the world. 

Three prizes were allotted. The first, £1750, 
fell to Mr. Walter Burley Griffin, of Chicago, 
Illinois, U.S.A. The second, £750, was awarded 
to M. Eliel Saaringen, architect, Helsingfors, 
Finland. The third went to Professor D. Alf. 
Agache, Paris. 

Four hundred pounds was afterwards paid 
for a design jointly prepared by Messrs. W. Scott 
Griffiths, R. C. G. Coulter, and H. Caswell, of 
Sydney, N.S.W. 

Subsequently the Departmental Board incor- 
porated a design from the plans purchased, to 
which new features were added. 

This design was approved by the Federal 
Cabinet, and the first surveys began in 1913. 

Since that date systematized public works have 
been undertaken in Canberra and at Jervis Bay. 



70 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITl^D 



The first consideration was the storage of water 
for use of the Federal City. The main reservoir 
on the Cotter was originally laid out to impound 
650 million gallons. This has been increased 
since. 

A brick-making plant and power plant were 
installed, roads made and mended, and necessary 
buildings erected. 

F.arlier schemes provided for the building with- 
out intermission of Administrative Offices, Courts 
of Justice, Police Buildings and Gaol, Military 
Depot and Offices, Schools, Obser\atory, Medical 
and Hospital Buildings, Railway Station, Post 
Office, Government Printing Office, Town Hall, 
and other public edifices. 

A Royal Military College was established at 
Duntroon in 19 10. This provided for the train- 
ing of 120 cadets, many of whom later on distin- 
guished themselves on active service. 

It was proposed to establish railway communi- 
cation from the Federal City with Queanbeyan, 
Yass, and Jervis Bay. These three lines are 
necessary to give ready access to Sydney, Mel- 
bourne, and the seaboard. 

The average rainfall for the Territory is 25.5 
inches — about that of Melbourne or London. 



The climate is dry, healthy, and bracing in winter. 

On the 12th March, 1913, a date which will 
be historical in Australia, the foundation stone 
of the Federal City was formally laid by the 
(lOvernor-General, Lord Denman, before an 
assemblage of politicians, officials and public 
personages, but Australian science, literature and 
the arts were not deemed worthy of representa- 
tion. Owing to the crudities of our callow 
political systems, no doubt, the position which 
science and art occupy in our national evolution 
has not yet been determined. They cannot, how- 
ever, be neglected if the Commonwealth is to be 
more than a grossly materialistic democracy. 

The function of naming the capital was per- 
formed by Lady Denman. The official choice of 
"Canberra" had up to that moment been kept 
secret. 

The war and Australia's urgent services in the 
cause of Empire have led to a temporary curtail- 
ment of work at Canberra. The building of the 
city will no doubt be hastened in the coming years 
of peace. 

On the 30th of June, 19 14, the total expendi- 
ture within the Territory was just on half a 
million pounds. 




The Cotter Eiver, Canberra 



(70 




TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS; 
EAST-WEST, 



WITH Federation came the Bigger Austra- 
lian, who asked for Continental concep- 
tions. Transcontinental railway schemes 
evolved as a matter of course. The States had 
been losers under old social associations; be- 
trothed through political interest, they must now 
be indissolubly wedded by links of commercial 
steel. 

Obviously, it was the function of the Common- 
wealth Government to complete those expensive 
railway systems, which would join the country 
East and West, and North and South. 

The East and West system connects the port of 
Fremantle and the West Australian capital, Perth, 
through Kalgoorlie, with Port Augusta in South 
Australia. On this system one will ultimately be 
able to travel by rail from Croydon, in the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, to Meekatharra in Western Aus- 
tralia. There will be many changing stations- - 
Brisbane, Wallangarra, Sydney, Albury, Mel- 
bourne, Adelaide, Terowie, Port Augusta, Kal- 
goorlie, Perth; but the traveller will reach his 
destination in due course. 

Before his departure for London to take up 
the duties of High Commissioner, the Right Hon. 
Andrew Fisher, accompanied by his secretary, Mr. 
Box, and a small party of officials, went over the 
East-West route from Port Augusta to Kal- 
goorlie. 

Gaps between railheads were bridged by camels 
and motor cars. The party experienced no great 
difficulties or hardships in crossing another of Aus- 
tralia's mythical "deserts." Before leaving Mel- 
bourne Mr. Box good-naturedly promised to take 
notes and snapshots of the country traversed for 
Australia Unlimited. 



The party returned to Melbourne greatly 
pleased with the prospects, as far as future settle- 
ment along the East-West railway is concerned. 

The distance between Port Augusta and Kal- 
goorlie is 1060 miles. At the time Mr. F'isher 
went over the route in December, 19 15, the rails 
were laid for 332 miles directly west from Port 
Augusta, and 390 miles east from Kalgoorlie. 

For 268 miles west of Port Augusta the line 
passes through good stock country, taken up in 
pastoral runs for many years past. 

Tarcoola, 258 miles from Port Augusta, is 
located in an auriferous belt which has already 
produced much gold. 

After leaving the South Australian railhead che 
expedition — proceeding by camel buggy — entered 
into slowly rising country, with sandy soil and 
well covered with mulga, salt-bush, mallee, patches 
of bull oak, and some pine. There were slight 
traces of limestone formation. The weather was 
cool and bright. 

The following day, Tuesday, was also cool. 
Lignum and scattered spinifex began to make their 
appearance. The country gradually became 
steeper and the timber heavier. 

A feature of the country seen on Monday and 
Tuesday, as well as on the three succeeding days, 
was the numerous evidences of bird and animal 
life. The small birds were very tame, and ap- 
proached to within a few feet of the travellers. A 
bell bird was seen on Tuesday, and a kingfisher 
was disturbed on a nest in which one egg was 
found. 

On Friday night the party, having journeyed 
at an average rate of eighteen miles a day, through 
mallee and mulga and spinifex, made their camp 



72 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




At Ooldea Soak 



in an exceedingly picturesque valley. Tra- 
velling on early next morning to Ooldea Soak 
they found there an excellent supply of water. 
Tracks of kangaroos and emus were observed, 
while bustards, hawks, crows, and smaller birds 
became numerous.' 

At one o'clock the journey across the Nullarbor 
Plain began. 

"This," says the High Commissioner, in his 
description of the trip, "is one of the largest, if not 
the largest plain in the world. It runs for 430 
miles east and west, and its width averages about 
250 miles. The plain is bigger than the zvhole of 
the State of Victoria. Limestone outcrops are 
frequent. The percentage of lime in the rock is 



extremely high, at one place attaining 98 per cent. 
The chief characteristic of the plain is an almost 
total absence of trees. There are isolated patches 
of myall and gidyea, and the plain is abundantly 
clothed with blue bush and salt bush. At the 
head of the line sheep fatten whilst waiting for 
the butcher, and I am perfectly satisfied that if 
water were made available the Nullarbor Plain 
would support at least a couple of million head of 
sheep. 

"The plain ought to carry about one sheep to 
twelve acres. 

"It has been demonstrated that over a consider- 
able extent of the plain splendid supplies of fresh 
water and good stock water can be got by boring. 




Freshwater Bore, West End of Railway 



TRANSCOXTI N EN TAI. RAI LWAYS 



73 




On the NuUarbor Plain 



There are also many depressions in the plain, in 
which dams can be made, with good catchments. 
The Commonwealth railway authorities have con- 
structed many dams of immense capacity adjacent 
to the line. Along part of the track travelled 
several four-hundred gallon tanks were sunk, in 
order to provide water for surveying and boring 
parties and for the safety of wayfarers." 

Wild turkeys and other game were frequent on 
this wonderful plain, which five years ago most 
Australians believed to be a hopeless desert. 

Where Mr. Fisher's party crossed the West 
Australian border there was nothing but plain and 
sky, salt bush and blue bush, without a tree or 
even a suggestion of a rise in sight. A surveyor's 
post about two feet high had, nailed to it, a small 
and much decayed board pointing directly north 



and south towards the border line between the 
two States. This is the only mark to indicate 

the boundary. There were still 56 miles to go 
to the head of the western section of the railway. 

Thirty-six miles from the border is No. 4 Bore, 
where a supply has been obtained of 30,000 gal- 
lons of stock water in twenty-four hours. 

They had gone a distance of some 340 miles 
from the head of the South Australian railway 
section, and during the whole journey did not pass 
a single traveller on the road, nor see any perman- 
ent habitation. "Yet," says Mr. Fisher, "/ am 
convinced that the time will come when all that 
country will support a population that will be add- 
ing to the wealth of the Commonwealth. We 
saw no country that could by even the wildest 
stretch of imagination be called desert. We saw 
arid land, but none that was desert." 




The High Commissioner and Party 



(74) 




On the Border of the Northern Territory 



THE NORTH-SOUTH RAILWAY. 



THE North-South Railway is already being 
pushed on from Pine Creek towards 
Oodnadatta. 

There are still people who doubt the future of 
Central Australia. The following reports from 
Mr. T. J. Waldron, of the Department of Exter- 
nal Affairs, should give them hope. Mr. 
Waldron is a young, intrepid officer, well and 
scientifically trained, who has accompanied small 
parties of specialists into the heart of Australia on 
two occasions, with a view to determining as far 
as possible the lands through which the great 
North-South railway will cross; its character, con- 
ditions, and future uses and possibilities. 

The first report is a description of the country 
which would be traversed by a railway from 
Oodnadatta to Anthony's Lagoon, adopting as 
far as possible a due north-and-south line. 

We give the text almost as it has been presented 
by Mr. Waldron to the Engineer for Construction 
and Maintenance of Commonwealth Railways: — 

"The south-western side of the Finke River, 
on the division between the Northern Territory 
and South Australia, marks the boundary of a 
stony tableland, extending for some hundreds of 
miles through northern South Australia. The 
country from Oodnadatta to the border of the 
Territory is similar to that seen on the railway 
line from W^illiam Creek to Oodnadatta; there 
are the same tabletop hills, gidyea creeks, and 
occasional larger box creeks. The nature of the 
surface rocks is also similar. // is splendid stock 
country, and grows edible mulga in addition to 
several varieties of annual and perennial salt-bush. 



"Before leaving the section of the line within 
South Australian territory, however, mention may 
be made of the Dalhousie district (80 m.) which 
contains numerous hot and warm mineral springs. 
The larger springs shelter flocks of waterfowl, 
while the medicinal properties of the springs, as a 
whole, are worthy of consideration. 

"After crossing the Pinke at the border of the 
Territory, the country changes completely. A 
vast stretch of sandhills (not drift sand) running 
a little west of north (say 30°), is the dominating 
feature, but it is varied by patches of stony table- 
land, and towards the north and west the surface 
gradually changes to slightly undulating sandy 
plains. 

"no M. to J 56 M. (Moderate Construction). 
— From 1 10 M. to \:,6 M. sandhills predominate. 
The surface of the ridges is covered with a fair 
growth of cane grass and herbage, which serves to 
bind the loose soil, and for the present eliminates 
any possibility of drift sand. The flats between 
the ridges are hard loam, and the ridges them- 
selves show solid ground at a depth of 12 to 18 
inches. The flats are covered with mulga and 
other smaller shrubs. 

"Anacona Bore, which has a flow of 700,000 
gallons per day of practically fresh water, is in 
this section. Although it is said to be on the ex- 
treme northern border of the great cretaceous 
artesian basin, there is no indication of any geolo- 
gical formation to justify the fixing of the boun- 
dary. There is no change in the character of the 
surface rocks until the foothills of the MacDonnell 
range mountain system are met with at 230 M. 



TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS 



75 



As the boundary of the basin was fixed without an 
inspection of the country, and extended only to 
include Anacona Bore, there is every reason to 
believe that the country from no M. to about 
200 M. can be considered as within the artesian 
area. In the section i lo M. to 156 M. there are 
occasional outcrops of stony tableland, which may 
provide some of the ballast required. 



River the country improves, there is no surface 
water, but there are indications of shallow well- 
water in some swamps between Poulia Poulia 
Creek and the Hale, 225 M. to 235 M. 

"2 JO M. to 280 M. (Moderate Construction). 
— 230 M. may be taken as the northern boundary 
of the great sand area lying south-east of the Mac- 
donnell Ranges. 




A Survey Expedition Camp 



"1^6 M. to IQO M. (Easy Construction). — 
In this section there is a greater proportion of 
tableland, more scrub on the sand areas, and also 
the debouchure of the Todd River, which is here 
lost in the sandhills, and is only traceable by oc- 
casional lines of gum trees. As a consideration 
in railway construction, it is doubtful whether 
these lines of gum trees are worthy of mention. 
My opinion is that they are only fed from an 
underground percolation, especially since the sur- 
face shows no signs of inundation. From a pas- 
toral point of view, this section contains very 
good country, while the previous section ( i 10 to 
156) can only be described as fair. 

"igo M. to 2:;o M. (Easy Construction). — 
The sand ridges gradually merge into undulating 
sandy plains, well grassed, and growing a fair 
scrub of whitewood, mulga and other smaller 
shrubs. As the line here approaches the Hale 



"At this point the foothills of the ranges are 
met with, and at 245 M. the line crosses the Hale 
River as it flows in a well-defined stream from 
these hills. Poulia Poulia Creek also flows across 
the line towards the Hale, some 10 miles south 
of the possible crossing of the latter. It forms a 
swamp before entering the larger river, and may 
make advisable a slight deviation to the east, and 
a crossing lower down the Hale. 

"280 M. to _^o^^ M. (Easy Construction). — For 
about thirty miles the line skirts the broken country 
forming the eastern end of the ranges, and crosses 
the heads of the Innumbra and another, unnamed, 
creek, which flows south-easterly towards the 
Marshall This country is composed of small 
hills and ranges of schists and granite; it affords 
no water, and on account of the preponderance of 
spinifex-covered ridges it is of little value for pas- 
toral purposes. North-east of the line — between 



76 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



it and the Marshall — the country improves; it is 
watered by several soakages and water-holes in 
the latter river, and it has good pastoral prospects. 

"305 M. to 340 M. (Easy Construction). — 
The next section (of 35 miles) comprises the well- 
grassed plains of the Plenty River, which is crossed 
at 325 M. This creek is here about 30 chains 
wide, and when in flood carries a large body of 
water. The channel is well defined, but is very 
shallow, the surrounding sandy plains being only 
about 20 feet above the creek bed. The creek 
runs about once in two years. At 340 M., on a 
continuation of the due north line, the mass of 
quartzite ranges known as Dulcie Ranges, forms 
a barrier which I consider will make an easterly 
deviation of some 10 miles imperative. This 
deviation zvottld bring the line through the best 
watered area in Central Australia, including the 
districts of Ooratippra, Oorabbra, and Picton, and 
would cross the divide between the northern and 
southern river system through a gap between the 
Dulcie and Jervois Ranges. Another point in 
favour of the deviation is that it would bring the 
line clear of the Devonport Ranges at Frew River. 
As it seems probable that this deviation will be 
justified by a considerable saving in the cost of 
construction, and on account of the better quality 
of the country passed through, the line is being 
considered as adopting the deviation. 

"340 M. to 400 M. (Moderate to Difficult Con- 
struction). — The districts of Oorotippra, Oorab- 
bra, and Picton mentioned above are included in 
this section and consist of loamy plains, well- 
grassed, carrying a scattered scrub of edible 
rushes, and intersected with low quartzite ranges 
and many small creeks. These creeks, together 
with the rock holes and springs of the hills, form 
the sources of a good water supply. 

"400 M. to 4^0 M. (Easy Construction). — At 
420 M. the Sandover River, a sandy creek as 
large as the Peake, on the Oodnadatta line, is 
crossed; but it floods only about once in 25 years. 
It has not run for the last seven years. The coun- 
try in this section on each side of the Sandover 
River is undulating sandy country covered with 
spinifex, low mallee, acacias, and occasional blood- 
woods. It is of little value for pastoral purposes. 

"450 M. to sso M. (Moderate Construction). 
— This section includes the outlying hills of the 
Devonport Ranges and portion of the country 
watered by the Frew River system. It is well- 
watered, and in these ranges is the new Wolfram 
field, which was producing ore to the value of 
£1300 per month in October last. 

"530 M. to ^ijo M. (Easy Construction). — 
Undulating sand, patches of hard red clay, and a 
scrub of wattles, mallee, jasminum, and blood- 
woods, with a general growth of spinifex, are the 
principal characteristics of this section. There 



is no natural water and the country is poor pas- 
toral country. The north-eastern portion of it 
is probably within the sub-artesian basin of the 
Barkly tablelands. 

"570 M. to (575 M. (Anthony's Lagoon), 
(Easy Construction). — This extensive section 
comprises open dotvns country, and is undoubtedly 
some of the best country in the Northern Terri- 
tory. It ofters no difficulties to railway construc- 
tion. Sub-artesian bores have been sunk on the 
route (on Alroy Downs and Brunette Downs 
stations), and on both sides of the line the country 
is at present supporting large numbers of stock." 

Mr. Waldron's second report contains invalu- 
able data concerning regions which are still terra 
incognita to all but a favored few. These have 
had the good fortune to penetrate the silent Aus- 
tralian distances which call to the adventurous 
heart of youth, and stir the interest of practical 
minds. 

They return, browned by the sun but full of 
mighty strength and faith. There is a new ex- 
pression upon their faces, a new light in their 
eyes. It is like the transfiguration of faces that 
have known the stress of battle, but, instead of 
that haunted look of sadness which young men 
bring back from war, there is an exaltation, born 
mayhap of freedom and faith! Ask any of these 
bronzed, stalwart bushmen — normal, healthy, and 
sober — their views on the future of Central Aus- 
tralia, and see the enthusiasm which sparkles from 
them. 

It has delighted the author to quote copiously, 
in another chapter, from Mr. Mason's first-hand 
report of his arduous explorations in that hinter- 
land which spreads northward from the Australian 
Bight. 

It is an equal pleasure to give here, almost in 
full, this valuable report from Mr. J. J. Waldron 
on Central Australia, dated 1916: — 

"Central Australia has been described many 
times, by persons with various objectives. There 
are recorded the impressions of explorers, of scien- 
tists, of overlanders, of telegraph men, pastoral- 
ists, and miners. 

"Each has described the country as it affected 
the purpose of his visit. 

"The first explorers saw in it a region to be 
crossed with difficulty before they could reach 
their far-off goal, the shores of the Indian Ocean. 

"The overlanders and early pastoralists had to 
learn its treatment of stock at a considerable cost 
to themselves. 

"The prospector, though he did not for a 
moment doubt the mineral wealth of the country, 
was forced to acknowledge that this out-of-the-way 
place had features, peculiar to itself, which made 
mining more costly than usual. Side by side with 
commerce, science solved many of the problems of 



TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS 



77 



Central Australia; like commerce, it has left many 
of them unsolved. 

"The centre of our island continent is not far 
away from us. Oodnadatta is on the same parallel 
of latitude as Brisbane, while the MacDonnell 
Ranges are no further north than Rockhampton. 
Yet a person who has visited Alice Springs is 
looked upon as somewhat of an explorer, while he 
would be a suburban commercial traveller who 



"Oodnadatta, the terminus of the great 
northern railway from Adelaide, is situated in 
very desolate-looking country. The surround- 
ing stony tableland is quite bare of timber, and 
apparently devoid of herbage; the nakedness of 
its flats of "red gibbers" and of its tent-shaped 
hills, varied only by scintillating shafts from ex- 
posed pieces of gypsum, and the sense of isolation 
induced by an encircling sea of mirage, combine to 




A Central Australian Scene 



had not been beyond Rockhampton. There is one 
significant reason for the falsity of public opinion 
regarding Central Australia; it is difficult of ac- 
cess, and remoteness in Central Australia has 
almost become synonymous with aridity. 

"The MacDonnell Range country is not another 
Ballarat as regards its alluvial gold, but it is not 
a Mount Maroomba wild-cat. Its splendid 
loamy valleys and saltbush plains do not pretend 
to rival the Murrumbidgee flats, but they are emi- 
nently suited for sheep, horses, and cattle, while 
some of the more easily irrigable will certainly 
respond to agriculture. Central Australia has im- 
mense possibilities, but their development is at- 
tended, as experience has shown, by considerable 
risk; carefully and steadily directed capital and 
good management will make the country what, 
with its wealth, it should be, a prosperous inland 
to a highly prosperous continent. 



impress one with a feeling of disappointment in 
a land seemingly so barren. 

"The impression is honest on the part of the 
visitor, but most unjust to the surrounding country, 
particularly the northern portion of it. The re- 
quirements of the town have denuded the neigh- 
borhood of herbage and firewood, and the absence 
of a watercourse of any size completes the illusion 
of desolation. North-east and west of Oodnadatta, 
gidyea and gum creeks provide surface-water 
and shade, and while this apparently barren table- 
land produces the best of cattle feed in perennial 
saltbush, stretches of softer soil grow an edible 
mulga, which is an excellent fodder in time of 
drought. 

"Previous to December, 191 2, there had been 
a two-years' drought in the belt of country be- 
tween Oodnadatta and Blood's Creek, 80 miles 
north. The total rainfall for that period was 



78 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Near Alice Springs 



under five inches, and it fell in scattered showers 
of a few points each, yet the losses by stock- 
owners were comparatively small; and now that 
the drought has broken, the country has recovered 
so quickly that this year will probably see 40,000 
fat bullocks trucked from Oodnadatta. One 
station alone will send 15,000. Central Australia 
recovers from a drought more quickly than any 
other part of the Commonwealth, and Australia 
as a whole is famous for rapid recoveries after bad 
seasons. 

"Depot for supplies to the Territory as far as 
Newcastle Waters, Oodnadatta is the centre of a 
considerable carrying trade. About 400 camels 
are constantly employed carting supplies to the 
stations in the north, while places nearer to the 
head of the railway line convey their stores by 
waggon and pack-horse. The northern mail 
leaves for Alice Springs and Arltunga on the 
arrival of the fortnightly train. A coach conveys 
it as far as Horseshoe Bend, 210 miles away, 
where it is transferred to camels and taken on to 
Alice Springs (another 115 miles), and then 80 
miles east to Arltunga. 

"The road usually taken from Oodnadatta to 
the Territory goes north along the overland tele- 
graph line across stony tableland for 32 miles to 



the Alberga River, which, like all rivers south of 
the MacDonnell Ranges, flows east and south to- 
wards the Lake Eyre basin. The country to the 
east and west of the road is included in Macumba 
and Todmorden stations. // 7',^ good stock country 
and has this year supplied 10,000 cattle to the 
Adelaide market. Fresh water can always be ob- 
tained in the Alberga, either in waterholes or from 
soakages. 

"After crossing the Alberga the valley of a 
branch creek, the Stevenson, is followed for 65 
miles. The alluvial flats bordering the creek and 
the softer country through which the small tribu- 
tary creeks flow extend for about five miles to 
the western tableland, and for the same distance 
to the eastern saddle, which sends numerous creeks 
into the box flat estuary of the Finke, still further 
to the east. The water from an artesian bore 
has been diverted into the Stevenson above its 
junction with the Alberga. A fair-sized lake, in 
ivhich fish are plentiful, has been formed near 
the bore outlet, and the creek is now a permanent 
stream for several fniles. 

"The road continues northerly over harder soil 
and tableland across Blood's Creek and Abminga 
Creek. 



TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS 



79 



"One hundred and twenty miles from Oodna- 
datta it passes to the east of the low range in a 
stretch of tableland which denotes the border of 
the Territory. Nine miles inside the border is 
the telegraph station of Charlotte Waters. 

"Dalhoiisie Station lies fifty miles south of the 
border on an alternative route from Oodnadatta. 
It is the centre of an interesting tract of country. 
A slight but extensive depression in the tableland 
contains numerous mineral springs, some cold, 
others warm. In one, the Big Spring, the water 
flows out at a temperature of iiodeg. F., and 
forms a lake about a hundred yards wide, which 
narrows gradually until it is lost in reed swamps 
to the east. The different lakes and swamps 
abound in wild fowl of all kinds. Date palms 
grow on several of the springs. The surrounding 
tableland is good stock country, and Dalhousie 
Station recently changed hands at a considerable 
figure. 



"The line surveyed for the railway from Oodna- 
datta onwards lies from five to ten miles to the 
west of the road to Charlotte Waters. It keeps 
out on the western tableland, crosses the Alberga 
and the Hamilton, a tributary of the Stevenson, 
and will thus tap the best-watered country in the 
far north of South Australia. Here the pastoral 
industry is of supreme importance; it is practically 
the only interest at present vested in the country. 
That its possibilities have been only lightly ex- 
ploited on the majority of the stations can be 
readily understood from the improvements re- 
cently effected on one of them. 

"Macumba is a typical cattle station, 35 miles 
north of Oodnadatta. It produces feed in abun- 
dance, but in a dry time it has few natural waters. 
The station was founded during a stretch of good 
seasons; the stock multiplied rapidly, and capital 
was spent on buildings and stock-yards in anticipa- 
tion of continued good fortune rather than in pro- 




Workers on the Transcontinental Railway 



8o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



viding against bad seasons. The inevitable 
drought came; cattle perished, and so much money 
was lost that the station was deserted, and the 
country described as altogether useless. Now a 
wiser generation has taken up the land again, 
stocked sparingly at first, put down numerous 
artesian bores, and then stocked more heavily. 
The result is that during the last drought, one of 
the severest in the history of the country, 
Macumba was well stocked, but did not lose a 
single beast! 



the country are eminently suited to them, but no 
great commercial success is likely to come of the 
venture until there are sufficient stock to ensure 
a steady supply of mohair, and, what is even more 
necessary, until men with a thorough knowledge 
of the industry have control of shearing opera- 
tions. 

"Geologically speaking, there is no great change 
in the country after crossing the Territory border 
at Charlotte Waters. The surface rocks still 
belong to the secondary and tertiary formations 




Beyond the MacDoimell Eanges 



"The history of Macumba is similar to all other 
stations in the dry belt of Central Australia, ex- 
cept that while this station is now secure from 
the ravages of drought, most of the others are 
still understocked and reckoned as only of 
moderate value. Their sole need is a permanent 
water supply; it can be obtained by boring, by 
well-sinking, or judicious conservation of the flood 
waters of the rivers, but until their stations secure 
the advantages of an adjacent railway, pastoral- 
ists are not inclined to incur the expenses of these 
improvements. 

"On Eringa, a station west of Charlotte 
Waters, and at Blood's Creek station pure Angora 
goats have been bred from imported stock, and 
no difficulty has been experienced in managing 
the flocks. The climate and the clean nature of 



noticeable from Oodnadatta to the outcrop of 
older silurian rocks north of Francis Well, and 
the area included in the great cretaceous basin 
extends for some miles north of the telegraph 
station. The landscape, however, undergoes a 
complete change; the vast stretches of stony table- 
land gradually diminish in extent, and are re- 
placed by splendidly grassed sandy ridges and 
loamy plains covered with mulga and other 
acacias, while the rivers are more clearly defined, 
and form portion of the drainage system of the 
largest river in Central Australia, the Finke. 

"The Finke rises on the north side of the Mac- 
Donnell Ranges, flows south through magnificent 
gorges of red sandstone in the James Range, and 
then south-east through more level sandy country 
until it is joined by the Hugh, its largest tributary, 



TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS 



8i 



35 miles north of the telegraph crossing at Crown 
Point. It then continues its south-easterly course 
for about 120 miles to where it spreads itself 
out in box flats north-east of Oodnadatta. It 
forms again, joins the Macumba, and its waters 
eventually reach northern Lake Eyre. The whole 
course of the Finice has never been traversed, but 
it is probably over woo miles in length. Its 
banks are covered with splendid timber and 
marked by numerous gorges and gaps, some of 
which can be dammed at small cost, the flood 
waters thus conserved, and the irrigation of many 
fertile valleys tnade possible. At present these 



feed for stock is scarce, but there are several 
flourishing stations in this belt of country. It is 
a noteworthy fact that spots which were once 
badly infested with spinifex, but have been re- 
peatedly burnt off and stocked, are now produc- 
ing splendid grass ! 

"The proposed railway route crosses the P'inke 
30 miles north-west of Charlotte Waters, keeps 
to the east of the valley of the Hugh, and after 
crossing a low saddle in the Ooraminna Range, 
takes a direct course for Alice Springs. 

"Francis Well, the head station of Hayes and 
Sons, is, as has been said, 80 miles from Alice 




A Sheep Station in Central Australia 






rich plains support only a few horses and cattle. 
The Finke is the main source of water supply for 
the southern portion of the Territory. The 
country bordering on it and on its several tribu- 
taries holds 75 per cent, of the stock south of 
Barrow Creek. 

"Proceeding north from Charlotte Waters the 
sandy nature of the country becomes more pro- 
nounced, until an off-shoot of the vast stretch of 
high red sandhills lying between the telegraph 
line and the Queensland border is crossed, be- 
tween Horseshoe Bend, on the Finke, and Francis 
Well, 80 miles south of Alice Springs. In places 
where the sand ridges are high and well defined, 



Springs, and from the station to the foot of the 
ranges is the belt of very rich stock country in- 
cluded in the Emily Plain. It consists of broad 
loamy plains covered with mulga, saltbush, and 
splendid grasses. It has an annual rainfall of 
nine inches. It is watered from the gaps of the 
Ooraminna and the MacDonnell Ranges, and, 
even with the present unimproved system of water 
supply, two runs alone support 8000 cattle and 
3000 sheep. The quality of saltbush country 
beef is proverbial, while scoured wool from these 
stations has commanded top prices in Adelaide; 
but it costs £12 per ton carriage on wool to Oodna- 
datta. Owing to the small number of sheep in 



82 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



the country, shearing is also very expensive, so 
that wool-raising, the natural industry for country 
of this nature, is neglected. 

"These difficulties of transport are, however, 
too general in application to admit of a discussion 
of their effects on a portion of a single industry; 
the full force of their significance will be better 
appreciated after a description has been given of 
the country principally affected by them — the Mac- 
Donnell Ranges. 




On the North-South Transcontinental Eoute 

"The MacDonnell Ranges rise perpendicularly 
to a height of 2000 feet above the broad Emily 
Plain. They stretch in a huge red wall of granite 
400 miles across the Territory from east to west. 
Many of the ridges are razorbacks; but, in com- 
mon with most Central Australian mountains, 
these ranges as a whole present a steep face to the 
south and a more gradual slope to the north. 
Silver-barked mountain ash dot the lower slopes 
and zamia palms grow in the more sheltered 
gullies; otherwise the principal peaks are quite 
bare of foliage. Porcupine, or mountain spinifex, 
alone flourishes on the rocky surface. 

"The main lines of range have an altitude of 
4000 feet above sea level, and are broken at inter- 
vals by huge fissures, which serve as openings for 
traffic north and south, and through which many 



creeks flow. In the gorges thus formed the 
greater number of mountain waterholes lie. Some 
of these gaps, as they are called, are only twenty 
or thirty feet in breadth in the widest part, while 
the walls of rock on either side are four or five 
hundred feet high. The waterhole in the creek 
bed is thus sheltered from the sun, except for a 
short time in the middle of the day, and even in 
midsummer is delightfully cool. 

"Heavitree Gap, through which the Todd River 
flows, lies two miles south of the township of 
Stuart, and four miles south of the telegraph 
station of Alice Springs. This gap is the broadest 
of the whole Range openings, and serves as a 
gateway for the whole of the traffic across the 
Territory. The telegraph line passes through 
it. Mr. Graham Stewart has adopted it as the 
most suitable crossing for the transcontinental 
railway survey. The Ranges here consist of 
three parallel chains, between which are level 
stretches of fertile plains covered with saltbush 
and native grasses. In most places there is an 
abundant supply of fresh water at shallow depths. 
The smaller hills of the ranges, though strewn 
with boulders of mica, schist and granite, also 
yield a good growth of grass and saltbush. 
Thousands of stock of all kinds — horses, cattle, 
camels, sheep, and goats — pass through Alice 
Springs annually. Most of them are held for 
at least a day or two in the vicinity. There are, 
in addition, the stock belonging to the telegraph 
station, to the township and to the police, grazing 
there the whole year round. Yet the flats around 
look the reverse of overstocked. Any traveller 
going the road can always turn his horses or 
camels loose, and feel confident of their getting 
good feed. As a matter of fact, travelling stock 
spell at Alice Springs to recover condition lost on 
the road. 

"The road through Heavitree Gap crosses the 
alluvial flat of the Todd through a growth of 
"old man" saltbush eight feet high, and winds 
among the hills past the town of Stuart to the 
telegraph station. It then continues north through 
a small gorge, and reaches the vast mulga plain 
lying to the north of the ranges fifteen miles from 
the Gap. 

"The MacDonnells in the neighborhood of Alice 
Springs are typical of the whole of the ranges, 
which extend about equal distances east and west 
of the telegraph line. To the west the mountain 
plains become more extensive. On one of them, 
the Missionary Plain, the mission station of Her- 
mansburg is situated. These western plains and 
gullies support comparatively few stock, because 
surface water is scarce, and no effort has been 
made to obtain water by well-sinking, even in 
places where the indications are most promising. 
In the eastern portion of the MacDonnells the 



TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS 



pastoral industry is in a more flourishing con- 
dition, though sadly lacking in improvements. 
The small holdings there have 15,000 cattle and 
horses and 6000 sheep. The most important 
feature of the eastern MacDonnells, however, is 
its vast mineral wealth. 

"Since the discovery of gold in the ranges the 
operations of the miners have been practically 



83 



for the small parties at work. No shaft on Arl- 
tunga has yet been sunk 100 feet; most of the 
deep ones stopped at half that distance. The 
other workings included in the Arltunga field lie 
within a radius of 10 miles north, east, and west 
of White Range. Nearly all of them have proved 
profitable for small parties of men to work at 
shallow depths. 




Typical Central Australian Country 



confined to three or four small areas, including 
Winnecke's Depot, Claraville, and White Range. 
The last named has produced the greatest quan- 
tity of gold to date, and gives the most promising 
indications of future wealth. It is an immense 
mountain of white quartz, remarkable for the un- 
usual number of auriferous outcrops that are 
spread about within a short distance of one 
another, and for the extraordinary width of its 
ore bodies. In one place the quartz formation 
has been proved to be 340 feet wide, and in 
another 200 feet wide. Even if the gold is found 
to be confined to these formations, the quantity 
that can be recovered must be considerable. It 
has been the experience of the small claim-holders 
hitherto working on them that the ore became 
richer the deeper the shafts were sunk. The ex- 
penses of sinking, however, increased too much 



"Winnecke's Depot, 28 miles north-east of 
White Range, is the only other area outside of 
Arltunga proper on which mining operations of 
any note have been attempted. Many small lodes 
of rich ore have been exploited. The field is still 
producing payable gold, but, like Arltunga, the 
faulty nature of the country is such that the value 
of the intermittent quartz reefs can only be ex- 
ploited by shaft-sinking and mining. 

"In addition to the sheep country included in 
the ranges proper, the Burt Plain, an area of 
ideal sheep country, extends along the entire 
northern face of the mountain, and has a breadth 
of from 30 miles to 150 miles. Some portions 
of it consist of open plain, others are covered 
with a moderate scrub of edible mulga and other 
acacias, while the whole of it is composed of a 
loamy soil growing an abundance of native grasses 



84 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



and herbage. At present there Is scarcely a hoof 
on its 10,000 square miles. It would not pay to 
sink wells on it for cattle raising — at least, it 
has not justified that expenditure when cattle can 
be run in other places without it; but, with the 
means of getting wool away, wells would be sunk 
and the land immediately taken up for sheep farm- 
ing. The average rainfall of the plain is twelve 
inches. 




A Northern Territorian 

"As the value of the MacDonnell Range country 
would be greatly enhanced by railway communica- 
tion, so the rich pastoral districts lying to the 
north, east, and west of Alice Springs would rela- 
tively increase in value. At present, they are but 
sparsely stocked, or lying idle altogether. Oora- 
tippra, Frew River, Elkedra and Murray Downs 
to the north-east, Barrow Creek and Stirling to 
the north, and Anna's Reservoir and the Lander 
to the north-west, would then become the horse 
and cattle districts of Central Australia, while the 



MacDonnells would be devoted to sheep, mining, 
and the closer settlement requisite to meet the 
needs of an increased population. 

"The fertile plains of the ranges now grow 
date palms, fruit trees, and vegetables, while wheat 
and maize have been successfully cultivated at 
Alice Springs; but whether, by a careful system of 
irrigation or by dry farming, these valleys can 
be made suitable for closer settlement, will have 
to be determined by more extensive experiments 
than have hitherto been attempted. In regard to 
some of the river flats — the valley of the Todd, 
for instance — there is no doubt as to their suita- 
bility for the most intense culture, but until the 
water supplies of the other flats have been 
thoroughly tested it would be premature to sug- 
gest agriculture as a staple industry of the Ranges. 

"Before summarising the benefits likely to be 
derived by the MacDonnell Ranges from railway 
extension, the climate of this portion of the Com- 
monwealth is worthy of note. It is not too much 
to say that it is the healthiest climate in Australia. 
Ihe general plain level of the country is 2000 
feet above sea-level. Consequently, after the 
hottest day in summer the night is cool. The 
ground thermometer registers below freezing 
point for days in winter time, and the general 
winter weather is as genial as could be desired; 
bracing mornings, warm, sunny days, and cold 
nights. In summer the days are hot, but no 
warmer than northern Victoria or central New- 
South Wales, while hot winds are unknown. The 
extreme dryness of the atmosphere in Central 
Australia makes the heat less trying, and adds 
greatly to the salubrity of the climate. No in- 
fectious diseases are known there. No more 
ideal climate for chest complaints could be 
imagined; at least two authenticated cases of con- 
sumption have been cured by residence in the 
district. 

"Enough has been written to justify the pre- 
diction that zvhoi a closer iiition to the population 
of the south is provided, Central Australia zvill be 
reckoned one of the greatest pastoral districts in 
the Commonwealth. No one who has seen the 
country has ever doubted for its future. Side by 
side with pastoral progress, the mining industry 
of the country will develop as soon as facilities 
are afforded it; in deposits of single metals the 
MacDonnell Ranges have their superiors in Aus- 
tralia, but in the extent and variety of their mineral 
wealth they are not equalled. The one thing 
necessary, then, to develop this latent mineral 
wealth is an extension of the present railway from 
Oodnadatta to the MacDonnell Ranges, and its 
construction must be urgently recommended." 

Out of 20,000 miles of railways, owned and 
controlled by the various Australian Govern- 



TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS 



85 



ments, the Federal transcontinentals will not be 
least important, though perhaps for a time least 
financially productive. 

Australian railways, their detailed costs of con- 
struction, maintenance, methods of working, re- 
venues, returns, and general utilities, are deserv- 
ing of a special chapter to themselves. 

Unfortunately the present edition of Aitslralia 
Unlimited must be compressed into one volume. 

If the problem of a uniform gauge throughout 
Australian railways is solved, local railway his- 
tory will be marked by a red-letter line. 

Break of gauge Is one of our pre-Federal mis- 
fortunes. Despite this and minor difficulties, 
our State-owned railways are an asset worth at 
least two hundred millions to the people of the 



Commonwealth. The average cost of construc- 
tion to date has been about £9633 per mile, 
equivalent to .£35.65 per head of the population. 

Traffic and revenues are continually increasing 
in all the States. Costs of maintenance and 
working, together with temporary losses on new 
lines in some States, sometimes over-balance 
receipts. 

For the Commonwealth as a whole, during the 
eight years to 19 13, there was a net profit on 
Government railways during each year. 

Civic and Government tramways show similar 
results. 

In any analysis of our public debt the State- 
ownership of railways and tramways must be 
taken into consideration — a fact which financial 
critics frequently overlook. 




A Waterhole in the "Desert," Central Australia 




C3 



3 
O 
09 

in 

u 

> 






o 






86 



(87) 




Excavation for the Waranga-Mallee Channel, Victoria 



IRRIGATION, STORAGES AND ARTESIAN WATER. 



As settlement extends throughout Australia, as 
fallacies fade and prejudices are over- 
come, agrarian production under irrigation 
will increase. 

In every State of the Commonwealth opportu- 
nities for the establishment of storages, national 
and individual, most certainly obtain. 

So far, irrigation has been looked upon as a 
treatment for the more arid districts of the in- 
terior. In reality the eastern coast of Australia 
is just as amenable and will be proportionately 
as responsive to irrigation as the great inland. 

The production of sugar-cane upon the Bur- 
dekin River in Queensland has been greatly 
increased by irrigation, as all tropical production 
between Cape York Peninsula and the Logan 
District might be increased by the same method. 

The northern river districts of New South 
Wales, the Tweed, Richmond, Clarence, Bellin- 
gen, Hastings, Manning, and Hunter, fertile and 
productive as they are, will only reach the maxi- 
mum of their possibilities by the adventitious aid 
of irrigation. 

The Snowy River valley of Victoria, recently 
tapped by the opening of a railway from Bairns- 



dale to Orbost, is undoubtedly an irrigation and 
intensive-culture proposition. 

The flats of the Snowy, yielding up to £40 an 
acre in maize, can ultimately be made to give 
probably three times that per acre to families on 
twenty-acre blocks. 

Riverina districts of New South Wales, Mur- 
ray tributaries of Victoria, the Lower Murray 
valley of South Australia are all part of the one 
great system which is destined to support hun- 
dreds of irrigation settlements, little and great, 
beyond those already established. 

In Tasmania, water for irrigation is abundant, 
engineering difficulties are comparatively slight; 
and, side by side with the scientific application of 
water to the soils, there can be scientific applica- 
tion of hydro-electric light and power. 

In Western Australia the same possibilities 
exist. In the north-west, for purposes of tro- 
pical agriculture, they are particularly valuable. 
In the Northern Territory similar conditions 
apply. 

The subject of irrigation is touched upon in 
various parts of this volume. The great 
Northern Murrumbidgee irrigation scheme is 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



rapidly reviewed, the future of the Darling River 
outlined, and the irrigation areas of Victoria 
briefly mentioned. 

From Burdekin round to Carnarvon, the ad- 
vantages of irrigation are gradually being 
realized. More than one ambitious scheme has 
been evolved in New South Wales; Victoria 
goes on steadily increasing her irrigable acreages 
every year. 

Hitherto irrigation in Australia has been a 
matter of Government enterprise. While this 



Commonwealth is to support a population neces- 
sary for national preservation — the economic 
aspect cannot be disregarded by even the most 
hopeful and enthusiastic of Ministers. 

Not long before the war a Government depart- 
ment was established In Germany to reclaim and 
settle the last ten million acres of uncultivated 
land which that country possessed. With im- 
proved farming methods the waste lands of 
Europe and America are rapidly being made pro- 
ductive. 




Inlet to Waranga Reservoir, Victoria 



principle has its advantages, it cannot be denied 
that costs have not always been considered In 
relation to returns. The author holds that in 
reproductive public works, Governments are just 
as much under obligation to secure full value for 
every pound (and a reasonable Interest on out- 
lay) as any syndicate or private investor. 

Irrigation can never be regarded as successful 
until the actuarial aspects of each proposition 
will stand the acid of ordinary commercial audit. 
The principle of the scientific application of neces- 
sary water to suitable soil has been proved indu- 
bitably good, but there is also an economic side 
to the question. 

As irrigation will be a factor In our future 
policy of settlement — an essential factor if the 



The productions of Australian lands — highly 
fertile and unlimited in area — can be vastly in- 
creased by adapting corresponding methods to 
local conditions. Not only will Irrigation In- 
crease our agricultural output, but it will prevent 
losses of live stock In dry districts when the 
annual rainfall, as occasionally happens, falls 
below normal. 

If 22,000 square miles of the Algerian Sahara 
can be reclaimed with water from artesian wells, 
there is no part of Australia In which cultivation, 
may not ultimately become possible. 

Country like that around Echuca, which will 
In a "dry" state fatten two-tooth wethers to weigh 
108 lbs., and produce two-year-old sheep giving 




o 
m 

tag 

n 

C3 
u 
14 



89 



90 



AUSTRALIA 



45 lbs. of wool at a shearing, will do still better 
iinder irrigation. 

An irrigation block should be established on 
every Australian estate where water can be con- 
served. The crops raised thereon in good sea- 
sons can be converted by ensilage into reserves 
for lean years. 

In the general application of this principle of 
the conservation of fodder and water, the main 
problem of the settlement of the Australian 
interior will be solved! 

When this book has filled Its mission, when Its 
author is dust, he asks his sons and grandsons to 
remember this simple prophecy — written In the 
year 1916. Its significance, if this nation en- 
dures, will be then more fully apparent. 

What I have said elsewhere of the settlement 
of the northern part of South Australia — dis- 
tricts with the lowest annual rainfall in the Com- 
monwealth — applies here. Even without irri- 
gation the siloing of native pasturage as the Irre- 
gular rains produce it (In extraordinary quantity 
and nutritive quality), with adequate conservation 
of water for stock, or tapping of artesian supplies 
where such exist, will go a long way towards 
answering the most difficult questions of settlement 
in the interior. 

Along rivers such as the Murray there is no 
longer any problem, save that of engineering and 
cost. Since the establishment of Mlldura, the ad- 
vantages of irrigation do not need much argument. 
Mlldura, carrying a prosperous population of six 
thousand on an area previously regarded as In- 
sufficient for the support of one family, is argu- 
ment enough. 

Three hundred and fifty-one miles from Mel- 
bourne by rail, situated in the dull-looking mallee, 
this green settlement has become an object-lesson 
to all Australia. 

When the pumps are working at Mildura the 
weight of water lifted from the Murray equals 
200 tons a minute. This, poured out In silver 
hydraulic streams through 180 miles of irrigation 
channels, comes back again to Mlldura producers 
in streams of minted gold. 

Crops of 27 tons of lemons from an acre and 
a quarter, and 10,000 cases of oranges from fifty 
acres of trees are recorded at Mildura. 

This settlement has proved the mother of many 
others. 

Renmark, further down the Murray in South 
Australia, may be regarded as the eldest child of 
Mildura's success. Lyrup, BerrI, Kingston, 
Waikerle, Ramco, Merbein, Wentworth are all 
daughters of that parent settlement established by 
Chaffey Brothers. 



UNLIMITED 

South Australia is keenly interested in the Mur- 
ray system. Being a recipient and not a contri- 
butor, her riparian rights have been difficult to 
determine. Under the Murray Waters agree- 
ment, subscribed to by three States concerned and 
ratified by the Federal Government, it was laid 
down that — 

1. A system of storages be provided at Cum- 
beroona or some other suitable site on the Upper 
Murray and at Lake Victoria, and that weirs and 
locks be constructed in the course of the River 
Murray from its mouth to Echuca; In the River 
Murrumbidgee from its junction with the River 
Murray to Hay, or alternatively to works in the 
River Murrumbidgee, an equivalent extent of 
weirs and locks in the River Darling extending 
upstream from its junction with the River Mur- 
ray. 

2. That the cost of the undermentioned works 
required to give effect to resolution i, and esti- 
mated as follows: — 

Nine weirs and locks from Blanche: 

town, to Wentworth £865,000 

Seventeen weirs and locks from Went- 

v/orth to Echuca 1,700,000 

Nine weirs and locks from the junc- 
tion of the rivers Murray and 
Murrumbidgee to Hay, or alter- 
natively an equivalent amount 
(£540,000) In locks and weirs 
from the junction of the River 
Darling with the River Murray 
upstream 540,000 

Upper Murray storage 1,353,000 

Lake Victoria storage 205,000 

Total £4,663,000 

be borne to the extent of £1,000,000 by the Com- 
monwealth, and as to the remainder in equal 
shares by the States of New South Wales, Vic- 
toria and South Australia. 

3. That if so desired by the State of New 
South Wales, there shall be substituted for the 
proposed weirs and locks In the River Murrum- 
bidgee locks and weirs to the same estimated cost 
in the River Darling upstream from Its junction 
with the River Murray. 

4. That the flow of the River Murray at Al- 
bury, including the natural or regulated flow of 
the rivers Mitta and Klewa, and as regulated by 
the Cumberoona storage, be shared equally by 
New South Wales and Victoria, subject to any 
quantity hereby agreed to be sent down the river 
for riparian use and for supply to South Aus- 
tralia. 




91 



92 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



5. That New South Wales and Victoria each 
have full use of her own tributaries below Albury, 
and have the right to store and divert the flows 
thereof, or alternatively, equivalent volumes from 
the River Murray below their affluences, subject 
to provision from such tributaries, or her share 
of the flow at Albury, or both, of contributions 
towards the share hereby allotted to South Aus- 
tralia, and the allowance for riparian use on the 
main stream from the affluence of such tributary, 
or from Albury to Lake Victoria. 

6. That the proportion of the contribution by 
New South Wales and Victoria to the share here- 
by allotted to South Australia, and for riparian 
use in the main stream, be that which the mean 
natural flow of the tributaries of each State below 
Albury measured at the points of affluence with 
the River Murray, with half the actual mean flow 
at Albury added in each case, bear to each other. 
In calculating the mean flow of the River Darling 
for this purpose a deduction shall be made to the 
extent of any water diverted by the State of 
Queensland. 

7. That the minimum quantity to be allowed 
to pass to South Australia in each year be sufl'i- 
cient to fill Lake Victoria storage once, and, in 
addition, to maintain, with the aid of the water 
returned from Lake Victoria, a regulated supply 
at Lake Victoria outlet of 134,000 acre feet per 
month during the months of January, P'ebruary, 
November and December; 114,000 acre feet per 
month for the months of March, September and 
October, 94,000 acre feet per month for the 
months of April, May and August; and 47,000 
acre feet per month for the months of June and 
July, these being the provisions for irrigation 
equivalent to a regulated supply of 67,000 acre 
feet per month for nine months. 

Under this or some similar agreement it 
would be possible for the three States to develop 
to the fullest extent the fertile valley of the 
Murray. 

Valuable swamp lands on the lower river will 
also be drained and a large population subsisted 
on what is now a non-productive demesne. 
These lands will no doubt be devoted largely to 
the production of lucerne, whereas other Murray 
River settlements will vary their irrigated root- 
crops with raisins and currants, stone fruits and 
citrus, all the profitable growths of temperate 
climates. 

At the settlement of Merbein, located on the 
Victorian side of the Murray, the writer found 
new settlers on 20-acre blocks making a good liv- 
ing from the start. 

One family started with less than £20 in cash, 
and within a few months sold £150 worth of pro- 
duce, mostly green peas, from partially cleared 



ground. Cheap water rates and long periods 
for payment of purchase money, with Govern- 
ment experts to advise upon all diflicult problems 
of cultivation, make a settler's life on irrigation 
areas much easier than that of the pioneer of the 
last generation. 

Reclaimable swamp-lands on the Lower Mur- 
ray have been approximated at 250,000 acres of 
rich virgin alluvial, which would support 12,000 
families under irrigation. This is only a small 
proportion of the population which could be estab- 
lished between the junction of the Darling River 
and Lakes Alexandrina and Albert. These lakes 
cover an area of 200,000 acres, which, without 
any great engineering difficulty, could, it is said, 
be converted into an area capable of carrying still 
another 20,000 Australian homes. 

There are on our inland rivers strips of fertile 
red soil, two hundred miles in length, still await- 
ing with the thirst of centuries for these fertiliz- 
ing waters which will convert their arid miles into 
Arabian gardens of perfume and delight — the sum 
of Life and Joy In the world will be increased, 
Australia will be strengthened, and her problems 
of effective occupation and defence brought nearer 
to solution. 

Irrigation in Western America has improved 
the value of land to £750 an acre. Our red soils 
are superior to those of the American West; our 
climate and conditions are more suitable for the 
growth of citrus and other valuable fruits. We 
have better systems of settlement, cheaper land, 
cheaper water rates, and State control of trans- 
port. Irrigation should prove with us a still 
greater success. 

Nowhere on earth are more ideal sites for stor- 
ages and irrigation to be found than exist on the 
Lower Murray. Lake Barmera, for example, 
provides for 15,000 acres of richest red soil, 
which could be converted into farms at a cost 
of £60,000. 

The value to the Commonwealth in increased 
production might easily reach that amount per 
month, to say naught of the value of 750 new 
Australian families. 

The total navigation length of the Murray and 
its tributaries is 3,213 miles, made up as follows: 
The Murray, Albury to mouth, 1,366 miles; Mur- 
rumbidgee, Gundagai to Murray junction, 666 
miles; Darling, Walgett to Wentworth, 1,180. 

The watershed of the tributaries in Queens- 
land, New South Wales and Victoria amounts to 
414,253 square miles, or 265,000,000 acres, 
equal to nearly one-seventh of the total area of 
Australia. Of this total the contributing area 
amounts to 158,499 square miles. 

How many Australian families can be settled 
within the radius of this great river system ? This 



IRRIGATION AND ARTESIAN WATER 



93 




Pumping Plant at Eenmark, South Australia. 



is a question which every Australian may reason- 
ably ask his governments, and the patriotism of 
those governments may be gauged by the enthu- 
siasm of their replies. 

When Chaffey Brothers arrived from Califor- 
nia in 1886 such replies could not have been so 
hopeful as they would be to-day. Mildura was 
then a mere sheep run in Northern Victoria. 
When the Chaffeys received their charter in 1887, 
few people regarded their scheme as one of a re- 
volutionary character. Their early settlers 
included a number of well-to-do English people, 
and some Californians; but Australians were in 
a minority. They could not believe it possible 
that land which carried a sheep to ten acres was 
shortly to produce fruit worth £50 to £100 an 
acre. But they know better now! 

Mildura, with all its failures and vicissitudes, 
was an object-lesson which Australians now 
realize as one of the most valuable in the economic 
history of our colonization. The Big Area tra- 
dition received its first great blow; it had been 
demonstrated that a large proportion of Inland 
Australia was a twenty to fifty-acre proposition! 

After the advent of the Chaffeys, station-holders 
with 20,000 acre requirements, growers of cereals 
with nothing less than 640 acres for their needs, 
shared the burdens and profits of settlement with 
fifty-acre men, who rapidly became as independent 



as they. For the stock-owner a valuable possi- 
bility was established. Henceforth he might, by 
the introduction of an irrigation block on his hold- 
ing, convert crops therefrom in good seasons into 
hay or ensilage and feed it to his stock in lean 
years. 

Irrigation is now a part of every Australian 
government's outlook. New South Wales has 
under consideration the following irrigation 
schemes : — 

Lachlan River. — The construction of a storage 
reservoir on this river at a place known as Wyan- 
gala, below the confluence of the Abercrombie 
River, for the purpose of affording water in the 
river channel for pastoral purposes and for the 
irrigation of small areas along the river banks by 
pumping. 

Macqiiarie River. — The construction of a stor- 
age reservoir on this river at Burrendong, below 
the confluence of the Cudgegong River, for the 
purpose of affording water by gravitation for the 
irrigation of certain lands to the west of Narro- 
mine. 

Murray River. — The construction of a storage 
reservoir across the Murray River at Cam- 
beroona, above Albury, in order to supply water 
by gravitation through a canal which will be taken 
off at Bungowannah, below Albury, for the irri- 



94 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



gation of high-class lands lying between the Mur- 
ray and Billabong Creek, near the town of 
Berrigan. 

Hunter River. — The construction of storage 
reservoirs on the Upper Hunter or Goulburn 
River with a view to supplying water by 
pumping from the Hunter River to the 
adjoining lands and supplementing the water 
supply of Newcastle. It is stated that 

the valley of this river is one of the most fertile 
districts in the State, and that it is capable of 
carrying a dense population under the conditions 
of intense culture by irrigation. 

Darling River. — The conversion of Lake 
Menindie into a large permanent storage by 
means of a diversion weir across the Darling 
River and of a canal through Lake Pamamaroo, 
the water so stored to be utilised in the irrigation 
of the bed of Lake Cawndilla and of certain 
lands to the south-west. 

Warragamba River. — A scheme has been pre- 
pared for the construction of a large storage dam 
on the Warragamba River, so as to retain a depth 
of 225 feet and a volume of 103,000 million gal- 
lons of water. This would be available for the 
supply of 80 million gallons daily for the domestic 
services of Sydney, 30 million gallons daily for 
trade purposes, and 80 million gallons daily for 
irrigation purposes In the county of Cumberland. 
It is proposed that the water for domestic pur- 
poses should be conveyed and delivered at Potts 
Hill through 48 miles of open concrete channel 
and pipes; that the supplies for trade purposes 
should be delivered In the vicinity of the Great 
Western Railway, between St. Mary's and Pen- 
rith; and that the lands situated along the banks 
of the Nepean River and In the valley of South 
Creek should be irrigated. 

* * * * 

How far the limitless supplies of artesian water 
with which the continent Is blessed may be used 
for purposes of irrigation cannot yet be deter- 
mined. 

Evidence before the author convinces him that 
the invaluable subterranean waters of Australia 
are permanent and Inexhaustible. Here Is a 
report from Mr. H. H. Dare, the Commis- 
sioner for Water Conservation and Irrigation 
in New South Wales, upon recent investigations 
conducted at Bellata Bore : — 

"At this place," says Mr. Dare, "there is an 
existing bore which was sunk about twenty years 
ago and which had originally a good flow. Lat- 
terly, however, the flow had decreased to a mere 
trickle over the casing. It was not clear whether 
this decrease In flow was due to the loss of pres- 
sure or to local causes. A second bore has now 
been completed about two chains distant from the 



original bore. The bore head Is slightly lower, 
and the flow obtained Is somewhat more than that 
from the original bore, but very far below the 
original flow of the first bore. An experiment 
was made with an air lift pump, using a system 
much in vogue In the United States, but which has 
not previously been employed here. This method 
consists In placing a galvanised Iron pipe, about 
li In. In diameter, within the casing of the bore, 
to a depth depending upon the conditions existing 
in each case. Compressed air is then allowed 
to flow down this pipe, when the flow of bore is 
very largely Increased. At Bellata Bore the flow 
before applying compressed air was only about 
24,000 gallons a day, whereas under the Influ- 
ence of the air this increased to about 398,000 
gallons per day. The result of the experiment 
appears to show that the water is still present in 
the artesian strata, but that it does not come to 
the surface In the same quantity as formerly ow- 
ing to the loss of pressure head." 

When one calculates the total annual rainfall 
over the catchment of Inland Australia — which 
does not reach the ocean by surface flow and Is not 
lost by evaporation — it is reasonable to suppose 
that it goes to replenish and sustain those under- 
ground seas which have been tapped at various 
widely-scattered points by artesian bores. 

The "Great Australian Artesian Basin" in- 
cludes considerably more than one-half of Queens- 
land (taking in practically all of that State lying 
west of the Great Dividing Range, with the ex- 
ception of an area in the north-west contiguous to 
the Northern Territory) ; a considerable strip of 
New South Wales along Its northern boundary 
and west of the Great Dividing Range; and the 
north-eastern part of South Australia, together 
with the extreme south-eastern corner of the 
Northern Territory. This basin is said to be 
the largest yet discovered. It Is about 569,000 
square miles, of which 376,000 square miles are 
In Queensland, 90,000 square miles In South Aus- 
tralia, 83,000 square miles In New South Wales, 
and 20,000 square miles In the Northern Terri- 
tory. As a result of this provision stock-raising 
has been made possible In the most arid parts of 
the interior. Over four and a half million acres 
are supplied from artesian sources In New South 
Wales alone. 

The uncontrolled flow from one Queensland 
bore was calculated at four and a half million 
gallons a day. 

Water from bores throughout Australia is 
being successfully used for purposes of irrigation. 
In some the flow Is too highly mineralized to be 
so employed. 

The Western Australian system has not yet 
been thoroughly explored, but It seems already 
that It will prove as valuable an asset as the arte- 




Sultana Grapes, Yanco, N.S.W. 




k 



A Peach Tree, Yanco. N.S.W. 

95 



96 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



sian sea which underlies all these black soil 
prairies which extend from the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria through western Queensland and northern 
New South Wales. 

The total number of artesian wells in western 
New South Wales is nearly 500, with an approxi- 
mate total flow of III million gallons per 24 
hours. In the majority of these wells the water 
rises above the surface. 



The deepest artesian bore in Queensland is at 
Bimera, in the Mitchell district, beyond Long 
reach. It took two years to complete, and has 
a total depth of 5,976 feet, or nearly li mile. 
The daily flow is 700,000 gallons of water at a 
temperature of 176 deg. Fahr. The shallowest 
is on Manfield Downs, on the Flinders River. 
The depth is 10 feet, and the flow 2000 gallons 
daily. The proved Queensland artesian area 




Irrigation Channel, Berri, South Australia 



The Great Artesian Basin of Australia differs 
from most other sources of subterranean water 
supply in that it is of the one-sided type. It may 
be compared to a huge saucer designed to hold 
all the overflow from the continental cup. 

There may be some slight leakage from a shal- 
low lip on the northern and eastern rims. 

The estimated intake of that section of it which 
lies within the boundaries of New South Wales 
is 3,580,273,977 gallons a day. In the central 
districts of Queensland there are hundreds of 
artesian bores sunk to depths of from 500 to 4000 
feet, yielding from 300,000 to 4,000,000 gallons 
of water per day. Some in the south-western 
portion of the State yield from 2,000,000 to 
7,000,000 gallons in 24 hours, but the water is 
mainly used for watering stock and runs along 
miles of ditches. 



includes 400,000 square miles, within which area 
there are probably about 1,000 bores. 

The total area irrigated in the State is 8,661 
acres. 

A sub-artesian area of great extent has been dis- 
covered, and large numbers of bores ranging in 
depth from 100 to 600 feet have tapped inex- 
haustible supplies of excellent water. 

Under the Queensland "Rights in Water and 
Water Conservation and Utilisation Act of 
1 9 10," grazing farmers, pastoralists, and dairy- 
men, etc., are afforded assistance by the Govern- 
ment in putting down artesian bores on their 
holdings. Hereunder is an example of what can 
be done under the Act in question, so far as graz- 
ing farmers are concerned : — 



IRRIGATION AND ARTI'SIAN WATER 



97 




Water for the Kitchen Garden, Yarrie, Western Australia 



Cost of putting down a bore on a 

grazing area of 60,000 acres, 

the whole of which would be 

benefited, say £2000 o o 

20 miles of drains at £15 per mile 300 o o 



I 



Total cost of work £2300 o o 

This outlay is treated as a loan to the graz- 
ing farmer, redeemable in 30 years. Annual 
interest and reductions amount to about three 
half-pence per acre. 

The first actual discovery of artesian water 
was made in 1879 on the Kallara pastoral hold- 
ing, between Bourke and Wilcannia, New South 
Wales, at a depth of 140 feet. 

The first Government bore was sunk in 1884, 
at Goonery, New South Wales, on the Bourke- 
Wanaaring Road. At 89 feet a flow of 24,000 
gallons a day was struck. 

Since that period travelling stock routes have 
been opened up all over Australia by means of 
artesian bores. As stated elsewhere, it is still 
in doubt as to how far artesian water can be 
applied for irrigation. 

Experiments made with nitric acid as an anti- 
dote for the carbonate of soda occurring in arte- 
sian water have resulted in a neutralizing of the 
alkali and its conversion into nitrate of soda, a 
valuable soluble fertiliser. 

This establishes a scientific possibility that arte- 
sian water mav yet be largely available. 

The carbonate of soda in certam artesian 
waters— poisonous under ordinary delivery to 
vegetation— can be made a fertilising asset of 
incalculable value to the Commonwealth. The 
power for this purpose may be supplied direct 
from some of the bores. Already many success- 
ful agricultural results, such as Pera, have been 
obtained from the use of artesian water. 



In this, as in many other directions, the Com- 
monwealth has barely glanced at the possibilities. 

At the same time, in view of the geological 
aspect of the question, early regulation and con- 
trol of artesian bores is a national necessity. 

It has now been proved by meteorologists that 
Australia is not a drought-stricken country. In- 
creased production of recent years has been due, 
not to better seasons — for the seasons have not 
been exceptionally rainy — but to improved farm- 
ing methods, particularly in "dry" areas, and also 
to an extension of conservation, storage, irriga- 
tion, better transport, and the artesian supply. 

Mr. H. A. Hunt, Federal Meteorologist, has 
made a most interesting analysis of Australian 
rainfalls and their results. He shows that the 
setbacks of past years were due, not to nature, 
but to human ignorance. 

"In Australia," says this gifted scientist, "past 
failures and losses have been due to a variety of 
causes; amongst them may be enumerated a non- 
appreciation of the absence of natural water- 
storage, an ignorance of the adaptability of local 
soils and climate, unsuitable methods of working, 
a want of knowledge of the existence of a consider- 
able supply of artesian and sub-artesian waters, 
inadequate means of transit— both internal and 
external — and an uncertain market for products. 
The staple product upon which Australia has 
developed is undoubtedly wool, and this item of 
commerce is still its chief export. We have not 
to go back many years to the time when the 
grower of wool was much in the dark as to the 
value of his crop. The mutton was of very little 
value to the producer, the demand for such being 
entirely confined to our own population. The 
wool was sent to the home markets entirely at 
the grower's risk, and the price he obtained for it 
there was quite a speculation. The conditions 













S3 

ce 
fit 
O 

M 
B 



98 



IRRIGATION AND ARTESIAN WATER 



99 



being such, there was little incentive to make ex- 
tensive monetary outlays for the conservation of 
water and fodder, for the preservation of an asset 
of varying and uncertain value. Consequently 
when our seasonal dry periods came round (which 
are undoubtedly periods of soil rest) disaster was 
inevitable to a more or less extent. 

"Australia's commercial enterprise is quite on 
a different basis now. With the perfection of 
refrigerating appliances the meat markets of the 
world are open to it. The demand for Aus- 
tralia's wool has become such a factor in the 
world's supply that if the clip is short the grow- 
ers, as a body, reap compensation in the enhanced 
monetary value obtained. 

"The vicissitudes of wheat-growing tell much 
the same tale. The sowing of drought-resisting 
grain, dry-farming methods, and scientific manur- 
ing have, however, brought the proposition of 
profitable wheat-growing from the problematical 
to the actual stage. The output has been steadily 
growing from year to year, and, considering that 
nearly 500,000 square miles of the continent re- 
ceive a sufficient average rainfall, i.e., 10 in. and 



over during the wheat-growing period (April to 
October), the possibilities of future development 
in this direction are inestimable. The climatic 
history and prosperity of the last ten years or so 
contradict emphatically the preconceived notion 
that Australia is a particularly drought-stricken 
and precarious area of the earth's surface. The 
truth of the matter about Australia's rainfall is 
that, over two-thirds of its area, it is generally 
ample for pastoral and agricultural industries; 
that different regions have distinct seasonal dry 
and wet periods; and that it is subject in part, but 
never in the whole, to prolonged periods when 
the rainfall is short of the seasonal average. Aus- 
tralia is not peculiar in this respect." 

For the sake of future development Mr. Hunt 
advises the locking and damming of the Darling 
River, and the conservation, in natural storages, 
of tropical rains along the western slopes of the 
Great Dividing Chain. 

Water, he contends, can thus be conveyed by 
canals and pipes to the interior, to convert large 
areas thereof into the most productive pastoral 
and agricultural land. 





ri* 



The Bed of the Fitzroy Elver, Hughenden, Queensland 
(Showing how Water Is obtained for Irrigating In a Dry DUtrlct) 




a 



lOO 



(lOl) 




Trucking Ore from Whim Creek to BaUa Balla, W.A. 



UNDEVELOPED INDUSTRIES. 



THE European War has taught Austraha 
many lessons. The nation realizes at last 
the necessity for developing its own trade 
and industry, for supporting its own manufac- 
tures, encouraging local talent, and fostering 
native art. The coming years are likely to be 
strenuously devoted to a general building up of 
Australian production and commerce. 

We have all the raw products. We can obtain 
all the capital and labor necessary. We intend 
to utilize within the boundaries of our Common- 
wealth opportunities which we have hitherto 
wasted or left undeveloped. In this building 
up there will be 'opportunities for labor and 
capital unequalled in the history of industrial 
civilization. 

It is the policy which is going to make Australia 
the richest and most powerful, as she is now the 
freest and most prosperous, nation of the world. 

We will preserve and increase the freedom of 
our national institutions, while offering to our citi- 
zens, and to those eligible for citizenship, chances 
and securities such as no other land can give. 

The breed that stormed and held the heights 
of Anzac will grow stronger and more self-reliant 
as their generations follow. The home-land suns 
that browned their burly frames will not cease to 
shine from out our blue Australian heavens; the 
home winds that filled their mighty lungs will not 
cease to blow, and there will be white Australian 
loaves and good Australian beef and butter to 
give them stamina. 



Their well-fed, well-developed bodies will house 
vigorous and intellectual minds. They will be 
just, powerful and humane. 

This policy of Australian development is 
already a fixed national ideal. 

In September, 19 15, the Federal Minister for 
Customs asked the Interstate Tariff Commission 
to report as to what new industries could with 
advantage be established in the Commonwealth. 
The Commission's report was presented to the 
Federal Parliament in due course. In their con- 
clusions, the Commissioners said : — 

"So far as those industries which are already 
in existence in Australia are concerned, it has 
been shown that there is opportunity for greater 
enterprise, better efficiency, and a wider output. 
What entirely new industries may be established 
is a question depending almost wholly on the con- 
dition whether private enterprise, capital, and 
expert labour are available for the purpose. This 
fortunately has been the case with the iron and 
steel industry, which promises an expansion in 
industrial activity exceeding by far anything 
which may be anticipated from any other source. 
If this be successful, the local market is capable 
of absorbing material to the value of several mil- 
lions sterling, and we may look forward to sup- 
plying our own requirements of rails, iron and 
steel wire, sheet, rod, angle and constructional 
iron and steel, together with innumerable other 
articles not at present made here. Attention is, 



I02 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



in partiri^lat-, :4tf*irable to the following matters, 
as to which a large local dcrqand exists: — 

Copper, wire, rod, tubes, and sheet from the 
copper. 

Tops, yarn, and the weaving of woollen 
fabrics from our own raw material. 

The saving and utilisation of the immense 
quantities of fats and oils, the by-products of 
wool-scouring, at present run to waste. 



of alunite, valued at £13,700. Alum is used 
in dyeing as a mordant, in the manufacture of 
white leather, for sizing paper, to harden 
plaster of Paris, in medicine, etc. 

The systematic exploration of promising 
localities in Australia, with the view of the 
possible discovery of natural petroleum de- 
posits. 

The manufacture of tinplate from our own 
raw material. 




Cedar Logs, Atherton Scrub, Q. 



Improvement of the process of tanning and 
preparation of leathers, so that their reputa- 
tion may command a demand in foreign mar- 
kets in preference to the hides from which they 
are made. 

Investigation as to the possibility of obtain- 
ing tannin extracts of commercial value from 
barks other than wattle. 

The prospect of the profitable production of 
alkalies from the natural salt deposits of South 
and Western Australia. 

The economic production of wood pulp from 
the fibre of the forest trees of Australia, or 
from other material which may be successfully 
cultivated here for the purpose. 

The production of alum and potash from 
the local deposits of alunite, one of which, in 
the county of Gloucester, New South Wales, 
is said to be "one of the most remarkable in 
the world." In 1912 we exported 3,425 tons 



The possible utilisation of cheap water-power 
for the purpose of manufacturing calcium car- 
bide. 

The local cultivation of the better qualities of 
tobacco. 

The local manufacture of margarine, for 
which there is an immense market abroad. 

The growing of flax for fibre and linseed. 

The manufacture of zinc oxide. 

The cheapening of the cost of sugar for 
manufacturing purposes. 

"The systematic application of scientific re- 
search and scientific knowledge to the develop- 
ment of all forms of practical industry," the 
report continues, "has long been an outstanding 
feature of the modern industrial world, and is 
fostered as a matter of prime importance by the 
Government of Germany and other progressive 
countries. In Australia there has been hitherto 



UNDEVELOPED INDUSTRIES 



103 




Brick and Drain Pipe Works, Lithgow, N.S.W. 



no co-ordinated effort in this direction, but the 
discovery of new methods of utilising raw 
materials obtainable here has been left in part to 
the voluntary effort of enthusiasts connected with 
the universities or technical colleges, and, in part, 
to the work of private individuals or companies, 
who believe that they see some particular opening 
for new undertakings by the study of some special 
scientific process. While the Commonwealth en- 
courages industry by tariff taxation and by boun- 
ties, it has no recognised organ for the discovery 
of new methods of using local products or for 
diffusing a knowledge of scientific processes 
amongst our producers and manufacturers. A 
Commonwealth department, operating upon the 
problems of secondary as well as of primary pro- 
duction, might well be constituted with a view to 
the systematic application of science to Australian 
industry." 

Following this most valuable report, the Prime 
Minister, Right Hon. W. M. Hughes, who had 
already done a mighty service to the Common- 
wealth in freeing its base-metal production from 
alien domination, summoned a conference in Mel- 
bourne to deal with vital questions of national 
research. 



Delegates came from all the States. They 
represented both the Science and Commerce of 
Australia. 

The Prime Minister put forward a list of prob- 
lems awaiting solution. These included: — 

Eradication of vegetable pests, such as prickly 
pear, Bathurst burr, Nagorra burr, Califor- 
nia thistle. Darling pea, St. John's wort, 
onion grass, poison plants, etc. 

Eradication of animal and insect pests, such 
as rabbits, flies, tick, mosquitoes, white ants, 
mice, locusts, codlin moth, etc. 

Liquids for branding sheep and cattle that will 
be harmless to skins. 

Preparation of skins for market, and removal 
of wool and hair, prior to tanning. 

Maintenance of high class types in sheep, 
cattle, and horses. 

Scientific method of killing, dressing, and 
classifying meat for export. 

Possibility of establising carbonising works for 
the removal of burr and grass seed from 
wool. 

Utilisation and recovery of by-products from 
blood, bones, glue, gelatine, etc. 



104 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Prevention of evaporation and absorption of 

water from tanks and dams. 
Utilisation and purification of artesian water 

for irrigation purposes. 
Cultivation of Australian saltbushes and in- 
digenous grasses. 
Re-establishment of salsolaceous plants on alka- 
line soils in dry districts, with and without 
artesian water. 
Cultivation of medicinal plants. 
Cultivation of fibre plants, for paper-making. 
Manufacture of nitrogenous fertilisers from 

the atmosphere. 
Manufacture of nitric acid from the atmo- 
sphere. 
Production of potash salts for agriculture. 
Reduction of losses of coal in coal-mining, 
recovery and utilisation of by-products of 
coal and coke industries. 
Recovery of zinc from its ores. 
Manufacture of calcium carbide. 
Manufacture of alkalies. 

Production by electric furnace of ferro-chrome, 
ferro-tungsten, ferro-molybdenum, ferro- 
manganese, ferro-titanium, ferro-nickel. 
Production of aluminium and its alloys. 
Recovery of sulphuric acid, arsenic, etc., from 

minerals. 
Broadly outlined by the Prime Minister, the 
proposals of the Federal Government aimed at 
co-ordinating existing institutions — Common- 
wealth laboratory, universities, agricultural col- 
leges, technical and mining schools, and ordinary 
schools. The objective aimed at was to apply 
to pastoral industry, agriculture, mining, and 
manufacture the resources of science in such a 
way as to more effectively develop our unlimited 
national resources. Consideration must also be 
given to investigation and industrial research, 
such as the study of problems associated with our 
great primary industries, pastoral, agricultural, 
viticultural, and the mining of coal and metals, 
and the metallurgical treatment of the latter; and 
the chemical and physical study of problems bear- 
ing on the secondary (manufacturing) industries, 
with a view particularly to the improvement of 
the quality of manufactures, the reduction of the 
cost of production, and whenever economically 
possible the utilisation of waste materials. 

An advisory committee was appointed, which, 
after a fortnight's deliberation, presented to 
Cabinet a report and recommendations. 

The establishment of a Commonwealth Insti- 
tute of Science and Industry, aided by an advisory 
council consisting of nine representing members, 
was advised. 

This proposal has met with Government 
approval. The advisory council is in process 
of appointment as this section goes to press. 



The plain duty before us is to develop our 
resources; to create power and wealth for our- 
selves and for our national relations and friends. 

From Germany in 19 12 we imported goods to 
the value of ^7,153,543 — about one-eleventh of 
our total imports. 

These included apparel (nearly two million 
pounds' worth), manufactured metals (worth 
another two millions), beverages, dressed leather, 
and other articles which we were quite capable of 
producing, and in the future will produce for our- 
selves. 

There was not an article on the list of German 
imports that Australia could not have provided. 

Our grass-tree gum had been going to Germany 
in large quantities. Some of it was actively re- 
turned to us in the form of high explosive. 

Not long ago the Imperial Institute brought 
under the notice of the Commonwealth that there 
is a good demand in England for white diatoma- 
ceous earth of good quality. 

This substance, which is technically known as 
kieselguhr, occurs in several localities in New 
South Wales, as at Cooma, in the neighbourhood 
of Barraba, and the Warrumbungle Mountains. 
In 1897 Mr. G. W. Card wrote an interesting 
pamphlet on these deposits in New South Wales, 
stating that their existence had long been known, 
and from time to time the possibility of utilising 
these, more especially in the manufacture of dyna- 
mite, had long been considered. Many new uses 
are now being found for the material. 

Mr. R. T. Baker, Curator of the Technological 
Museum in Sydney, in a newspaper interview 
recently, said : — 

"At the present time European sources of 
marble are, of course, entirely closed as far as 
Belgium, France, and Germany are concerned, 
and a great opportunity has arisen for the devel- 
opment of our own marbles. For instance, 
European black marble is quite unprocurable here 
now. To replace this our black Windellama 
marble might be substituted. It is in every 
respect equal to the best Belgian black marble. 
It is just being realised in commercial circles at 
last that in Australia there is to be found suffi- 
cient building material in our rocks and marbles 
to supply all the nation's wants, both in quality 
and quantity. 

"As regards tests, in several instances it has 
been proved that Australian marbles stand a 
greater crushing strain than even our granites. 
This demonstrates that Australian marbles have 
a much closer texture than the imported ones, and 
this enhances their value to the builder and archi- 
tect very considerably." 

Similarly, the higher quality and superior value 
of Australian hardwoods and ornamental timbers 



UNDEVFLOPEI) INDUSTRIES . 



lO! 



are only just beginning to be realised at home. 
Thirty million Australian eucalypts were planted 
in the United States in 1913. 

The Eucalyptus Hardwood Association of Cali- 
fornia recently announced that hardwood tool- 
handles were giving great satisfaction, and were 
considered equal to the best second-growth hic- 
kory. Yet tool-handles to the value of £44,237 
were imported into Australia in 1912! 

Australian hardwoods are easier to work than 
oaks, walnuts, and other imported timbers. A 
4x4 hardwood scantling is equal in breaking 



mtellectually progressive, we have been much 
behindhand in our local manufactures. Impor- 
tation was a national weakness. 

Approximately, Australia consumes two million 
gallons of linseed oil per annum, equal to 25,000 
tons of seed, nearly every pound-weight of which 
is imported. Every ounce of it should be grown 
in the Commonwealth. 

The grease of our wools is a most valuable 
by-product which we have exported and then re- 
miported as lanoline, etc., from Germany and 
elsewhere for years. 




Electrolytic Eoom, Cobar Copper Works, N.S.W. 



Strain to a 4 x 3 oregon. Yet in 19 13, over 41 
million feet of Oregon were used, with hardwood 
at 13/- a hundred, and oregon at 17/6! 

Meanwhile America was paying twice as much 
for Australian hardwood as they were for their 
own Oregon, and regarded it as a far more useful 
and durable timber. 

Our trees mature much more quickly than the 
trees of other countries. For furniture and deco- 
rative work we have the most beautiful woods 
in the world. Although we have a greater rail- 
way mileage per 1000 of the population than any 
other country, although we are politically and 



We possess the finest clays for potteries, but 
we have made little use of them so far. 

We are blessed with enormous deposits of 
shale — over ten million tons, 60 years' work, exist 
in one mine — and the existence of mineral oil 
has been established in Papua and on the main- 
land. Yet we imported all the mineral oils con- 
sumed in the Commonwealth. 

Although the British Army Council, before and 
during the war, largely used American electrolytic 
copper, Australian refined copper is admitted by 
arsenals and principal electrical works to be of 
excellent quality. 



io6 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



It was eagerly sought after by German buyers 
during their military-preparatory period, and 
much of it was also returned to us with our grass- 
tree gum. 

Around our shores marine product of inestim- 
able value awaits exploitation — tons of fish suit- 
able for canning, beche de mer, trepang, shell, 
kelp, oil, bone, and fertilizer by-products. 

Just as the milling of our wheat here (occa- 
sioned by war conditions) yields us additional 
profits in wages, etc., of over a million and a 
quarter, so the canning and preparing of our own 
fish will prove a huge source of national income. 



Imported flour in 19 15 convinced our too-often 
unpatriotic housewives of the superiority of the 
Australian staple. 

In view of this fact the assertion that we can 
increase our annual wheat yield to 800 million 
bushels is received with pleasure. 

The millions of money that have gone to our 
enemies we shall in the future keep for ourselves. 
Primary production will be increased by increas- 
ing manufacture, and the undeveloped industries 
of this continent will provide wealth and pros- 
perity for Australian citizens. 




Half a Ton of Rock Ling 



( 107) 



FEDERAL ADMINISTRATION. 



POST, TELEGRAPH, AND TELEPHONES. 



IT is a common fact that all machines work 
stiffly at the beginning. Time, friction, and 
well-oiled parts lead ultimately to smoother 
running. After Federation, special legislation, 
for which there was no precedent, had to be in- 
troduced to meet wider national needs. State 
Departments, such as the Post Office and Tele- 
graphs, had to be brought under one control. 
Co-ordination of departmental activities is not 
yet complete in Federal administration. It will 
be a long time before the work of nation-building 
has reached its finished results. But the work is 
going on steadily, peacefully, and in accord with 
the spirit which induced the various States to 
unite as an Australian Commonwealth. 



Federal legislation in most instances has been 
framed to increase the general welfare of the Aus- 
tralian people. 

In some cases — the Sugar Bonus Act, for 
example — special measures have been passed to 
meet the necessities of individual States. 

Certain State activities and changes, such as 
lighthouses, have fallen naturally under Common- 
wealth control. Others it became necessary to 
establish; others yet were called forth by the war. 

Special Acts of Federal legislation have given 
additional powers to the Commonwealth (lovern- 
ment. Some powers conferred by the Consti- 
tution have been assumed as a matter of course 
or convenience. 




Martin Place and O.P.O., Sydney 



io8 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Public Works Offices, Sydney 



The postal, telegraphic, and telephone systems 
of the States were quickly Federalized and taken 
over. 

Since 1901 they have presented succeeding 
Ministers with anxious problems. The complete 
solution of these administrative and financial pro- 
blems will require time. Neither with public 
education nor the post office in a country so wide 
and undeveloped as ours, can we look too closely 
at the margins between expenditure and returns. 

LIniform postal rates now exist in all the States. 
There were, at the end of 1913, 5853 post offices 
open for business in the Australian Common- 
wealth. During that year in round numbers 521 
millions of letters and postcards had been handled 
by our postal authorities, 137 millions of news- 
papers, 70 millions of packets, and four and a 
quarter million parcels. 

Although a widely-scattered people, it can be 
seen from this that the transmission of news and 
intelligence is greater per average — and mileage 
— than that of most countries. The universal rate 
of postage for letters in the Commonwealth has 



been fixed since 19 10 at one penny per half-ounce; 
printed papers as prescribed a halfpenny per 20z. 
or part of 20z.; books printed outside the Com- 
monwealth, 4d. per 40Z. or part of 40Z.; for 
books printed in Australia, Ul. per 8oz. or part of 
80Z. 

The latter, a preferential rate, was instituted 
with a view to offering some slight encouragement 
to Australian publishing. 

Magazines, reviews, serials, and similar matter 
printed and published in Australia, are carried at 
Id. per 8 ounces or part of 8 ounces. Imported 
productions of similar character are charged Ad. 
per 4 ounces or part of 4 ounces. 

Commercial papers, patterns, samples, and mer- 
chandise as prescribed pay id. per two ounces or 
part of two ounces. Newspapers of Australian 
origin — under the prescribed conditions — id. per 
20 ounces, and all other newspapers jd. per 10 
ounces or part of 10 ounces. 

Postage for interstate letters and letters to the 
United Kingdom and British possessions all o\er 
the world is now uniformly one penny per half- 



FEDERAL ADMINISTRATION 



109 



ounce. The rate on letters to foreign countries, 
(excepting New Hebrides, Banks and Torres 
Islands, where the rate is a penny per half-ounce), 
is twopence halfpenny for each half-ounce. 

In November, 1907, the Federal Government 
entered Into an agreement with the Orient Steam 
Navigation Company Ltd., providing for a fort- 
nightly mail service to Europe for a period of ten 
years, commencing February, 19 10. The mail 



Taranto to x\delaide is to be completed within 
twenty-six days fourteen hours, and from Adelaide 
to Taranto within twenty-seven days two hours, 
but the latter period may be exceeded by thirty-six 
hours during the prevalence of the south-west 
monsoon. The amount of the subsidy is fixed at 
£170,000 per annum; but, if the earnings of the 
company be decreased, or the expenses increased, 
by reason of any Commonwealth shipping legis- 




Hinton Bridge, N.S.W. 



service was to be carried out by existing vessels 
belonging to the company and by five new mail 
ships, which have been specially built, and which 
are each over 12,000 tons gross registered ton- 
nage and of not less than seventeen knots speed. 
An additional new vessel was to be ad4ed within 
eighteen months, and another within six years, 
from P^ebruary, 1910, and the first of these — the 
Orama — entered into running during Novem- 
ber, 191 1. The vessels are to call at Fremantle, 
Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane, and 
at least six of them at Hobart during the months 
of February to May inclusive. The voyage from 



lation passed subsequently to the date of the agree- 
ment, to the extent of not less than £5000 a 
year, the contractors have the right to terminate 
the agreement unless the subsidy is increased. 
Insulated space of not less than 2000 tons of 
forty cubic feet is to be provided in each of the 
new vessels, and the freights are not to exceed 
one halfpenny per lb. for butter and sixty shillings 
per ton for fruit. White labour only is to be 
employed, and no discrimination is to be made 
between unionists and non-unionists. If before or 
during the sixth year of the period of the contract 
an accelerated service is provided by any compet- 



I 10 



AUSTRiVLIA UNLIMITED 



ing line of mail ships, the contractors must, if so 
required by the Postmaster-General, provide a 
service equal to the competing service, at an in- 
creased subsidy, to be determined by agreement 
or arbitration. The Commonwealth flag must 
be flovi'n on the mail ships, which the Common- 
wealth has the right to purchase at a valuation 
at any time. Within six months of the Post- 
master-General establishing a permanent wireless 
telegraphy station at Rottnest Island, or at any 
point on the coast between Fremantle and Bris- 
bane, the company must fit the mail ships with 
wireless telegraphy installations. The new service 
was inaugurated on the iith February, 1910. 

At present, mails to and from Europe via San 
Francisco are carried by the Union Steamship Co., 
subsidised by the New Zealand Government, and 
the Oceanic Co., each of which talies Australian 
mails at poundage rates. The services are once in 
four weeks. 

Before the war the Norddeutscher Lloyd had 
maintained a service between Germany and Aus- 
tralia, via Genoa, which was subsidised (since 
i8<S6) by the German Imperial Government. 

The Messageries Maritimes was also subsidised 
by the French Government (£120,000) for the 
carriage of mails between Marseilles and New 
Caledonia. 

Apart from main postal routes, the Common- 
wealth Postal Department maintains services, 
regular and otherwise, with various parts of the 
world. 

Subsidies paid for services between Australian 
ports amount to nearly £5 1,000 annually. 

The average time occupied in conveyance of 
mails between Adelaide and London and London 
and Adelaide during 19 13 was 28 days 18 hours. 
Melbourne receives its English mail by train 17^ 
hours later, Sydney 42 hours, allowing for a seven- 
hours' stop-over at the Victorian capital. 

In 1913 nearly nine millions value was issued 
in money orders and £3,550,781 in postal notes. 
Commission and poundage on these transactions 
amouted to £133,132. By railway, water, and 
other modes of transit the mails of the 
Commonwealth were travelled in 19 13 over 
nearly 43 millions of miles. 

The national postal system found employment 
for just on thirty thousand people, besides 5342 
mail contractors. Its gross revenues, inclusive 
of telegraphs and telephones, reached over four 
and a half million sterling. 

The total deficit on working during 1913-14 
was over half a million. A recent increase in 
telephone rates, with the introduction of more 
economical management, is expected to make up 
the deficiency. 



The first electric telegraph for public use was 
introduced into Australia in 1854, as a short line 
between Melbourne and VVilliamstown. In 1856 
Adelaide and Port Adelaide were connected. In 
1857 the first Tasmanian line was completed, and 
in 1858 Sydney and Liverpool were joined. The 
first line in Queensland — Brisbane to Rockhamp- 
ton — was opened in 1864. Perth and Fremantle 
were brought together in 1869, and the same year 
Tasmania was connected with the mainland by 
cable. 

In 1 9 13 the Commonwealth owned 46,218 
miles of line, and there were 4,624 public tele- 
graph offices in Australia and Tasmania. During 
that year over thirteen and a half million tele- 
grams were dispatched from those offices. 

The charges for telegrams of 16 words have 
been 6d. within prescribed town and suburban 
areas, ninepence within State boundaries, and one 
shilling interstate, with a general rate of one 
penny for every extra word. 

Newspaper wires are despatched at special 
rates. Commencing in February, 1914, the Postal 
Department instituted a system of letter-telegrams 
between all telegraph offices which are open be- 
tween 7 p.m. and midnight. The letter-telegrams 
are forwarded during the night by telegraph to 
the office of destination and are delivered as 
ordinary letters by the first letter delivery, or are 
despatched by mail to the address in the ordinary 
way. The rates charged throughout the Common- 
wealth are one shilling for the first 40 words, 
and one halfpenny for each additional word, 
double these rates being charged on Sundays. At 
present the service extends to 60 offices in the 
Commonwealth. 

Under the Wireless Telegraphy Act, the Post- 
master-General holds an exclusive right to estab- 
lish wireless stations and appliances within Aus- 
tralia. He is empowered to grant licenses for 
this purpose, but all experimental licenses were 
cancelled at the beginning of the war, and all 
private installations dismantled for the duration 
of hostilities. The Act does not apply to the 
Royal Navy. The Commonwealth has a con- 
necting circle of, nineteen wireless stations around 
the Australian mainland, and stations at Mac- 
quarie Island, Woodlark Island, Rabaul, Wil- 
helmshaven, Nauru, and Bougainville. The four 
latter are located on former German territory, 
now occupied by our Government. Forwarding 
rates between the mainland and these are 3d. per 
word. 

The high-power stations are Sydney, Perth, 
Woodlark Island, and Port Darwin. These will 
form the Australian unit in the Imperial scheme 
of radio-telegraphic communication. At the con- 
clusion of the war the Postal Department pro- 



FEDERAL ADMINISTRATION 



1 1 



mises an inland scheme, under which isolated 
homesteads can be connected with the ordinary 
land ser\ices. 

The Eastern Extension cable system links Aus- 
tralia with the outside world, via Port Darwin, 
by several branches. The "All Red" Pacific cable 
system was completed in 1902. The Australian 
shore end is at Southport, in Queensland, and 
there are stations on this route at Norfolk Island, 
Fiji, and Fanning Island. A land wire leased by 
the Pacific Cable Board joins Bamfield, British 
Columbia, to Montreal, and the Anglo-American 
and Commercial Cable Companies transmit the 
messages of this system across the Atlantic. The 
loss on the Pacific system (proportion of which 
is borne by the Commonwealth) is a steadily de- 
creasing quantity. The administration is by a 
board consisting of two representatives each from 
Cjreat Britain, Canada, and Australia, and one 
from New Zealand. 

New Caledonia and New Zealand have 
separate cable systems. The latter is jointly sub- 
sidised by the Governments of France and the 
Commonwealth. Altogether 72,000 miles of 
submarine cables and connecting land wires have 
terminals in Australia. 

The standard public rate for cable messages 



between the Commonwealth and Great Britain 
is now three shillings a word, and sevenpence 
halfpenny a word for "through" press messages. 

"Deferred" cablegrams can he sent under cer- 
tain conditions at a reduction of 50 per cent. 
These messages can only be transmitted after non- 
urgent private wires and press cablegrams. They 
may be sent via Pacific and Eastern routes to coun- 
tries to which the ordinary rate exceeds tenpence 
per word. 

Week-end cable letters are now charged at nine- 
pence per word to the United Kingdom and Portu- 
gal, yd. South African Union, 7 id. India, Ceylon, 
and Burma, yd. Canada. The minimum charge 
on these lettergrams varies from 15/- to the 
United Kingdom and Portugal, 118 Africa and 
Canada, and 126 India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Total cable subsidies paid by the Common- 
wealth in 1913-14 were £10,650. The Postal 
Department has established telephone services in 
all the capital cities and important towns through- 
out the Commonwealth. These in the year 19 13 
totalled 1 181 exchanges, with a subscribers' list 
of 107,553. ^f" exclusive service the Govern- 
ment telephone rental charges vary from £3 to £4, 
with twopence per call under the recently-increased 
rates. 



CUSTOMS AND TARIFF. 



UNDER the Constitution, uniform rates of 
Customs duties are now imposed, with free 
trade between the Australian States. 

The responsibility of shipowners, charterers, 
masters, or agents in regard to goods carried by 
sea has been defined by a Federal Act of Parlia- 
ment since 1905. An Act relating to Secret Com- 
missions, Rebates, and Profits was passed in the 
same year, together with an Act "to compel the 
placing of a proper description on certain pre- 
scribed goods, on packages containing the same, 
being imports or exports of the Commonwealth." 

"An Act for the Preservation of Australian In- 
dustries and for the Repression of Destructive 
Monopolies" was embodied in the Federal 
Statutes in 1906. This Act is aimed at trusts 
and combinations in trade or commerce, injurious 
or detrimental to the public. It has been amended 
in 1908, 1909-1910. 

"Preferential duties of Customs on certain 
goods the produce or manufacture of the British 
Colonies or Protectorates in South Africa" were 
agreed to in 1906. 



The Customs Tariff Act of 1908, repealed pre- 
vious tariffs and imposed new rates of .duties, with 
preference on certain goods "the produce or manu- 
facture of the United Kingdom." 

The Customs Act of 19 10 gives the Customs 
control of all goods for export, the exportation 
of which is subject to compliance with any con- 
dition or restriction under any Act or regulation, 
extends the machinery provisions for the preven- 
tion of the importation or exportation of goods 
which are prohibited imports or exports respec- 
tively, amends the provisions for the payment 
of duty under protest, gives the Governor-General 
power to prescribe the nature, size, and material 
of the coverings for packages, and the maximum 
or minimum weight or quantity to be contained 
in any one package of goods imported or exported, 
or transported coastwise from one State to an- 
other; the condition of preparation or manufac- 
ture for export of any articles used for, or in the 
manufacture of, food or drink by man; the con- 
ditions as to purity, soundness, and freedom from 
disease to be conformed to by the goods for ex- 
port. 



I 12 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Ocean and Interstate Liners, 



Customs and Excise yielded £14,881,070 of 
revenue during 19 13-14. After the outbreak 
of war special Acts were passed relating to trading 
with the enemy, and stringent regulations enforced 
by proclamation regarding Australian exports and 
imports. 

A complete reorganization of all matters re- 
lating to trade and production is certain. 

At the moment of writing it seems that pre- 
ferential duties will be a first axiom in the future 
tariff, that trade legislation will be enacted having 
for its object first the development of Australian 
trade, commerce, and manufacture, with sympa- 
thetic treatment of certain imports and manufac- 
tures of the Empire and its Allies. 

In 191 2-13 — the last year from which normal 
figures can be given — the total value of oversea 
imports for each inhabitant of the Commonwealth 



was £16/12/-, of exports £16 7/2. The total 
sum collected in duties on merchandise, includ- 
ing spirits and tobacco, was £12,545,135. Future 
figures will doubtless show a great diminution in 
the annual value of imports and a great increase 
in that of exports. Australia, as a producer of 
food and raw products, has hardly touched the 
fringe of her possibilities. 

Trade between the Commonwealth and the 
Orient has greatly increased in volume since the 
war, particularly in regard to Japan. 

There is no reason why amicable commercial 
relations should not be sustained between the two 
countries. Japan has need of much Australian 
raw product. "Reciprocity," according to Con- 
fucius, is the one word likely to express all virtues. 
It is a term which can surely be applied as between 
Japan and Australia. 



FKDKRAL ADMINISTRATION 



iM 




and Ferry-Boats on Sydney Harbor 



COMMERCE AND FINANCE. 



SHIPPING, navigation, quarantine, light- 
houses, lightships, beacons, and buoys are 
under the control of the Commonwealth. 
On arrival of every vessel at a port in the 
Commonwealth, whether from an oversea country 
or from another port within the Commonwealth, 
the master is required to deliver to the Customs 
officer a form giving all particulars, necessary for 
statistical purposes, in regard to the ship, pas- 
sengers and crew. Similarly, on departure from 
a port, a form containing corresponding informa- 
tion is lodged. These forms, which provide a 
complete record of the movements of every vessel 
in Commonwealth waters, are at the end of each 
month forwarded by the Customs officer at each 



port to the Commonwealth Bureau of Statistics, 
and furnish the material for the compilation of 
the shipping and migration returns. 

Entries and clearances during 19 13 amounted 
to over ten and a half million tons. Of this Ger- 
many was credited with by far the highest propor- 
tion. 

The tonnage entered at Sydney exceeded that 
of every port in the United Kingdom except Lon- 
don, Liverpool-Birkenhead, Cardiff, and the Tyne 
ports. The gross tonnage of vessels engaged in 
regular interstate and coastal services for that 
year throughout the Commonwealth had reached 
364,937 tons — the growth of 61 years. 



114 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Circular Quay, Sydney 



Under the Constitution, Federal governments 
have power to legislate with respect to banking 
and the issue of paper-money. 

By an Act passed in 1910, the Treasurer was 
empowered to issue notes as legal tender through- 
out the Commonwealth, and redeemable at the 
seat of Federal Government. These notes have 
been issued at 10/-, £1, .£5, £10, £20, £50, and 
£100. 

There are still 23 private banks trading in 
the Commonwealth under various charters, four 
of which have their head offices in London, but 
the private note issue has now ceased. 

The Commonwealth Bank was formally estab- 
lished by Act of Parliament in the latter part of 
191 1, and opened in 1 913. It received no power 
to issue notes: but has the usual functions and 
powers of a proprietary institution. 



This national bank is controlled by a Governor 
and Deputy-Governor appointed for seven years, 
subject to correct administration and eligible for 
re-appointment. 

A Savings-bank department has been establishetl 
in connection with its operations, and the various 
departments of Commonwealth go\ernment now 
transact all their banking business through it. 

The total paid-up capital of all cheque-paying 
banks of Australia for 19 13-14, amounted to 
£31,142,583. The total deposits for 19 14, all 
States, equalled £163,854,555, averaging £34/4/ 7 
per head of the Australian population. 

Revenues. — The Commonwealth Surplus Re- 
venue Act of 1910, passed by the Fisher adminis- 
tration for a period of at least ten years, provided 
"that the Commonwealth was to retain the whole 
of the Customs and Excise revenue, and to make 



I 



FEDERAL ADMINISTRATION 



115 



to the Government of each State (by monthly in- 
stalments) an annual payment, equal to 25/- per 
head of the population of the State. The popula- 
tion of a State in any financial year was considered, 
for the purposes of this Act, to be the number esti- 
mated by the Commonwealth Statistician as ex- 
isting in the State on the 31st December falling in 
that financial year." 

Bv the same Act extra financial assistance was 
provided for the States of Tasmania and West 
Australia, in consideration of the sacrifices made 
by these smaller States in yielding control of their 
Customs revenues to the Commonwealth. 



first complete financial year to £21,741,775 for 
1913-14, or £4/5/3 per unit of the population. 

Of this. Customs, Excise, Postal, and Land 
Taxation contributed the greater proportion. 

A Federal Land Tax was first imposed 
in 1910. In the Budget of 19 14-15 this 
tax was raised by altering the graduation 
so that the increase in rate over the whole 
taxable value of the estate, for each suc- 
ceeding pound of taxable value between £5000 
and £75,000, was one eighteen-thousand seven- 
hundred and fiftieth of a penny, instead of one 
thirty-thousandth of a penny, as hitherto. The 




The Law Courts, Melbourne 



Under these grants Tasmania receives a first 
annual instalment of £95,000; then eight annual 
payments of £90,000 each, and a final douceur 
of £85,000. 

Western Australia receives for ten years an 
annual payment, beginning with £250,000, and 
progressively diminishing by £10,000 each subse- 
quent vear. 

One-half the amount was to be detailed to all 
the States (including Western Australia) in pro- 
portion to population. 

The consolidated revenue of the Common- 
wealth had increased from £11,296,985 in the 



maximum rate for resident owners now becomes 
9d. in the £, on estates whose taxable value is 
more than £75,000. Corresponding increases in 
the rates payable by absentee owners were made, 
rising to a maximum of lod. in the £ on estates 
whose taxable value is more than £80,000. These 
advances are estimated as likely to increase the 
annual yield of the Land Tax by £1,000,000. 
In addition to this, the Federal Government has, 
for the first time, introduced succession duties on 
estates of deceased persons, in additicn to those 
already imposed by the State Governments. Fhe 
new Commonwealth scale of succession duty, after 



ii6 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



starting by the exemption of all estates of less than 
£1000, ranges from a minimum of i per cent, to 
a maximum of 15 per cent, on estates of a higher 
taxable value than £71,000. 

The Federal revenue from Land Taxation for 
the Commonwealth was £1,459,962 for the year 
ending 30th June, 1913. 

Patents, Trade Marks, Copyright, and Designs 
are vested in the Commonwealth. The total re- 
venue from these for the year mentioned fell 
short of thirty thousand pounds. It is possible 
that amending legislation dealing with these 
matters will receive legislative consideration 
when the question of Trade and Tariff are re- 
vised at the conclusion of the war. 

Acts for the enforcement of arbitration in in- 
dustrial disputes are a feature of Australian State 
legislation since 1891. Conciliation and arbitra- 
tion laws exist in each of the States, which have 
been supplemented, but not yet superseded, by 
Federal legislation. 

The Commonwealth principal Arbitration Act 
of 1904 applies only to industrial disputes extend- 
ing beyond the limits of a single State. 

Employers and employees may settle disputes 
and establish conditions of labour by mutual agree- 
ments, which, being registered, have the force of 
awards such as are given direct by the Courts in 
cases referred to them where the parties do not 
agree. 

In Commonwealth administration the Court 
consists of a judge of the Federal High Court. 
This Court may, on application from an original 
party, appoint two assessors at any stage of the 
dispute. 

Cases are brought before the Court either by 
employers or employees. The consent of a 
majority of a union voting at a specially sum- 
moned meeting is necessary to the institution of 
a case; the Commonwealth Act requires the cer- 
tificate of the registrar that it is a proper case for 
consideration. 

Australian industrial legislation aims at pre- 
venting strikes and lockouts in relation to indus- 
trial disputes, other means of settlement being 
provided. Such is the declared object of the Com- 
monwealth Acts. It is decreed that no person or 
organisation shall, on account of any industrial 
dispute, do anything in the nature of a strike or 
lockout, or continue any strike or lockout, under a 
penalty of £1000. The Court may fix and enforce 
penalties for breaches of awards, restrain contra- 
ventions of the Acts, and exercise all the usual 
powers of a court of law. 

The Commonwealth Court may prescribe a 
minimum rate of wage; it may also, as regards 
employment, direct that preference of employ- 



ment or service shall be given to members of 
unions. An opportunity is offered for objection 
to a preference order, and the Court must be 
satisfied that preference is desired by a majority 
of the persons affected by the award who have in- 
terests in common with the applicants. 

The Commonwealth Court is to bring about an 
amicable agreement, if possible to conciliate and 
not to arbitrate, and such agreement may be made 
an award. In order to prevent a matter coming 
into dispute, the President of the Commonwealth 
Arbitration Court may convene a compulsory 
conference under his own presidency. Attendance 
of persons summoned to attend is compulsory. 
Provision is made in the recent Act, whereby, if 
there is no settlement arrived at in the confer- 
ence, the President may refer the matter to the 
Court and then arbitrate on it. 

1 here are four ways in which a matter may be 
brought before the Court — 

(a) By the registrar certifying that it is a 
dispute proper to be dealt with by the 
Court in the public interest. 

(b) By the parties, or one of them, submit- 
ting the dispute to the Court by plaint in 
the prescribed manner. 

(c) By a State Industrial Authority, or the 
Governor-in-Council of a State in which 
there is no such authority, requesting the 
Court to adjudicate. 

(d) By the President referring to the Court 
a dispute as to which he has held a con- 
ference without an agreement being 
reached. 

All parties represented are bound by the award, 
and also all parties within the ambit of a common 
rule. The Court possesses full powers for en- 
forcement of awards. 

Uniformity of industrial legislation is gradually 
being achieved throughout Australia. It is gene- 
rally recognized by capitalists and workers that 
if the principle of arbitration can be successfully 
employed, it is a far better and more humane 
method of settling industrial troubles than that 
of strikes and lockouts. 

If by mischance a man or woman fails in life's 
battle in this gracious land of freedom and 
humanity, they are not penalized for misfortune 
nor driven to end their days as mendicants in 
some cold and cheerless institution. They may, 
as a common right of Australian citizenship, avail 
themselves of the provisions of a Federal old- 
age pension, which, although small, is yet suffi- 
cient to keep them from destitution. Since its 



I 




a 
•a 
>> 
m 






s 
o 






i 



117 



ii8 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



inauguration, years ago, this system has brought 
consolation to some thousands of deserving 
people, and pending a fuller legislative accept- 
ance of the humanitarian doctrine that poverty is 
a social rather than an individual crime, the Old- 
Age Pensions Act will continue to fill a beneficent 
purpose. 

The Commonwealth Invalid and Old-Age Pen- 
sions Act came into operation in 1909-1910. The 
general administration of the Act is, subject to the 
control of the Minister, placed in the hands of the 
Commissioner of Pensions, who is assisted by a 
Deputy Commissioner appointed in each State. 
Power is given to the Commissioner and the 
Deputy Commissioners to summon witnesses, re- 
ceive evidence on oath, and require the production 
of documents for the purposes of the Act. 

Each State is divided into districts, each of 
which is placed in charge of a Registrar, whose 
duties consist in receiving and investigating pen- 
sion claims and in keeping such books and registers 
as are required for carrying out the provisions of 
the Act. 

The number of old age pensioners in Australia 
represents about i 5 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion. 

Persons of good character who have resided in 
the Commonwealth for 20 years, and who do not 
possess accumulated property in or out of Aus- 
tralia worth £310, and who have passed, for 
women, their 60th year, for men, 65, may apply 
for and receive an old-age pension. 

The rate of pension payable, whether for old- 
age or invalidity, is required by the Act to be 
determined by the Commissioner or one of the 
Deputy Commissioners, and is to be fixed at such 
amount as he deems reasonable and sufficient, hav- 
ing regard to all the circumstances of the case, 
but must not exceed £26 per annum in any event, 
nor be at such a rate as will make the pensioner's 
income, together with pension, exceed £52 per 
annum. 

l*"or an invalid pension the age qualification is 
attainment of the age of sixteen years if accom- 
panied by permanent incapacitation for work. 

For an invalid pension continuous residence for 
at least five years is required. In neither case, 
however, is continuous residence in Australia 
deemed to have been interrupted by occasional 
absences not exceeding in the aggreggate one- 
tenth of the total period of residence. The appli- 
cant for any pension must be residing In Australia 
on the date when he makes his claim, and in the 
case of an invalid pension must have been incapa- 
citated while in Australia. 



Payments received by way of benefit from any 
registered friendly society, or during illness, In- 
firmity, or old age from any trade union, provident 
society, or other society or association, are not, for 
the purposes of the Commonwealth Act, treated 
as Income. As regards accumulated property, 
the pension is subject to a deduction of £1 per 
annum for every complete £10 by which the net 
capital value of the property exceeds £50. Also, 
if both husband and wife are pensioners (except 
when they are living apart pursuant to any decree, 
judgment, order, or deed of separation), the de- 
duction in the case of each of them shall be £1 
for every complete £10 by which the net capital 
value of the accumulated property exceeds £25. 
From the capital value of accumulated property Is 
deducted the capital \a\ue of a home in which 
the pensioner permanently resides, and all charges 
and encumbrances existing on the property, other 
than the home. 

In 19 14 there were only 87,780 old-age and 
16,865 invalid pensioners in Australia out of the 
whole population. The total amount disbursed 
was £2,579,265. In its invalid and old-age pen- 
sions scheme Australia makes more liberal pension 
provision than any other country in the world. 

In 1912 the Federal Parliament enacted that in 
future a maternity allowance of £5 should be 
payable out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund to 
every woman resident of the Commonwealth who 
gives birth to a child in Australia or on board 
an interstate vessel. Asiatics, aboriginals, 
Papuans, and Pacific Islanders are excepted. 

For 1913-14 the total payments in the Com- 
monwealth under this Act reached £412,780. 

By the enactment of the Commerce (Trade 
Descriptions) Act 1905, the Quarantine Acts 
1908 and 19 1 2, and the Customs Act 1910, the 
Commonwealth Government has taken the first 
steps towards the exercise of its constitutional 
powers for the protection of the public health. 
All these Acts are administered by the Depart- 
ment of Trade and Customs. 

In all the States Public Health Acts exist, and 
are in most places rigidly enforced. 



Naturalization came under Federal control in 
1904. This Is a matter which, in the light of 
events, will probably come up for revision. Be- 
fore the outbreak of the European war the grant 
of a certificate of naturalization entitled the re- 
cipient within the Commonwealth to all rights and 
privileges of a native-born citizen. Aboriginal 
natives of Asia, Africa, or the Pacific Islands, 



FEDERAL ADMINISTRATION 



119 



excepting New Zealand, were barred. By far 
the greater number of applicants had been Ger- 
man. 

The regulation of immigration into Australia 
is in the hands of the Commonwealth, which 
exercises great care in this direction. 

Desirable immigrants have always been wel- 
comed, but people suffering from transmissible 
diseases or who are mentally deficient, criminals 



and others regarded as undesirable are prohibited. 
It is likely that immigration laws as they 
apply to certain aliens will be modified. 'I'he 
spirit of this particular regulation has been pro- 
tective rather than antagonistic. It has never 
been meant, as far as Australian public opinion 
is concerned, to exclude individuals from the Com- 
monwealth whose racial standards approximate to 
our own. 



IMMIGRATION. 



AS an example of the prosperity of the Com- 
monwealth during 19 13, it was shown by 
vital statistics published in April of 19 14, 
that marriages had increased 80 per cent, over 
the preceding year. In 12 years the average 
death-rate had fallen from 12.22 of every thou- 
sand to 10.78, while the birth-rate had increased 
by over 28 per cent. 

Although no country engaged has suffered less 
material loss than Australia, it did not require a 
general European war to convince a majority of 
Australians that the main plank in their national 
platform was effective oraipation and develop- 
ment of national resources. 



For the carrying out of this vital policy, a 
greater population is essential. Various mea- 
sures had been taken by some of the State and 
Federal Governments to bring the attractions and 
opportunities of the Commonwealth forward, and 
a steady stream of immigrants from Great Bri-. 
tain and Europe was pouring in when the crash of 
Empires began. 

Arrangements had been made by nearly all 
State Governments with various shipping com- 
panies, whereunder substantial reductions in fares 
were made to immigrants. These reductions are 
generally granted to all persons desiring to settle 
on the land or engaging in any form of rural in- 




■ Welcome and Good-bye," on Port Melbourne Pier 



I20 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



dustry, to domestic servants, and to any others 
who satisfy one of the several Agents-General in 
London that they will make suitable settlers. Pro- 
vision had also been made whereby settlers might 
nominate their relatives or friends for passage to 
Australia at greatly reduced rates. 

On arrival of ships conveying immigrants, 
Government officers made themselves acquainted 
with the requirements and capabilities of the pas- 
sengers, who were assisted in every possible way 
to get a fair start in the land of their adoption. 
This system will necessarily be reverted to in con- 
nection with future immigration schemes, for the 
protection and assistance of the new arrivals and 
also to prevent any dislocation of the labor 
market. 

Intending settlers are taken in hand by officers 
of the Lands Department. Their interests are 
specially studied by the Department of Agricul- 
ture, and they are naturally encouraged to 
become successful primary producers. For this 
class of immigrant Australia will hold unequalled 
opportunities for a hundred years or more. 

Apart from various Government schemes for 
assisting immigration and increasing settlement 
and production in Australia, several private 
associations and syndicates have taken a hand in 
this all-important national movement. 

The British Immigration League has been par- 
ticularly active. In connection with this institu- 
tion a Land Settlement scheme was organised. Not 
more than six per cent, interest was to be received 
by those who subscribed money, and provisions 
were made for advancing the whole of the pas- 
sage-money, if necessary, to eligible settlers. City 
youths were to be trained for rural occupations. 
Army service men and retired or discharged sol- 
diers have been specially sought for by the per- 
sons interested in this scheme. 

Many plans for settling retired and wounded 
soldiers on the land in Australia are under earnest 
consideration, as this is being written. The Com- 
monwealth has plenty of room, and a friendly wel- 
come for such immigrants. Provided they are 
not physically incapacitated, thousands of these 
trained men can be converted into successful pro- 
ducers. 

The Federal Government appointed Mr. J. 
C. Watson, an ex-Prime Minister of the Com- 
monwealth, to organize a scheme for the employ- 
ment of returned soldiers. Mr. Watson's 
functions have been mainly to secure co-ordination 
among .various special agencies which it is pro- 
posed shall be established by the State Govern- 
ments (1916). 

Various large landowners in the eastern States 
have made generous offers to assist the objects 
of the movement. Some have even placed por- 



tions of their estates at the disposal of the Govern- 
ment, besides making donations and concessions to 
the same end. In New South Wales landed 
people offered to accept long-dated Government 
bonds for their holdings on fair terms of sale. 
These schemes for finding land for soldiers — first, 
our own, and later no doubt for soldiers of the 
Empire and its Allies — has received popular ap- 
proval throughout Australia. Further, all those 
pastoralists who have co-operated in the publi- 
cation of this volume, and whose names and 
addresses may be found in the Pastoral Section 
of Aiistralui Unlimited, express their willingness 
to answer legitimate enquiries from intending 
settlers abroad. 

Our civilian community recognizes that those 
who have voluntarily fought in this war are help- 
ing to preserve this country for liberty and 
democracy, and their services in the cause of 
humanity shall not be forgotten. 

The war has aroused a spirit of freedom and 
adventure in civil life in Europe which Australia 
hopes will benefit our interests and equally the 
interests of our international friends. No other 
land can offer the awakened souls of men a 
continuation of that open life for which the 
adventure of war has given them a taste. 

There are further conquests to be made in 
Australia by those who have felt the thrill of 
action on fields of war; conquests less exciting and 
gory, but bringing more permanent and satisfac- 
tory results. Apart from this, there is the great 
question of the re-organization, and re-establish- 
ment on impregnable foundations, of the British 
Empire. 

Lord Willoughby de Broke, in a letter to the 
Secretary of the British Immigration League of 
Australia, has stated this aspect of the case with 
judgment. "Our chief Imperial wealth," he 
says, "consists of men, women, and land. The 
development and distribution of these human and 
agricultural resources are supremely important. 
It is essential that we should regulate what Dr. 
Saleeby, with profound truth, in his lectures on 
'War and Race Regeneration,' calls 'Our \ital 
imports and exports.' We should regulate them 
so as to redress the disproportion both of the sexes 
to one another and of the population to the square 
mile in different parts of the Empire. The 
marked excess of one sex over the other is op- 
posed to national welfare. In the British Isles 
women outnumber men. In Australia, Canada, 
and South Africa, men outnumber women. In 
the oversea dominions the density of the popula- 
tion to the square mile forms an alarming contrast 
to that of the United Kingdom. 

"Nor can any country thrive where there are 
too many dwellers in the towns, and too few on 



FEDERAI. ADMINISTRATION 



121 




The First Unit of the Royal Australian Navy 
Entering Sydney Harbor on October 3, 1913 

(l-'rom the Pahiliiix I'y A. H '. lUirncss in the Sydney fubltc library.) 

the land In linglaiui the towns are overcrowded, hy boys and girls, and release, to the great relief 

and in all of his Majesty's dominions, beginning at of the rates, some thousands of workers who are 

home, there are not nearly enough people cul- now kept in the workhouse because their proper 

tivatmgthe sod. The earth of the British Empire situations are filled by better men and lads who 

has not yet been made to bring forth her increase, would migrate if they could find the fare. There 

Imperial agriculture is the most vital of all our is work for all, and there are plenty of defenders 

industries. After the war is over, the science and when the population of the Empire is properly 

art of cultivating the earth will be more valuable distributed." 

than ever. There can be no finer object than to q„o„^: c- d-j it j u- • • r 

, 1 ^ . ' . , , speeding bir Kider Haggard on his mission of 

enable our race to enter upon its vast aencultura • ^ \ ^ v -c i /- -j hf^- l 

• , -^ ,, ^ vasL dgiiLuuurai enquiry to Australia, Earl Grey said: — If the 

inheritance. i- • • . • ■ i 

, . , , , r , ■ , . „ limpire is to continue, there must be great inter- 

In a series of thoughtful articles in Sydney n^igration between England and the Dominions. 

Mornuxg Herald on the War and Immigration, -phe settlement of vacant Dominion lands with Bri- 

Mr. 1. ijedgwick says: — 

"Australia has been made what she is by a mil- 
lion immigrants and their descendants. The land 



was always here, but during the last century the 
presence of population has made her worth two 
thousand million pounds, whereas formerly she 
was worth nothing. Were the horizon clear we 
could afford to wait patiently until the present 
population had multiplied and covered her vast 
areas, but population elsewhere is moving and 
increasing at infinitely greater ratios than are the 
people of the Commonwealth. 

"Encouraging immigration from Great Britain 
would go far to helping the motherland and her 
people, who suffer from the effects of an over- 
crowded labour market, and all its attendant evils. 
Increased migration to Australia would increase 
the food supply at home, multiply the demand for 
her exports, even after allowing for the effects 



tons will contribute to the strength and safety of 
the Empire." 

The whole problem of Empire development 
will doubtless be worked out in the light of new 
and unexpected experiences. But the future 
stability, power, and security of British civilization 
depend far more upon the effective occupation and 
development of the continent of Australia than 
politicians in either London or Melbourne have 
hitherto realized. 

With even twenty millions of such people as 
sent their deathless legion to the Dardanelles, 
Australia would not only be seciire against all 
invaders, but would become such a bulwark of 
Empire as the most ardent Imperialist has hardly 
dared to dream of. 

One feels certain that this all-important ques- 
tion will henceforward receive attention from 



of the new Customs tariff, and reduce the number those wise and serious intellects upon whom the 
of workers. It would give the older people a onerous burdens of building the future house of 
chance to get employment in situations now filled Empire depends. 



\ 




L0UI5 E530N 



RODERIC QU\t\H 



ARCH 9. T. STRONG 



122 



^'23) 




Melbourne Public Library and Museum. 



SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL LIFE. 



IN Australia there are no aristocratic classes. 
Possessors of money being fairly frequent 
and exceptionally rich people rather rare, the 
evolution of a plutocracy has been checked. 

The actual owner of millions is rarely regarded 
with reverential or approving eyes. 

In the cities money makes, to some extent, a 
class of its own. In the bush social barriers are 
practically non-existent. 

Caste and conservatism are abhorrent to Aus- 
tralian custom. If there is any local standard 
for gauging a man's worth, it will be good- 
citizenship, prominent public services, benefaction 
to philanthropic and educational institutions. 

Unfortunately there is yet very little artistic 
or intellectual association. 

Artistic or literary achievement, even scientific 
accomplishment, Australians have in the past held 
in rather slight regard. 

There are indications, however, that Australian 
culture and Australian intellectual worth are 
coming into their own. 

Once it was unfashionable to recognize Aus- 
tralian science, applaud Australian literary effort, 
or praise the work of Australian artists. 



A persistent preference for the foreign article 
so discouraged local genius that it grew timid 
and deprecatory, or else fell a prey to a melan- 
choly which re-acted upon all its aesthetic output. 

The cultivation of a distinctive Australian sen- 
timent was not encouraged by our higher schools 
and universities. The tendency was to import 
all our professors and educational experts, our 
scientists, editors, and specialists, many of whom 
were entirely unfamiliar with Australia's mental 
outlook, antagonistic by environment and early 
training towards our social and political ambi- 
tions, and unsympathetic to native ideals. 

Australian writers of my own generation have 
felt most keenly the lofty and contemptuous 
patronage of pedagogic critics. 

We have loved our young country and realized 
her. In spite of social and monetary disadvan- 
tages, under which we all labored, we have en- 
deavoured, to the best of our abilities, to express 
our free and glorious motherland. 

A few years ago a little group of writers and 
associate artists, who mostly found expression 
through the Sydney "Bulletin," struck the first 
definite national note in Australian literary and 



114 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



artistic thought. Their influence has grown 
beyond expectation. 

The lessons of the war have been costly; but 
they have taught Australians that their race is a 
virile one, capable of giving a lead in the new 
progressive movements of to-morrow. 

In the light of these revelations we look for- 
ward to a greater intellectual achievement in 
Australia from now onward. Literary and 
artistic genius of the next generation will not 
suffer the neglect and opposition which made life's 
highway more flinty to our feet. 



In those days the social standing of a cele- 
brated Australian artist or author will be at least 
as high as that of the German manager of a 
cement factory. The presence of intellectuals 
at public functions will be considered as desirable 
by Ministerial secretaries and such small func- 
tionaries, as that of retired liquor retailers and 
political nondescripts. 

Despite its handicaps, the inventive, artistic, 
musical and literary genius of the Commonwealth 
has not been inactive. During the last twenty 
years its production has steadily increased. 




The Mitchell Library, Sydney. 



At least an unpatriotic anti-Australian senti- 
ment will not hobble their efforts. 

Old prejudices will be gone. Ugly old an- 
tagonisms will no longer be allowed to lift their 
heads and hiss envenomed contempt. 

Pictures painted by Australian artists will be 
preferred. Books published in Australia will 
not enter into such hopeless competition with the 
presses of the old world. 

Our successors will be encouraged to express 
Australia. It is possible that a majority of 
them will be enabled to reap an adequate harvest 
from their life's efforts. 



Turning to the pages of Fr.ed. Johns's Annual 
— -the "Who's Who" of Australasia — we find 
many famed and familiar names of men and 
women yet in the flesh who have "done their bit" 
for the intellectual development of the Australian 
nation. 

Among them, pre-eminent, that of my old 
schoolfellow and life-long literary contemporary, 
Roderic Quinn, many of whose dainty lyrics have 
in them a quality which, among English poets, is 
only equalled by John Keats. Quinn's imperish- 
able work has not yet received the recognition 
it deserves, save from discriminating critics like 




'''^a5Sr5^^ 



125 



126 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Princess Theatre, Melbourne, 



Le Gallienne and Yeats. But it will live in the 
literature of Australia when more popular verse 
has passed into oblivion. 

Among living prose writers of the Continent 
the natural genius of Henry Lawson has made 
him celebrated. Although one disagrees with 
Lawson's outlook, one finds in his work a delight- 
ful native art, a profound sympathy, and a fine 
patriotism. While Lawson's earlier bush pic- 
tures and characters usually depict passing phases 
of pioneer life, they are in themselves literary 
gems of an eminently readable character. 

In the newer school of cheerful and more 
authentic descriptive writers Randolph Bed- 
ford, Mrs. Aeneas Gunn, E. J. Banfield and C. 
E. W. Bean appeal to the Australian with a 
knowledge of his country. 

Louis Esson, after the methods of the Celtic 
Repertory School, has chosen the dramatic form 
of expression. Privileged to read over a volume 
of Esson's short Australian plays in manuscript 
recently, one formed the conclusion that he is 
quietly doing work for Australia which will later 
on have a high historical value. 

Amidst the more scholastic group one notices 
the fine poetic genius of David McKee Wright, 
Ruth Bedford, Dorothea Mackellar, Bernard 



O'Dowd, John Le Gay Brereton, Enid Derham, 
Christopher Brennan, Archibald Strong, George 
Gordon McCrae, Dorothy and Hugh McCrae, 
Dowell O'Reilly, Professor W. A. Osborne, J. 
B. O'Hara, and still the list is by no means 
complete. 

Professor Gilbert Murray occupies a niche to 
himself alongside Professor (jrafton Elliot Smith 
— two men of which any young country might be 
justly proud. Professor Ernest Scott and Dr. 
W. H. Fitchett stand for historical literature 
and diplomatic journalism. Ambrose Pratt, 
Louis Stone, A. B. Paterson, Steele Rudd, 
Edward Dyson, Mrs. Campbell Praed, J. 
H. Abbott, Ethel Turner, E. S. Emer- 
son, Mary Grant Bruce, C. J. Dennis, Randolph 
Bedford, Vance Palmer, Katharine Prichard, 
Louise Mack, Donald Macdonald, are all well- 
known and deservedly popular Australian writers. 
There are many other brilliant possibilities among 
younger aspirants to the fame of letters. 

Prominent among the earlier generations stand 
Marcus Clarke, Rolf Boldrewood, Louis Becke, 
Lindsay Gordon, Henry Kendall and Victor J. 
Daley. 

The last name deserves more than mere men- 
tion. Daley, as a poet and prose writer, was 




Q5CflR ^'^ 






•5TBW/W 



127 



128 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



probably without equal in his own period. He 
has left a precious heritage of more than one 
volume of polished and artistic verse, and, when 
Australian Literature comes to its own, his col- 
lected prose will make a small library of delightful 
reading. 

Among artists Australia has produced cele- 
brities like Bertram Mackennal, Rupert Bunny, 
John Longstaff, Thea Proctor, Cieorge Lambert, 
Mortimer Menpes, Hans Heysen, Frederick 
McCubbin, Percy Spence, E. Phillips Fox, Mel- 
drum, Edward Officer, Piguenit, Norman and 
Lionel Lindsay, Will Dyson, Arthur Streeton, 
Julian Ashton, Bess Norris, Tom Roberts, J. S. 
Watkins, Mrs. Ellis Rowan, Florence Rodway, 
Norman Carter, Margaret Baskerville, John 
Shirlow, Sid Long, and scores of others. The 
fame of some has so far been confined to local 
audiences, who are rapidly learning to appreciate 
them; others have achieved celebrity in Europe. 

Europe, too, discovered Melba, Ada Crossley, 
Percy Grainger, Lalla Miranda, Amy Castles, 
Peter Dawson, Oscar Asche, Amy Sherwin, Alice 
Crawford, Madge Titheradge, and many others 
whose names are world-familiar in the realms of 
the musical and dramatic arts. 

Many more dramatic celebrities viic/hl ha\e 
been produced if encouragement had been given 
to Australian talent. 

In fields of science and invention Australians 
have done much. The fame of Louis Brennan, 
the inventor of the monorail and Brennan tor- 
pedo, is as widespread as that of Sir Douglas 
Mawson, the Antarctic explorer. With Mawson 
was associated in his services to science. Professor 
David, of geological celebrity. 

Professor Sir Baldwin Spencer has won honour 
for his researches in and valuable works upon 
Australian anthropology; Messrs. E. J. Dunn and 
Dudley Le Soeuf publish useful books on local 
geology and zoology; Mr. J. H. Maiden is the 
leading authority on Australian botany and Mr. 
R. T. Baker is doing fine service in economic 
Australian botany; both have published valued 
handbooks. Mr. E. E. Pescott has done much 
to foster an appreciation of Victorian native 
flowers. Dr. R. S. Rogers is the leading authority 
on Australian orchids, Mr. R. H. Cambage is 
working upon the relation of the eucalypts to 
the geological formation on which they grow; 
Mr. W. M. Bale is doing valuable scientific work 
in relation to the fisheries, as are Messrs. Fredk. 
Chapman and Etheridge in local palaeontology; 
Messrs. W. Gillies, Donald Macdonald and 
Charles Barrett are popularising nature study; G. 
W. Mathews, Dr. Leach, A. J. Campbell, Robert 
Hall, and A. H. Mattingley are equally prominent 
among those who are carrying on the pioneering 
work done by John Gould in regard to Australian 



birds; on butterflies Messrs. G. A. Waterhouse 
and G. Lyell are the local authorities; Mr. W. W 
Froggatt is celebrated for his research work in 
entomology, especially the insects of the South 
Seas; the mollusca provide the special field for 
the activities in conchology of Mr. C. Hedley, 
and much valuable work is being done by Mr. F. 
B. Guthrie in original research in agricultural 
chemistry, and by Messrs. A. E. V. Richardson 
and Hugh Pye in wheat-breeding, and Mr. H. A 
Hunt is rendering great service to the country in 
regard to meteorological observations. 

Less popular, but probably not less gifted, are 
men like Professor Durack, Professor of Physics 
at Allahabad University, the first white child born 
on Cooper's Creek, and other modest Australian 
geniuses whose names are hardly known in the 
wide Commonwealth which gave them birth. 

Law and justice, education, medicine, surgery, 
engineering, higher schools and universities, poli- 
tics, commerce and public institutions have all 
produced Australians of merit and distinction. 

In fields of athletics the name of our cham- 
pions is legion. World-famous cricketers, foot- 
ballers, rowers, swimmers, pugilists, runners, 
cyclists, shooters and athletes have won the tran- 
sient laurels of superior physical skill or activity. 

Naturally, a sunny ■ land where high wages., 
short hours, and ideal industrial conditions pre- 
\-ail, gi\'es leisure for general exercise and de- 
velopment. 

Surf bathing is universally popular along our 
beaches, and nowhere else can be found such 
splendid types of men and women as the glorious 
open air life of Australia is giving us. 

"Giants, demi-gods, and super-men" is how an 
English critic who saw the Australian legion at 
Gallipoli describes our brave, brown boys. 

Such men, mated to the brave brown girls one 
sees along the sands of Manly or Mordialloc on 
summer days, will surely evolve a future race of 
even superior mould. 

With paternal governments, savings banks, 
friendly societies, and splendid State institutions 
behind them, decreased domestic anxieties are 
making healthier and happier households. 

The world is welcome to know that we have 
no time in this country for preventable poverty, 
dirt, disease, or social, economic, or civic injus- 
tice. 

We give our people free educational opportu- 
nities, and fairly even chances to secure and enjoy 
— each and every one — a share of human happi- 
ness and earthly success. We give all adult men 
and women an equal voice in their own govern- 
ment. We protect, as far as we can, the indi- 
vidual against the State, and the State against the 
individual. We are continually introducing such 
laws and reforms as a majority of our people 




129 



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AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



consider to be in the national interest. Under 
conditions such as these, in time, and with patrio- 
tic, persistent, public encouragement — perhaps 
with Government assistance through Customs 
and copyright — we can and doubtless will be 
capable of intellectual achievements such as have 
made Hellenic civilization immortal. 

Australia, too, may "build below the tide of 
war," and base her fame "upon the crystalline 
sea of Thought and its eternity." 

Visions of a Hellenic Democracy in the South 
inspired that little group of Australian writers 



who began nearly thirty years ago to give to the 
world the first true thoughts, the first timid hopes 
and dreams of their Motherland. 

Despised and opposed at first, they have seen 
the little Promethean spark grow to a steady 
flame. 

When "Democracy with rifle volleys death- 
winged" was born, her cradle was made for more 
than one vigorous offspring of Freedom. Vision 
has not yet become reality, but in the eyes of 
our Poets and Prophets, it is slowly, surely, 
grandly assuming shape. 







*BS^t»Ja«*:,_a*Siii»*-Jit»iiR»T.*.>- -■>-',-;-,v->-5,-j»au;;!.:--- ■: ;■ 






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A Kookaburra (Laughing Jackass). 



( 130 




Henley-on-the-Yarra Regatta. 



OUTDOOR SPORTS IN AUSTRALIA. 



THK climate of all southern Australia is 
favorable to athletic development. 
Golden beaches extend for thousands of 
miles along its coastlines. Brisbane, Newcastle, 
Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth are all either 
directly on the coast or within easy distance of 
cooling surf. 

Our coastal populations are afforded continen- 
tal opportunities for surfing and swimming. 
Their numbers are increased during long summer 
months by visitors from inland. Every public 
holiday in summer sees the beaches by the coastal 
cities and town crowded with bathers of both 
sexes. 

The system of mixed bathing has gradually 
become popular. A decided improvement in the 
physical stamina of city women has resulted. 
The street-corners are no longer a habitat of idle 
youngsters, and the moral tone of the community 
has correspondingly improved. 

Before the war Australia spent its spare time 
and cash very largely in sport. Every country 
town had its racecourse, its cricket ground, and 
football field. 



Apart from genuine athletics — always a fine 
thing for national strength and sanity — it must 
be admitted there was too much gambling sport. 
This might be attributed to the over-prosperity 
of a young people, but to the serious-minded 
citizen it threatened to become a national evil. 

Australia has probably been cured of her horse- 
racing and betting fever; but encouragement will 
always be given to sports which make for indivi- 
dual physique and good health. In all private 
educational institutions, in all our State schools, 
colleges, and universities sport of this character 
is encouraged. All over the Commonwealth 
sports clubs and associations are open to young 
people of active physical temperament. 

Football is a universally popular winter 
pastime; cricket has its thousands of summer 
enthusiasts. Golf, bowls, tennis, baseball, la- 
crosse, yachting, rowing, swimming, hunting, 
fishing, skating, boxing, wrestling, coursing — it 
would be difficult to find an Australian under fifty 
years of age who is not interested — if not an 
actual participator — in one or other or more of 
these amusements. 



132 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



For those who love the outdoor life and who 
are free to wander, there are pleasures of the 
open and the wild. The call for fur, fin, and 
feather is one which the author himself has fol- 
lowed all over the Commonwealth. Memories 
of hunting days are the happiest of all. They 
carry one from the Adelaide River, where the 
black buffalo wallows, to the plains of Carnarvon, 
where the grey bustard roams, from Mallacoota 
to Wilcannia, from the Proserpine to the Wollon- 
dilly, over marsh and stubble, through scrub and 
bracken, by reedy swamps and running streams, 
over the hills and plains, by cool lagoons and 
fresh and saltwater inlets, through the forests and 



My father shot bison on the prairies of 
America, and wild bustards on the plains of 
Australia with equal enthusiasm. Within the 
circle of his long days, but recently ended, he 
had harpooned eight whales within the Arctic 
Circle and hooked black bream in Hawkes- 
bury River. He had taken his fill of a man's 
life on the frontiers of two continents, and died 
content. 

Across my vision, as I write, there goes a lad 
of twelve with a new 28 bore gun, of which he 
is very proud. When, a week ago, we crouched 
in the rushes together at nightfall, and he stopped 
a brace of black duck on the wing, I knew that 




Crowd at a Cricket Match in Australia. 



the gorges, through green jungle and grey salt- 
bush, round, across and over the great Australian 
Continent. 

It was in my blood. My grandfather cared 
nothing for his possessions, or mine, but he killed 
his brace of snipe with right and left barrel, and 
could crack the neck of a duck at twenty paces 
with a pistol ball. May the gods who preside 
over regions where the souls of sporting Irish 
squires sojourn forgive him his worldly mistakes! 
He dissipated a little heritage which should have 
been mine, but I bear him no ill-will. Careful 
business men are always plentiful In this world, 
but good snipe-shooters are rare. 



his reading will not be in ledgers nor his seat on 
an office stool. 

The Open Way! I remember a lad of seven- 
teen chained to a desk in Sydney town, who, when 
his annual holidays came round, would hurry into 
the bush, with gun and cartridge bag, to tramp 
from daylight till dark in pursuit of game. How 
he counted off the flying days that ended all too 
soon ! 

Born and reared in the bush, a solitary child, 
like many another bush boy, my first friend and 
companion was an old black dog. We hunted 
spotted daysures (the "native cat" of Australia) 
and opossums together. My sporting weapons 




A Big Sboot on the Burdekln Biver. 



133 



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AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



<3ffA 




The Mountain Devil, Western Australia. 



in those days were catapults and bows and arrows. 
But I doubt if the close-shooting, hard-hitting, 
double-barrelled Cashmore gun, with which I 
sometimes drop a duck at 70 or 80 yards these 
days, brings me as much thrill as did the bagging 
of a "soldier bird" with my youthful catapult. 

The Open Way! I thank the gods for all 
my days, their griefs and joys alike; but I thank 
most the gods for those glorious days the bush 
has given me. Other men may find their pleasure 
in political power; in the amassing of more and 
more money; in the social world; but for me the 
lakeside, the riverside, the upland and the plain. 

I think I know the game trails of Australia 
fairly well, and something of the game. 

For those who care to listen, I have a few 
words to say on this subject. I speak for the 
little band of Australian field sports, a brother- 
hood without a club or association, made up of 
many queer characters, but keen. 

Experience makes us wise. When we are 
crawling through the rushes we always endeavour 
to crawl against the wind. We go quietly, and 
as far as possible we avoid conversation— even 
with the dog. 

Ask us what we consider the best Australian 
game birds, and opinions will differ. Put the 
question to a plebiscite, and it would probably 
be decided in favor of the black duck, the bronze- 
wing pigeon, and the quail. 

The black duck is a fine table bird, a fast flyer, 
and, where he has been disturbed by shooters, 
very shy. This beautiful bird has a wide range. 
I have shot them on Northern Queensland 
lagoons, on the rivers and swamps of the Terri- 



tory, in western Queensland, all over New South 
Wales and eastern Victoria. Thirty years ago 
I shot bronzewings and casual black duck on a 
lagoon at Bondi, where suburban villas now 
stand. 

From my camp at Mallacoota I go out nearly 
every evening after the day's writing. There 
are places where the duck and teal come in at 
dusk to feed. Our bags are not large, but there 
is great joy in waiting at the fall of day beside 
a swamp or saltwater inlet for the familiar whir- 
ring of wings that heralds the arrival of the game. 
There is a tonic for the nerves in the quick snap- 
shooting and the occasional plunk of falling 
birds. There is something soothing in the pipe 
— which also keeps away mosquitoes — and the 
ride or tramp or pull home, by moonlight or star- 
light, after the birds have ceased to come in. 

Sometimes we get the grey teal in considerable 
mobs. Using a 12-bore Cashmore gun on one 
occasion, I killed and disabled with a single 
charge of No. 4 shot no less than sixteen of 
these birds. This is probably a record for a 
cartridge of ordinary loading. The powder 
used was "Amberite," which I shoot among other 
smokeless sporting powders. 

Black duck and teal on the coast are slightly 
inferior in flavor and quality to the fatted birds 
one kills along the gilgas and billabongs of the 
interior; but for black duck anywhere roasted in 
a camp oven, or teal grilled over a wood fire, the 
sportsman has appetite. 

Wood duck — cheiinnela jiibala, the maned 
goose, in reality — I have found plentiful in the 
upper reaches of the northern rivers in New 
South Wales and throughout the Riverina, 



^ 




Plarypu^. 



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AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



On my motor-boat journey down the Murray 
River, I shot scores of them on the banks and 
sand spits. Magpie geese in the Territory and 
whistling duck in Northern Queensland I have 
found so plentiful that when they rose from the 
swamps one saw the shadow of the mob passing 
over the ground like the shadow of a cloud drift- 
ing across a field. 

Up there one gets the beautiful Burdekin duck, 
the chestnut-breasted teal, shoveller, and some- 
times the white-eyed duck, the "canvas back" of 
North America. 

Blue-wing are often plentiful on the Victorian 
coast. The pink-eared widgeon and the shel- 
drake or mountain duck I have shot all over the 
eastern States of the Commonwealth. The lat- 
ter are most frequent, I think, in the swamps 
between Mount Gambier and Casterton. 

In wet seasons wild fowl are most abundant in 
the back country. The overflow from our in- 
land rivers forms lakes, lagoons, and billabongs, 
on which aquatic birds by the million come to 
feed. There almost every variety of duck known 
in the south, and pelicans, black swans, waterhens, 
coots, ibis, plovers, snipe, spoonbills, herons, bit- 
tern, cranes, cormorants, egrets, grebes, divers, 
stilts, rails, congregate. 




...lllinTTnini 

mm: 1 



-TTl' 



TT 



'liiii 



Kangaroo, with Young In Pouch. 



Brush Turkey. 



The painted snipe is mostly found, in season, 
in swamps along the (ireat Dividing Range. 

I have shot jacksnipe by the hundred on the 
swamps of the Clarence. During a sojourn of 
over three years on the northern rivers of New 
South Wales I had some splendid shooting. 
About the flats of Ulmarra and Lawrence, on 
the Coldstream, on the Clarence, above and below 
the city of Grafton, on the Richmond River, and 
through the Dorrigo I have filled many fine bags. 

Quail, too, were numerous. Quail shooting 
is to me the best of all outdoor sports. A good 
dog, a cool day, responsive cover, and any- 
thing up to and over six brace at the finish make 
a sportsman's -happiness. Stubble quail, dot- 
trel, and brown quail are widely distributed. 
Between (iiadstone and Rockhampton, in Queens- 
land, and on the western plains of Victoria, 1 
have had my best quail-shooting. 

The indigenous great grey quail seems to be 
extinct. The last of these I chanced upon were 
at the western approach to the Dorrigo, by the 
"Little Murray," a rushy mountain stream. 
When I was a boy these birds were fairly plen- 
tiful on the flats of the Fish River, and I have 
got them, years ago, about Wollongong and 
Dapto and around Camden and the Oaks, in New 
South Wales. 

The Mallee fowl I have seldom shot. I 
remember that they were plentiful on the Lower 
Lachlan decades ago, and that excellent custards 
were made from their eggs. Emu egg custard 
also is not unknown in the West. 

King quail were to be got about Yamba, in 
northern New South Wales, on the scrubby head- 
lands a few years ago. Lately I have shot them 



OUTDOOR SPORTS IN AUSTRALIA 



137 




"All in the Day's Sport." 



in eastern Gippsland, between Mallacoota and 
Wingen River. Brown quail come down from 
Java and the north in thousands at certain sea- 
sons and disperse themselves over southern 
Australia. 

The habits and breeding-places of quail are 
always interesting discussion for the Brotherhood 
of the Open Air. 

(^f pigeons there are many varieties between 
Thursday Island and Cape Otway, but I think 
bronzewing and wonga are best shooting and 
best eating of our Australian species. 

The bronzewing is a fast flyer, and, although 
there is little art in the actual shooting of the 
tnottled wonga, a sportsman deserves all the 
wongas he can find, especially in mountain coun- 
try. 

Bronzewings I remember to have been most 
plentiful on the western slopes of the Nandewar 
Ranges and between Cowra and Blayney, but a 
great deal depends upon the season and the feed. 

The topknot pigeon is excellent shooting, and 
a fine game bird. The fat "squatter" and the 
green scrub pigeon are most flavorable, but too 
easily slain to please a true sportsman. 

I have stood in one spot and shot twelve 
"squatters" one after another in surrounding 
trees — enough for the blackboy and myself for 
at least two meals — more would be murder. 



Ihc little green fruit-pigeons and fantails, like 
quail, make acceptable adornment for breakfast 
toast, but the flock and Torres Straits pigeons arc 
intended for stews. 

Flock pigeons are usually plentiful when 
the fruit of the cabbage palms ripens and the 
Moreton Bay fig is full-bearing in the jungles 
of the North. There the brush turkey is also 
to be found. 

When Siberian marshes freeze over, migrating 
godwit, sandpipers, and plover come down the 
eastern coast of Australia. With whimbrel and 
oyster-catchers, stilts, sea-curlews, spurwings, 
golden plovers, and dottrels, they make animate 
salty margins and sand-flats of our seaward 
lagoons and estuaries. 

The Australian bustard, the wild turkey of the 
Australian plains, is a difficult bird to approach 
on foot, buf one may get within reasonable dis- 
tance on horseback or in a vehicle. Bushmen 
usually shoot them with a small-bore Winchester 
rifle. 

Throughout the bush the 32-bore Winchester 
is most popular. It is used by marsupial hunters 
and sportsmen. 

Personally I prefer the short-barrelled 38. for 
larger game, and use a 25.20 magazine for wal- 
labies and the larger birds. 



I vS 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Melbourne Cup, Flemingtou Racecourse. 



With the 38. one is sure of kangaroos, wild 
pigs and larger game. The Northern buffalo is 
only amenable to the Martini bullet; an alligator 
may be bagged with a 38. 

Practice ammunition for the 303 military rifle 
mostly goes after kangaroos, emus, and such liv- 
ing targets as the back country affords the trainee 
or rifle-club man. 

Although scarcely classed as game birds, Aus- 
tralia has a gorgeous variety of parrots, many 
among which the bushman knows to be edible. 
The superb king parrot, the crimson lory, and 
the rosella are grain-eaters, whose flesh is excel- 
lent. Cockatoos, gang-gangs, and galahs are 
tougher, and the honey-eating species somewhat 
sweet, unless they be steeped in salt and water 
before cooking. Wattle-birds, bower-birds and 
ground-pigeons no hunter will despise when quail, 
duck and pigeon are not to be had. 

Kangaroo hunting is supposed to be a popular 
Australian pastime. In point of fact it is a 
rather rare amusement in the bush. Wallaby 
drives and hare drives will always assemble a 
crowd, especially when crops have suffered. Now- 



adays the ubiquitous rabbit is held in disregard 
by most Australian sportsmen. People who are 
cursed with rabbits usually treat the evil with 
phosphorized pollard; the average gunner finds 
better sport. 

Rabbit-shooting has palled on us, except as 
practice for small-bore rifles. Bushmen will not 
waste shot-cartridges on bunny, who is trapped 
like the opossum for his fur or his carcase during 
the export season. 

Angling in Australia holds in loose but certain 
bonds of association a large group of that Bro- 
therhood of the Open Way. On seaward reefs 
around our coasts good red snapper may be 
hooked somewhere all the year round. Along 
cool mountain streams fat trout will answer to 
the fly in the summer. Red bream, black bream, 
whiting, tailor, flathead, yellow-tail, salmon trout, 
blackiish bite freely in the estuaries and along 
the coast. Rock fish and sea salmon, sharks, 
stringrays and tunny delight the angler's heart. 
Murray cod and barramundi supply inlanders 
with piscatorial pleasure and a welcome change 
of diet. 




Snapper. 




139 



140 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



In no other part of the world can the lung fish 
be captured, as in no other part of the world 
could a sportsman's bag include, if he so wished, a 
duck-billed platypus or an echidna — surviving ex- 
amples of past forms of animal life, and nearest 
living approach of the animal to the bird. 

Gun licences are not necessary in the Australian 
States, and there are no private preserves. It 
is regarded as an act of meanness to refuse a 
sportsman permission to shoot over private pro- 
perty. There are close seasons for game birds 
in all the States, and, curiously enough, one may 
not shoot on Sunday. Certain song birds and 
birds of beauty, such as lyre birds and black 
swans, are perpetually protected. 

Apart from these necessary restrictions, the 
sportsman may roam far and wide M'ithout let 



or hindrance, enjoying the beauty of nature, the 
benefit of pleasant exercise, the healthfulness of 
fresh air, and the excitement of the hunt. 

Australia is a good country, messieurs. We 
of the Brotherhood, who seek in friendly rivalry 
the first snipe of the season, who stalk gaitered 
behind pointers over the stubble, who wade with 
retriever at our heels in swamps, and crawl rep- 
tilian through coverts; we to whom the iridescent 
gleam of a black duck's wing is fairer than the 
flash of jewels; we to whom the whirr of an up- 
flying covey is music in sooth; we who ride long 
miles and lie out o' moonlight nights, we know 
how good and beautiful is our Motherland. JFe 
know, because, as we rode and tramped and 
waded and waited, we soiv and heard. 




A Yacht Club Outing. 



NEW SOUTH WALES 




142 



(143) 




REVENUES AND RESOURCES. 



NATURE has been generous to the Mother 
State. If the federation of the Austra- 
lian colonies had never taken place, New 
South Wales would still have become a great 
and powerful and populous country. She might 
have maintained a fleet and an army for her de- 
fence; and in every branch of manufacture, in- 
dustry, and primary production sustained and 
developed, within her own boundaries, an autono- 
mous nationhood. 

Her eastern frontage of 700 miles of seaboard 
is a wide-open doorway to the markets of the 
world. In Port Jackson, Twofold Bay, Jervis 
Bay and Port Stephens she possesses four of the 
best natural harbours that anywhere around the 
world's borders give access to the Seven Seas; 
while scores of minor havens and harbors, made 
and in the making, give resting-places for the 
feet of her maritime trade. 

She holds inexhaustible stores of iron and coal. 
In copper, tin, silver, gold, all the useful and 
precious minerals, her national wealth is ines- 
timable. 

From north to south the State is traversed 
by a mountain system which forms a compensat- 
ing balance in the fluctuating scale of climate. 

On its eastward fall, from the Tweed to the 
Kiah, everflowing rivers and perennial streams 
empty at frequent intervals into the Pacific. 

From the tropical banks of the Richmond to 
the black flats of Towamba a thousand river- 
voices sing their songs of beauty and fertility. 



Westward of the mountains run the long, slug- 
gish watercourses of the interior; the branching 
rivers of the North-west, the spreading systems 
of Riverina, the remote, romantic Darling, the 
lordly Murray, forming a State boundary 1,800 
miles in length. 

In the 305,733 square miles which make the 
total area of the State, the agricultural products 
of cold, temperate, and tropical climates flourish; 
gooseberries will grow at Glen Innes and guavas 
at Grafton, within the radius of a short day's 
journey. 

If, from the vantage of some high-soaring air- 
ship, one could take in the whole physical fea- 
tures of the State, one would see on the northern 
coasts tropical jungles rooted in basaltic soils, in- 
terspersed with hardwood forests rooted in soils 
of lesser fertility; and broad rivers meandering 
through alluvial valleys. On the Tweed, Rich- 
mond, Clarence, Bellingen, Macleay, Manning, 
Hastings, Hunter and Hawkesbury, green 
squares of tilth — sugarcane, maize, lucerne — 
would proclaim a prosperous agriculture. 

South of Sydney there would lie the Illawarra 
and Shoalhaven districts — mostly volcanic, rich 
and productive, falling away into further forests 
of hardwood and open stretches of river and 
settlement, through Milton and Moruya, Bodalla 
and Bega. 

Then along the vast tableland north-to-south 
and down its granite slopes and spurs, from Ten- 
terfield to Nimmitabel, through' mountain-walled 



144 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



valleys and elevated plains the poppet-heads of 
many mines, the smoke of many towns would 
tell the same tale of riches waiting on enterprise 
and labor. 

Beyond the north-western, central and south- 
western slopes, spreading to the sunset, the de- 
lighted spectator would behold an immense plain, 
sometimes treeless, sometimes diversified with 
timber; with a large black patch in the north- 
west, and south and west, for the most part, 
either bright red or reddish brown. Lrom Parkes 
to Menindie, from Bourke to Swan Hill, from 
the railheads of New South Wales to the South 
Australian border line, this flat or gently undu- 



In a country three times the size of the Brit- 
ish Islands, with coasts, mountains, and plains 
spread over ten degrees of latitude, there is sure 
to be a considerable variation of temperature. 

When we go to the meteorologist and the 
health specialist, we find that New South Wales 
possesses an equable series of climates that can 
only be classed with the other Australian climates 
for health, and physical and mental efficiency. 

To quote Dr. T. P. Anderson Stuart, profes- 
sor of physiology at Sydney University, and 
Chairman of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital : 
"There are no diseases peculiar to New 

South Wales; there are no peculiar risks of 




Forest and Clearing 



latlng surface, with low ranges here and there, 
cobwebbed by rivers and blllabongs and ana- 
branches, spotted with silver lakes, which spread 
in wet seasons and shrink In the dry, edged with 
green wheat and dotted with shearing sheds, 
would fill the wider part of his vision. Its fer- 
tility may be accepted as universal. Its future pro- 
ductiveness cannot be foretold. It is an estate 
beyond the range of computation in actual values; 
but some attempt will be made In following pages 
to show what a possession it forms for the people 
of to-day, what a heritage it may become for the 
generation of to-morrow. 

Having roughly surveyed the physical features 
of the country and found that It is a land beauti- 
ful and good, let us compare Its climates and see 
how they make for health and comfort. 



any kind; there are rlO special precautions to 
be taken nor provisions to be made prior to 
leaving the older lands with a view to settling 
in the State. The climate Is much cooler than 
is Indicated merely by Its latitude, and, being 
In the Southern Hemisphere, its temperature 
tends to be equable. It is one of the most tem- 
perate and uniform in the world. Owing to 
the extreme dryness of the atmosphere, high 
temperatures In New South Wales are not 
nearly so oppressive as even much lower tem- 
peratures would be In London or in France; 
and the high temperatures do not, as a rule, 
last long. On the New England tableland the 
climate of Armidale and other towns may be 
considered as nearly perfect as can be found. 
Cooma, In the centre of the Monaro plains, 



NEW SOUTH WALES : REVENUES AND RESOURCES 



H5 



at an elevation of 2,637 feet above sea-level, 
enjoys a summer as mild as either London or 
Paris, while its winters are far less severe. 
Kiandra, the highest village in the State 
(4,640 feet) has a mean summer temperature 
of 56.4, and a winter temperature of 32.5 
degrees, corresponding with that of Dumferm- 
line in Scotland. . . . The climate of the 
great plains, in spite of the heat of part of 
the summer, is very healthy, and an inspection 
of the death rates amply bears out this view. 
Bourke has exactly the same latitude as Cairo, 
yet its summer temperature is 1.5 degree less. 
New Orleans also lies on the same parallel; 
but the American city is 4 degrees hotter in 
summer. Accompanied by clear skies and an 
absence of snow, the winter season is both re- 
freshing and enjoyable. 

"In this region the rainfall is lowest of all — 
less than 20 inches. The air is dry, so that 
in spite of the high temperatures on occasional 
days in summer, one does not feel so listless 
and indisposed to action as on the coast. From 
this difference, temperatures are quite comfort- 
able in the interior which would be intolerable 



on the coast. Nowhere in the State is the 
midday siesta, so common in India, indulged 
in. Punkahs are not used. 

"From the standpoint of health, it is for- 
tunate for the country that dryness is one of 
its characteristics; otherwise, instead of being 
the abode of health, the interior of the State 
would, with abundant rains, have become an 
impenetrable jungle, the lurking place of those 
malarial fevers which devastate so many fair 
regions of the Old World and America. New 
.South Wales may, therefore, be compared 
favourably with any part of the world; and, 
taking into consideration the comparatively 
low latitudes in which it is situated, it offers 
a most remarkable variety of temperate cli- 
mates. From Kiandra, on the highest part of 
the Great Dividing Range, to Bourke, on the 
great interior plain, the climate may be com- 
pared with the region of Europe extending 
from Edinburgh to Messina, but more gener- 
ally resembling that of Southern France and 
Italy. It may, therefore, be regarded as pe- 
culiarly fitted for the habitation of people of 
European race, embracing, as it does, within 




A New South Wales Wheatfleld 



146 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



its limits, the climatic conditions under which 
the most advanced races of the world have 
prospered." (Coghlan.) I know of no evi- 
dence of any deterioration of the Anglo-Saxon 
people due merely to residence in New South 
Wales. A recent writer points out that a 
great distinction must be drawn between hot 
dry and hot humid regions. In the former 
many of the mightiest nations of antiquity had 
their home, e.g., Ancient Egyptians, Saracens, 
&c., and Europeans thrive and multiply, while 
the natives of hot humid climates have always 
been lacking in hardihood and warlike propen- 
sites. Do not Australians hold a high position 
in all branches of manly sport? The one great 
need of Australia is population — every other 
need is small compared with this one. 

"Whatever way you look at it. New South 
Wales is a healthy country. Compared with 
the death rates of other countries, especially 
those of the Old World, the death rate of 
New South Wales, — 10.91 per 1,000 of the 
population — is remarkably low. For instance, 
that of France is 17.5, of the United Kingdom 
about 13.8, of the German Empire 15.6, of 
Italy 1 8.2, and of Austria 20.5. In England and 
Wales 9.5 out of every hundred children born 
die in their first year — in New South Wales only 
6.8 so die. This favourable rate for New 
South Wales is due to the salubrity of the 
climate, the absence of pestilences, the superior 
social conditions of the people — good, plenti- 
ful, and cheap food and clothing — and health- 
ful occupations. These figures are the mean 
for the State, and even this mean is gradually 
falling owing to health legislation, and the 
greater attention which is being paid to sani- 
tary precautions." 

In migrating to New South Wales Europeans 
need have no fear of those malarial fevers and 
tropical diseases endemic in so many countries. 

New South Wales has a welcome for 
healthy, energetic settlers. The conquest of 
the West is only beginning, and our geolo- 
gists have pointed out that the soil of the 
great plains "consists almost entirely of alluvial 
deposits, which have In the course of ages been 
carried down from the tablelands by the rivers 
and spread over their surfaces." In other chap- 
ters it will be shown what this wide West will 
grow under correct conditions. The story of 
western America has lurgely been written; the 
story of western New South Wales awaits the 
pen of Progress. Men will grow rich in the 
writing of this story as they did in Kansas and 
Nebraska and California; wastes will be turned 
into fields; deserts will become gardens; villages 
will grow into towns, and towns into cities; and 
fortune and independence will wait upon those 



who with prudence, industry, and foresight are 
going to write this glorious epic of the West. 
Already the urban population is too large; the 
country is aching for occupancy. A mighty area, 
large as a European kingdom, remains for closer 
settlement and intensive culture. 

And it must be remembered that the settler in 
Australia will not be called upon nowadays to 
face the hardships and privations of pioneer con- 
ditions. Nor will he have to hibernate for many 
bleak and barren months of the year, his fields 
covered with snow, his stock housed and rugged, 
with all farming operations at a standstill and all 
the losses, dangers and discomforts of a long 
and wearing winter to make up for. 

Here he can be up and doing, out and about, 
from daylight to dark, if he so wishes, every day 
in the year. Here there is seldom ice or snow, 
but clear, sunny skies, soft winds, and a healthy, 
invigorating climate, wherein all social and do- 
mestic pleasures are constantly possible, wherein 
one may exercise freely, eat heartily, sleep 
soundly, and find an outlet for one's energies- 
mental and physical — uncramped by climatic 
severities; and unhindered by oppressive laws. 

There are, on semi-official calculations, some- 
thing like twenty-five million acres of land in New 
South Wales which ought to be growing wheat. 
On alienated lands suitable for tillage, share 
farming is rapidly extending. 

It has been shown that an estate which would 
return only £2,000 a year from wool will give 
£10,000 from wheat; beside leading to the em- 
ployment of a much larger number of people. 
Share farming has been largely taken up by 
immigrants with only limited Australian experi- 
ence and without capital; and has been the means 
of giving scores of them a good start on the road 
to independence. 

During the last few years a vigorous policy 
of settlement has been pursued by succeeding 
governments, a policy which will become more 
and more active in the future. Land is rapidly 
being made available, not only for wheat-growing 
but for dairying, and kindred industries. Separ- 
ator, factory, cold storage and rapid transit have I 
placed Australian dairy products upon the Lon- ' 
don market, where they must find an increasing 
demand. 

The areas on which farming may be made 
most successful will decrease in size; and the 
minimum acreages will be those where irrigation, 
as in the Murrumbidgee scheme, can be invoked 
to draw from soils of unequalled fertility the 
full measure of their possibilities. 

Orchards, vineyards, bee farms, pig farms, fat 
sheep farms, ostrich farms, market gardens, 
poultry farms — each succeeding year, these and 
twenty other specialized primary industries, are 



NEW SOUTH WALES: REVENUES AND RESOURCES 



H7 




Burrinjuck Township, Murrumbidgee Storage Area 



being developed all over the State by young set- 
tlers; but the field of operations will not reach its 
limit in a hundred years. 

For immigrants without experience, who are 
willing to wait and learn, there will be as good 
chances as for the native-born. After all, with 
State agricultural bureaus, modern text-books, 
periodicals, daily newspapers which devote regu- 
lar pages to the man on the land, and the constant 
experience of one's neighbors, there is little dif- 
ficulty in the novice of ordinary intelligence ac- 
quiring the knowledge and practice which bring 
success. 

Australia welcomes the skilled farmer with 
capital, or the expert agricultural laborer, who is 
prepared to work in harmony with her estab- 
lished industrial conditions, but she is pleased to 
have the prospective settler of smaller means or 
none at all, providing he brings to her shores a 
healthy body and a normal mind. The higher 
his ambition the higher his value, as a citizen of 
the Commonwealth. 



It is not to the cities that he should turn on 
arrival, for there competition is keener and his 
chances less, but to the wide fields of enterprise 
and independence that await him everywhere 
throughout rural Australia if he is only industri- 
ous, patient and wise. 

The Government of New South Wales, realiz- 
ing that facilities for an increased rural popula- 
tion must be found, are constantly opening up new 
lands and building new railways. 

In addition to this fixed policy of development 
the State has taken the question of irrigation 
settlement practically in hand, and at Burrenjuck 
constructed the second-greatest water storage in 
the world, which is now serving the Murrumbid- 
gee Irrigation Area, of which details will be 
found elsewhere in this volume. 

The Act provides, in cases of resumption, for 
the payment of full compensation to the owners; 
the amount of which is decided by a legally-con- 
stituted Land Court. Apart from Government 
resumptions, owing to Federal and State Innd 



148 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



taxes, and also to the increasing value of and 
demand for agricultural areas, original holders 
are everywhere pursuing a policy of subdivision. 
During the last few years some magnificent 
station properties have been cut up into farms 
and sold on long and easy terms to agriculturists. 
The average prices realized for these lands — 
usually within reasonable distance of local mar- 
kets and metropolitan transport — have been 
from £3 to £10 an acre. 



day. They fenced and cleared and grubbed and 
waited; the newcomers must be prepared to do 
the same. It is an even chance, which Time can 
convert Into a certainty. 

The settler enjoys a healthy, interesting life. 
He can rely on a living almost from the start 
and look forward with confidence to future in- 
dependence. 

Under the Closer Settlement (promotion) Act, 
he can invoke the financial assistance of the Go- 




The Burrinjuck Dam, Murrumbidgee Elver 



Meanwhile, the value of such subdivided 
areas, owing to contiguous settlement, improve- 
ment, and the rapid expansion in primary pro- 
duction all over the State, is a steadily increasing 
one. Land bought a few years ago on the Rich- 
mond River for £3 has been resold since for 
£30 to £45 an acre. So, from a speculative point 
of view, investments in broad acres in New South 
Wales can be recommended. 

There are still, on the North Coast, large 
areas of Crown Lands, suitable for dairy farm- 
ing, which are being thrown open from time to 
time. 

These lands are somewhat removed from al- 
ready established settlements; but they hold the 
same openings for the pioneers of to-day as the 
settled districts held for the pioneers of yester- 



vernment Savings Bank to assist him in the de- 
velopment and improvement of his farm. The 
Crown Lands Department in Sydney officially 
supplies information to intending settlers. Cer- 
tain Crown lands of the State are to be acquired 
under various titles and conditions; such as Home- 
stead Farm, Crown Lease, Residential Condi- 
tional Purchase, and Suburban Holding. It is 
wise for would-be settlers from other States or 
from abroad to get into direct touch with the 
Lands Department first. The Railway Commis- 
sioners issue a special season ticket to land seek- 
ers on the certificate of the Superintendent of the 
Government Immigration Bureau, Sydney. The 
cost of the ticket is £3 los. od. second-class and 
£5 5s. od. first-class and is available over all lines 
for 14 days. 



NEW SOUTH WALES: REVENUES AND RESOURCES 



149 




Sutherland Dock, Sydney 



"For convenience of administration, the State 
is subdivided into many Land Board Districts, 
in which are appointed various Crown Land 
Agents, from whom forms of appHcation are 
obtainable, and with whom they must be 
lodged on certain specified days. These appli- 
cations are dealt with by local governing 
bodies, designated Land Boards, who inquire 
into and report upon the bona-fides of each 
applicant. 

"The question of capital values is also re- 
ferred to them for report, which is subse- 
quently submitted for confirmation to the min- 
isterial head of the Lands Department. The 
Department issues pamphlets and plans 
which explain in simple language the necessary 
formulas for taking up available country. 

"The local Crown Land Agents will be found 
ready to afford any information sought on the 
spot, while the Central Inquiry and Informa- 
tion Bureau at the Head Office in Sydney lays 
itself out to supply all possible detail as to cli- 



matic conditions, nature of soil, class of tim- 
ber, etc., and all other facts which might be of 
service." 

As regards markets for her products, New 
South Wales, like the rest of Australia, is ex- 
periencing no difficulty. For her wool, coal, but- 
ter, meat, wheat, tallow, timber, wines, hides, lea- 
ther, and minerals, there is ever a growing de- 
mand. Europe, America and Japan compete for 
her wool clip, the export value of which in the 
12 months ended 30th. June, 19 16, was nearly 
thirteen and three-quarter millions sterling. 
During that year the total exports of New South 
Wales reached nearly forty-one millions, while 
the imports stood at a little less than thirty-three 
and a half millions. 

The year 19 13 closed in general prosperity. 
There had been record attendances at the State- 
schools, record harvests, record cane cheques in 
the North, an enormous increase in port improve- 
ments, buildings and general public activities. 



I50 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



The policy which New South Wales is follow- 
ing cannot fail to bring enormous expansion, for 
the natural wealth of the State has been recog- 
nised and the right methods adopted for its rea- 
lisation. Public works were necessary; a vigor- 
ous policy of public works was adopted. There 
might be a small bookkeeping shortage for one 
twelve months; but practical gains were far more 
than technical losses. Every pound spent in port 
improvement, in railway building, in water con- 
servation was a pound in the bank of national 
asset, bringing constant and increasing interest. 
Money borrowed on the London market at 4^ 
per cent, and put into national investments, such 
as these, can possibly be made to return eight 
and ten per cent. It is different with money bor- 
rowed for the purposes of war; thus for the 
soundest financial reasons. New South Wales 
stocks continue to attract European investors. 

But sound finance without a backbone of 
natural resources will not give the most patriotic 
of communities a field for expansion. New South 
Wales could afford to be more prodigal in ex- 
penditure than any other country of similar area. 



She has enormous reserves of potential wealth, 
which are as yet untouched. 

Take, for example, her timber resources, 
which, despite all criticism, are being scientifically 
developed and universally safeguarded by a vigi- 
lant Forestry Department. 

The Director of Forests, Mr. R. D. Hay, 
supplied some interesting information to the 
Dominions Royal Commission: — 

The timber resources of the State comprise 
hardwoods and soft or brush woods, the pro- 
portion being approximately two-thirds and 
one-third respectively, and the forests are 
mainly located in the coastal and central terri- 
torial divisions of the State. The hardwoods 
of commercial value comprise twenty-two 
species, and the brush and soft woods about 
twenty-one. 

Only of latter years has the value of our Aus- 
tralian timbers been realized. It would be a dif- 
ficult matter to estimate what the forests of New 
South Wales are worth, and as a national asset 
they would probably balance the public debt and 




Hetton Colliery, Newcastle 



NEW SOUTH WALES: REVENUES AND RESOURCES 



151 



leave a surplus large enough to build a transcon- 
tinental railway. 

A British forestry commission has recom- 
mended that nine million acres of land in the 
Kingdom should be planted with trees, which 
would ultimately form a national asset worth, 
approximately £560,000,000. Her fifteen mil- 
lion acres of wooded lands, as given by Mr. 
Hay, ought to be worth quite as much as 
that to New South Wales. . .* . 



mildness of our coasts, fishermen are not liable 
to be continually half frozen at their work in 
winter as they are in European and North Ameri- 
can waters. 

"The surface waters off this coast teem with 
fishes of various species, and many of these 
could be caught in huge numbers by the Purse- 
seine, notably pilchard and mackerel. 

"Most of the ocean bottom lying within the 
200-fathom line is suitable for trawling. 




Hauling Timber, North Coast 



Along 907 miles of ocean coastline there exists 
an unexploited marine wealth which cannot be 
even approximated. 

Mr. David A. Stead, Naturalist to the Govern- 
ment F^isheries Department of New South Wales, 
has, for many years, been collecting valuable in- 
formation on the edible fishes and marine pro- 
ducts of this coast. He is the author of several 
pamphlets and treatises on the subject, and may 
be accepted as a thoroughly reliable authority. 

In his Facts About the Fisheries of New South 
Wales, Mr. Stead points out that, owing to the 



"In addition to this, New South Wales has 
a great Western River System which is of 
enormous value from a fisheries standpoint. 
It is rich in fish life, and produces the famous 
Murray Cod. Many thousands of miles of 
river, lagoon, and billabong are well supplied 
with excellent food fishes. 

"In the Eastern streams of New South 
Wales are to be found that magnificent game 
fish — the freshwater perch or Australian bass. 
The present annual market supply might be 
set down at 16 million pounds weight of fish. 



152 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



"Most of I he edible fishes of New South 
Wales are well suited for canning. 

"New South Wales has a known fish fauna 
of about 550 species, nearly all of which are 
edible, and at least 250 varieties are of a prac- 
tically commercial nature. 

"As regards our present fisheries, in many 
cases only the fringe of the vast shoals is 
touched or drawn upon. Often the fisherman 
is practically obliged, in his own interests, to 
refrain from sending what he might, for fear 




Marbled Flathead 



of creating a glut in the market. With the 
better opening up of avenues for fish distribu- 
tion, an enormous impetus will be given to fish 
catching." 
Prawns, lobsters, crayfish, and oysters are 

abundant on the coast of New South Wales, and 

might be canned in any quantity. 



Porpoises, whales — the black, hump-back, sul- 
phur bottom, finback and pike whale — all find a 
habitat on the coast. Sponges, kelp, commercial 
seaweeds — 300 known species — and other ma- 
rine products and by-products are to be obtained 
along the Eastern shores. 

How little we Australians know of the wealth 
at our doors is exampled by the fact that Spanish 
mackerel, one of the highest-priced and valued 
food fishes of American markets, until quite re- 
cently, was allowed to pass up and down the 
coasts of New South Wales in countless shoals, 
without any attempt being made to popularize 
it as a local article of diet. Not until 1907, 
when Mr. Stead pointed out the existence of shoals 
of southern tunny, did the Australian angler even 
know that the greatest fighting fish of the Seven 
Seas was to be had on the coast. The same 
authority has frequently drawn attention to the 
presence of prodigious shoals of pilchards, which 
still remain a neglected fish, as far as Australians 
are concerned. 

It may be predicted that, before many years, a 
great development will take place in Australian 
fisheries generally. A vast marine food supply, 
such as we possess, will not only be exploited for 
home consumption, but for export, particularly to 
Asian markets. We have fish as well as meat 
to feed the millions. But the fisheries of New 
South Wales are another national asset the 
nature and value of which are yet imperfectly 
understood. 

The State initiated a scheme of some magni- 
tude for the development of deep-sea fisheries 
In 19 1 5 Mr. Stead — who had been despatched 
by the Holman Government to Europe and Ame- 
rica on a commission of piscatorial enquiry and 
for the purpose of acquiring deep-sea fishing ves- 
sels for the exploitation primarily of the trawl- 
fisheries on the coast of New South Wales — re- 
turned to Sydney, bringing with him three mo- 
dern steel trawlers. These were started on the 
work of trawling soon after their arrival, and al- 
though the initial work was largely exploratory 
they have demonstrated great possibilities in the 
use of the otter trawl in these waters. Hundreds 
of tons of fish have already been brought as cheap 
food to the people of New South Wales. 

During their first fourteen months' work — of a 
pioneering, exploratory, and experimental nature 
— the three State steam-trawlers brought into the 
Sydney food market no less than 2,504,000 lb. 
weight of choice deep-sea fish. This great bulk 
of fish has been captured by the State's ships and 
sold to the public at an infinitesimal cost to the 
taxpayers. It is expected that the State trawlers 
ultimately will cost the taxpayer nothing. 

With this scheme, the Government has pio- 
neered the way in the matter of the State as fish- 



NEW SOUTH WALES: REVENUES AND RESOURCES 153 

retailer. Five fish depots have been opened in vari- Amongst the fishes captured by the State trawl- 

ous districts of Sydney for the sale of State- ers are snapper, whiting, flathead, leather-jacket, 

caught fish. As the work of the industry deve- John dory, boar fish, morwong, barracouta, ling, 

lops, other retail depots are to be opened in the gurnard, nannygai, silver dory, sawfish, skate, cu- 

cities of Sydney and Newcastle, and throughout cumber fish. 

the country districts. The full scheme will make Though magnificent trawling-grounds have 

available vast quantities of a cheap and whole- been discovered at various places^along the coast, 

some food. At these State fish-shops the people only the beginning of the necessary exploration 

are able to buy fish at prices averaging half those work has been undertaken. Perhaps the best 




The Beach, Newcastle 



which have prevailed in Sydney. The State fish- 
depots make no less than 71,000 sales a month. 
Two of the depots serve over 1,000 customers a 
day each. 

The industry is being expanded by the building 
of a fleet of fishing-vessels, the construction of a 
large fish-carrying vessel for the transport of fish 
from coastal receiving-depots to great distribut- 
ing centres; and by the establishment of a chain 
of coastal receiving-depots for dealing with the 
inshore fishermen's catches. 



ground of all, so far discovered, is that stretching 
away southwards from off Botany Heads to a 
point a few miles eastward of Coalcliff. Another 
wonderful trawling-ground lies immediately east- 
ward of the North Head of Port Jackson. Of 
the more distant grounds so far located (1916) 
the best is that lying off Twofold Bay and Disas- 
ter Bay. 

Great individual catches have been made by 
the State trawlers. In many cases the catch per 
fishing hour has exceeded that of the catches made 



154 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



in 



the prolific North Sea 



by steam-trawlers 
grounds. 

The handling of the inshore and estuarine fish- 
ermen's catches would mean the gradual aboli- 
tion of the middleman — officially regarded as 
superfluous. 

The placing of central receiving-depots at vari- 
ous points along the coastline will ensure the sav- 
ing of many tons of food which would otherwise 



In addition to freshwater and marine species 
the eastern rivers and lakes of New South 
Wales are being stocked with trout and other 
exotic fishes, which acclimatize without diffi- 
culty, and are already a yearly joy and profit to 

the angler 

* * * * 

Running down the Eastern Division of New 
South Wales from Singleton to Wollongong is 




Harpoon Practice, East Coast. 



be destroyed throughout the year, and must large- 
ly increase the output. 

In the last few years the whaling industry of 
New South Wales has also been rediscovered. A 
modern whaling concern operating three steam 
whaling-vessels, and working in the vicinity of 
Jervis Bay, has captured over 350 whales in one 
season, yielding a great quantity of oil and whale- 
bone. One sperm whale taken in the Tasman 
Sea yielded an immense lump of ambergris, which 
brought in London no less than £12,000. 

It is expected that the New South Wales coast 
will become the home of a firmly-established in- 
dustry on a large scale in connection with whal- 
ing operations. 

The only other whaling carried on in New 
South Wales for many years has been that in- 
teresting industry at Twofold Bay, where the 
large cetaceans known as "killers," or "killer 
whales," operating in conjunction with the human 
whalers, have been responsible for the establish- 
ment of a small industry dealing with from eight 
to ten whales per annum. 



an enormous proven coal-field, which extends in 
width from, the coastline to Lithgow in the west. 
Maitland, Newcastle, Sydney and Wollongong 
are all built over this continuous coal bed of in- 
estimable value. 

Mr. E. F. Pittman, the Government Geologist, 
calculated that, at a moderate estimate, there 
are 1 15,346,000,000 tons of high-class coal avail- 
able for mining in the State. 

The development of Australia may have been 
directly due to the finding of payable gold in New 
South Wales in 1851, but the future progress of 
the Commonwealth is more likely to depend upon 
iron and coal. It is comforting therefore to 
learn that the Mother State possesses an abund- 
ance of both. 

Slowly but surely the evolution of an Austra- 
lian iron and steel industry is taking place. 

With unlimited coal, iron ore, and limestone 
within reasonable distances, with public sentiment 
and political policy as a constant pressure, the 
establishment of the iron manufacturing industry 
on a firm basis is steadily going on. 




.a 

M 

a 
a 

3 

a 
a 

•a 
x> 
>> 
"3 



.ct 

oa 

o 
d 

m 



.4 
Eh 



155 



ts6 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Blast Furnace, Lithgow 



At Carcoar and Cadia, less than lOO miles 
from Lithgow, the deposits of iron ores have 
been estimated at over forty million tons; ten 
million tons of which are declared to be of the 
highest quality. 

Altogether New South Wales has something 
like seven millions of money values in mining 
plant, smelters, and mining machinery; which 
capital outlay has been considerably increased by 
the establishment of the Broken Hill Company's 
iron and steel reduction works at Newcastle. 

Although gold is known to exist over a field 
six hundred to seven hundred miles in extent, and 
although it has been extensively and profitably 
worked for more than half a century, capital in- 
vestments in other mineral production seem to be 
increasing while the interest in gold mining has, 
at least temporarily, declined. Yet it is possible 
that to the sixty odd million pounds worth of gold 
which New South Wales has produced since 
1 85 1, there will be added another fifty or sixty 
millions during the next half-century. 



In eleven years (1900-1910) the old alluvial 
deposits of Araluen, worked over on the modern 
dredge system, yielded another half million, and, 
with improved processes and automatic machin- 
ery, low grade values which would have been 
unprofitable a few years back, can now be con- 
verted into dividend-producers. 

The chief reason for decline in this particular 
branch of mineral production is that, during the 
last ten years, other things have been found to 
pay as well or better than gold mining in New 
South Wales. 

Silver and lead, tin, copper, antimony, plati- 
num, bismuth, molybdenum, scheelite, wolfram, 
kerosene shale, diamonds, gem stones, alunite, 
asbestos, arsenic, and various other commercial 
minerals, exist in unknown quantities, and are 
all being profitably worked at different places. 

The copper lodes contain ores of a very 
much higher grade than those of many well- 
known mines worked in other parts of the world, 



NEW SOUTH WALES: REVENUES AND RESOURCES 



157 



Between the years 1858 and 19 12, the value sesses deposits of immense future importance, 
of the copper produced in the State totalled The production of precious opal in this State has 



£1 1,784,102. 

Between 1872 and 19 12 the total tin produc- 
tion was worth £9,327,609. Lode and alluvial 
tin are both distributed over a large area. 

In marbles and clays, New South Wales pos- 



already totalled well over a million pounds, but 
in days to come those beautiful colored marbles, 
declared by experts to be the finest in the world, 
will probably be regarded as a greater national 
asset. 




Copper Mine, Cobar 







'5^ 



i 



(159) 




Crossing a Creek 



TRADE AND PRODUCTION. 



FOUR days' steaming from Port Darwin is 
the island of Java; less in area than the 
State of Victoria, and supporting a popu- 
lation of 35 millions of people. 

Farther north, lies Japan with forty millions, 
and China with four hundred millions. Between 
these spreads Malaysia, holding nigh on ten mil- 
lions more — while the great Indian Empire, with 
its 300 millions, occupies the near North-West. 
These countries are much closer to Australia 
than Europe or America. 

During the last thirty years, radical changes 
have taken place in the Asiatic attitude towards 
Occidental civilization and habits. As a result, 
there is an increasing demand for products, 
which, previously, were a negligible quantity in 
the import trade of Eastern Asia. 

Australia — which may become the greatest 
wool, wheat, and meat producing country in the 
world — must greatly benefit from this hungry 
clamor of the North to be better clothed and fed. 

Another cursory glance at official statistics 
shows how the Asian trade is growing. 

In 1900 the total value of exports from New 
South Wales to India and Ceylon was no more 
than £174,296. In 19 12 it had reached 
£2,894,035. 

The export trade to the Straits Settlements in 
1900 was only £39,898. In 1912 it came to 
£401,481. 



The trade with Japan has been a steadily 
increasing quantity. It expanded from £133,989 
in 1900 to £966,798 for 1912! 

All the world is coming into competition as 
buyers for the goods that Australia has to sell. 
We need have no fear of over-production; our 
only anxiety is under-population. The Com- 
monwealth, with 1 .47 persons to the square mile, 
is still the most sparsely populated of all the 
civilized countries of the world. Europe, with 
114 to the square mile, could spare us a few 
millions from her over-crowded centres, to 
mutual advantage. 

We could increase the army of Australian pro- 
ducers to a hundred millions, and still have room 
to spare for millions more on the fertile fields of 
our splendid Island Continent. 

In the development of manufacturing and agri- 
culture, Australia will, during the next fifty years, 
require a much larger population than the natural 
Increase is likely to give her. The Federal Statis- 
tician, Mr. G. H. Knibbs, has calculated that 
with the present rate of increase, the Common- 
wealth would have 8,534,000 people at the end 
of 1950. 

The demand for Australia's raw products 
alone will necessitate a more rapid peopling of 
this great Continent. Australia has certainties 
to offer settlers from abroad. More wool will 
have to be grown, and more foodstuffs produced. 



i6o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



For butter, and wheat, mutton, and fruit, and 
wine, there is no close season. Millions of 
broad acres, on which these and a thousand other 
commercial products can be grown, are waiting 
on the Commonwealth for the labor which will 
reduce their potential wealth to actual money. 

Elsewhere, humanity is crying for opportuni- 
ties. Here, opportunities are crying for human- 



combined (under the system of mixed farmmg, 
which prevails in many districts) with wheat- 
growing, pig-raising, dairying and orcharding. 

The system of mixed farming is based on local 
conditions. A scientific rotation of crops and 
stock is its essential principle. It aims at get- 
ting the highest possible amount of profit out of 
the soil. 




Loading Wheat at a Country Station 



ity. It should be the object of wise statesman- 
ship to reduce these distortions to proportion, 
and between shortage and surplus, to bring about 
an equable balance. 

Let us examine some of these openings which 
New South Wales offers to primary producers 
from any country in Europe or North America. 

New South Wales is the great sheep-breeding 
centre of Australia, and the leader of the world 
in the production of fine merino wool. 

While the bulk of the sheep shorn are at pre- 
sent run on big stations, the tendency is for 
smaller holders to go in for woolgrowing. It is 



For farmers who have been trained in the more 
strenuous agricultural schools of Europe and 
North America, mixed farming in New South 
Wales offers what may be described as a royal 
road to fortune. 

Intensive culture on reduced areas under ap- 
proved methods of cultivation is greatly needed 
to prevent the waste and exhaustion of soils 
which have taken place in some agricultural dis- 
tricts. 

Mixed farming areas visited by the writer, 
during 19 12-13, were showing a high percentage 
of profits everywhere that good management 
existed. Woolgrowing has long been brought to 



NEW SOUTH WALES : TRADE AND PRODUCTION 



i6i 




A Oierry Tree, Bathurst Experiment Farm 



a State of perfection in Australia; but sheep- 
farming — the raising of mutton and lamb for 
export, is yet practically in its infancy. A cross- 
bred sheep has, so far, proved the most profit- 
able. 

The method on smaller farms is to run these 
sheep on stubble and culti\ation fields not in crop. 
The sheep clean and fertilize the paddocks — 
which supply them with a better interim pasture 
than untilled country. They rid the wheat fields 
of plants which are of no service to the crop, and 
fill an economic function as gleaners after har- 
vest. 

The nett season return from 500 crossbreds 
under these conditions in wool and mutton may 
be anything up to £500; not, in itself, a bad 
annual income for a small farmer. 

With no difficulty in turning every pound of 
Australian butter, every ounce of wool, every - 
quarter of mutton into golden sovereigns; with 
soil and climate all in his favor, the Australian 
mixed farmer occupies a unique position among 
international agriculturists. 

Australia has no peasant class. The farm 
worker of to-day may be the proprietary farmer 
of to-morrow. Nowhere on the face of the earth 
is there a country so prosperous, or one which 
holds such widespread opportunities. 

Fruits of all kinds can be grown to perfection 
in New South Wales. The varieties which the 
mixed farmer will cultivate depend on his dis- 
trict. On the Richmond River he will probably 
grow bananas; at Wentworth oranges; in 
Monaro, apples or pears. 



Fruit-growing as an exclusive occupation is 
making many Australian fortunes; but along the 
higher tablelands, where the best mixed farming 
country is found, good crops of English fruits 
can be gathered with certainty every year. 

On the lower slopes, up to an elevation of 
1,500 feet, peaches, passion-fruit, plums and 
grapes give great harvests. After many years 
of experiment in jam-making and fruit-preser- 
ving, Australia now turns out immense quantities 
of the very best product, which has practically 
displaced the imported article, and is rapidly for- 
cing its way into markets of the outside world. 

The West also, is pre-eminently adapted for 
the production of dried fruits. 

During its long, cloudless summers, the fruit 
can be properly ripened and dried. Raisins, sul- 
tanas, currants, apricots, figs, and peaches — 
nowhere, outside Australia, can these be grown 
and handled under more favorable conditions. 
Already wholesome Australian dried fruit, free 
from dirt and impurities, practically monopolizes 
the home market, and is a growing export. 

rhe Government of the State has given much 
attention to fruit-growing in its various experi- 
mental orchards. Data, so collected, is avail- 
able for the benefit of orchardists, or those who 
meditate the establishment of an orchard. 

The young vigneron also will find not only 
fields for his labors but a considerable experience 
and much Government experiment to guide him. 
Although wine growing has not extended as 
rapidly as some contemporary industries, New 



l62 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



South Wales has some splendid vineyards, and 
produces large quantities of excellent wines. 

For many years it has been current prophecy 
that Australia is destined to become the greatest 
wine-producing country in the world. M. 
Blunno, viticultural expert, has declared that since 
the establishment of this industry in New South 
Wales, the supply of wine has never been greater 
than the demand. Ten acres of vineyard make 
a comfortable living for a family; yet the total 
area under cultivation might be multiplied by 
fifty. 



on large areas is estimated at £io to £15 an acre 
per annum. Smaller vineyards, with family 
labor, return more. Family experience has a 
particular value in this industry. There are 
thousands of wide Australian slopes yet to green 
with vineyards, and room for hundreds of pros- 
perous homes. Families from the wine districts 
of Europe will find field and scope for their 
energies and experience. As in other branches 
of industry, immigrants without capital, who are 
willing to work, will not have to wait long for 
their chance to become proprietors. 



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Wine-Grapes: Thompson's Seedless, Yanco 



Australians themselves are not a wine-drinking 
people; but there is a growing local demand and 
their wine increases in foreign favor, as fast as 
its quality is realized abroad. It has been, for 
commercial reasons, a difiicult industry to 
pioneer. Still, the total export for the State in 
1913 was 50,776 gallons. 

With modern ploughs and subsoilers, the cost 
of preparing vine lands in New South Wales is 
between £9 and £10 an acre. All out, a vineyard 
may be put in bearing in this State for about £25 
an acre. With proper attention, its life can then 
be estimated at a period of forty years. The 
product, of course, has an increasing value, inas- 
much as matured wines, all the world over, com- 
mand a higher price. The profit to the vigneron 



The industrious Italian, the intelligent 
Frenchman will enjoy liberty, leisure, and oppor- 
tunity, as hundreds of their countrymen have 
already done here. There is no prejudice against 
the foreigner who is willing to accommodate him- 
self to Australian conditions. He will find 
neither legal, nor social, nor commercial distinc- 
tion raised against him on the score of his 
nationality. Australia opens wide her doors to 
these worthy citizens, and gives them warm wel- 
come and hearty encouragement. The experi- 
ence won by four generations of pioneers is theirs 
to profit by. The best traditions of British jus- 
tice and free citizenship prevail under the flag of 
the Commonwealth. In New South Wales a vigi- 



NEW SOUTH WALES: TRADE AND PRODUCTION 



^63 




Wyandottes, Hooper's Farm, Epping 



in 

K 
■ 



lant administration has seen to it that assistance 
and instruction to settlers are readily available. 
The splendid work of a modern agricultural 
department, whose experts are in constant touch 
with the experiments of other States and coun- 
tries, has established a storehouse of knowledge 
by which every settler is free to profit. One of 
the functions filled by the Department is the care 
and supervision of vineyards and the supply to 
growers of phylloxera-resisting stocks, which are 
propagated on the Government Viticultural Sta- 
tions at Narara and Mirrool. 

The by-products, wine-lees and wine-stone, 
have been very largely wasted by Australian 
vignerons, mainly because they have found wine- 
making sufficiently profitable without adding to it 
a secondary industry. During the last few years 
a revolution has taken place in the equipment of 
the larger establishments. The most scientific 
methods of fermentation have been introduced, 
turbinage of white musts adopted and labor-sav- 
ing machinery installed. As a result, wine-mak- 
ing has been made a still more profitable indus- 
try, and the quality of the Australian product 
enerally improved. 
As in Europe, the Australian wine varies with 
soil and climate. The rich, red, dry wines of 
Albury and Corowa vineyards have long gratified 
many a fastidious English palate. These dis- 
tricts also produce excellent Ports, Sherries 
and Muscats. From the Hunter River vine- 
yards the most famous Sauterne, Chablis, Hock, 
and Claret have come. Here some of the first 
experiments in wine-growing were carried out; 
here, too, is some of the most picturesque country 
in Australia, 



The cooler climate of New England produces 
vvines corresponding to those grown in the colder 
vine districts of Europe — all of the finest flavor 
and quality in their class. 

Wine Grapes, successfully grown in New South 
Wales include Syrah, Malbeck, Cabernet, Verdot, 
Lambrusquat, Espar Mammolo, San Giovese, 
Pinot Noir, Aleatico, Franketal — for the red 
wines. 

Among the white wines are Tokay, Riesling, 
Verdelho, Pedro Ximenes, Marsanne, Muscat, 
de Frontignac, Pinot Blanc, Gouais, Blanquette 
and Chasselas. 

The cultivation of table grapes has been found 
profitable in New South Wales, especially when 
carried out within reasonable distance of the 
centres of population. The average crop is 
about three tons to the acre, and the quality of 
the fruit equal to anything that the sun ripens 
anywhere. 

There is a field in this State for the distillation 
of export wines and brandies which has not yet 
been exploited. Not anywhere in Europe are con- 
ditions more favorable to the growth of the most 
profitable varieties of grapes. Nowhere could 
a wine-producing population live and labor 
under happier surroundings. Ultimately the 
wines of New South Wales must become 
as famous and as popular the world over 
as the choicest vintages of Southern Europe. 
In fact, it is more than suspected that 
much of the wine which is now sold to con- 
sumers under foreign labels is really exported 
Australian. Under the circumstances, the wine 
drinker does not suffer — except in pocket. His 
remedy is to demand genuine Australian vintages 
and save the difference in price. 



164 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




A New South Wales Bee Farm 



Among what might be termed auxiHary indus- 
tries, the prospective farmer in New South Wales 
will find poultry-raising and bee-keeping practi- 
cable and possible. Poultry-raising as a spe- 
ciality is too often a source of disappointment; 
but, as an adjunct to the farm, it becomes a source 
of profit. In order to increase the farmer's 
revenue the Agricultural Department of New 
South Wales provides cold storage for eggs at a 
nominal charge; and the Railway Department has 
established a specially cheap transport for this 
particular product. A grower 500 miles away 
can land the eggs from his farm in Sydney at a 
carriage of about one penny a dozen; and if 
there is a glut in the market, they can be stored 
at low cost until prices go up. 

It is officially claimed that the finest frozen 
chickens received in London have come from 
New South Wales. There should be an enor- 
mous market in England for Australian poultry. 



From a most interesting chapter on Bee- 
keeping in the New South Wales Guide for Immi- 
grants and Settlers, we will select a few extracts. 
The article was contributed to that excellent pub- 



lication by Mr. W. Hessel Hall, M.A., who 
wisely advocates bee-keeping as an aid to settle- 
ment on the mountain lands of the Mother State. 
Mr. Hall, growing wearied of the cities, and 
being, as his writings indicate, a man with a fine 
poetic appreciation of the open life, began 
with a small apiary and gradually extended 
operations as he acquired practical knowledge. 

"A page out of my own experience," says Mr. 
Hall, after an informative talk on "Bees," "may 
best give the necessary information: — 

"First, knowing nothing of bees, I bought 
one hive — wicked hybrids — near relatives of 
the wasp in temper. To learn how to handle 
these fiends I bought 'Root's A.B.C. of Bee- 
culture,' and soon learned a good deal about 
bees. Several black swarms were given to me 
by friends. Next I purchased a good Italian 
queen, and breeding young queens from her 
replaced the wicked hybrids and blacks. When 
I had seven strong colonies I removed to an- 
other district, taking my hives 200 miles by 
rail. In the new district I bought a couple of 
stray swarms for a few shillings each, cut 
several nests out of hollow trees, and despite 
the loss of many fine swarms at swarming time 




3 
Q 



165 



1 66 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



through inexperience and failure to cut the 
queen's wings, in two years raised the total to 
thirty colonies. Then removing to the barren 
stony ridge — then in a state of nature — on 
which the writer's home now stands, he 
trusted to the bees and to what he could grow 
on the stony land for a living for himself, wife, 
and four young children. Obtaining the best 
strains of leather-coloured Italian blood, 
breeding, culling, selecting, he has now as fine 
a lot of thoroughbred queens and bees as can 
be found anywhere. By dint of clearing, 
trenching, draining, manuring, and even sift- 
ing, the barren hill has been turned into a most 
fertile garden. For years he made his own 
hives out of the ubiquitous kerosene case, till 
the labour of harvesting the increased yields 
left no time for such work. So by ten years' 
hard work — earning before he ate — he has 
built up a home in which he is satisfied to end 
his days. The same opportunities, and much 
better, are open to thousands of others. 

"In concluding this chapter, the writer 
would say that he is not a Government official, 
and has not written for hire. The life is one 
that he has lived, and is living still. 
He is writing in hope of benefiting the State by 
helping to solve the problem of settling the 
people on the land, and in the hope of helping 
others from the Old World, or those in his 
own land who desire to escape from city life 
to the healthful life of the mountains. The 
settler who has a stout heart and possesses in- 
dustry and grit need not fear failure. He will 
not make a fortune, but room and work for 
every child, and a home and a living he may 
have. As a reward he will live a life most 
varied and interesting — too busy to be dull — 
the years will slip by. He will call no man 
master. He will have busy times and times 
of leisure. In place of the monotony and con- 
finement of city labour he will have work most 
varied, according to the time of the year, — 
clearing, splitting, fencing, building, with 
material from his own land, beginning, if need 
be, with a sheet of bark or slab hut, and ending 
with as good a house as his skill or means can 
construct. Hive-making, queen-rearing, un- 
capping, extracting, soldering, marketing, 
ploughing, or digging, trenching, draining, 
planting, reaping, mowing, harvesting, prun- 
ing, grafting, budding, picking fruit, packing; 
all these and others go to make up the life of 
the mountain home. Though not rich, the 
settler, like the writer, may have many good 
things from his own labour — peas, beans, 
pumpkins, marrows, cabbage, cauliflower, tur- 
nips, parsnips, and other vegetables from his 
own garden in plenty. Honey and honey- 



comb in variety and abundance, milk, cream, 
butter, eggs, and bacon of his own curing. 
From his few trees, peaches, plums, nectarines, 
apricots, apples, passion-fruit, oranges — more 
than he can eat; strawberries and cream for all 
till they can eat no more; the choicest of grapes 
in abundance — things that the richest cannot 
buy so fresh and good. His children grow 
up hardy, deep-chested, and innocent, taller and 
stronger by far than their parents, may fol- 
low in their father's steps, or in after time in 
other callings rise to eminence in the land. To 
the men and women who fear God, seek know- 
ledge, and are patient in industry, all these 
things are possible 'on the mountain lands.' " 

In addition to his University degree, Mr. Hall 
has graduated with high honors in the School of 
Scientific Application. As a successful apiarist, 
rather than a University graduate, we attach 
importance to his pronouncements. 

"One of the most valuable assets of any 
State," says Mr. Hall, "is to be found in its 
mountain lands, and in the hardy and healthy 
men and women they nourish. In New South 
Wales this class of country has been under- 
valued by settlers in the past, and still remains 
in the hands of the State. These broken lands 
extend in a broad belt running north and south 
right through the State, with an elevation vary- 
ing from a few hundred feet on the foothills to 
several thousand feet on the higher ranges. 
Included in this area is a considerable extent of 
tableland with an English climate — the richer 
portions of which are already occupied by set- 
tlers engaged in farming and pastoral pursuits; 
but the immense extent of broken country 
embraced in the mountain area is practically 
unoccupied. 

"Even the poorest tracts contain innumer- 
able sites where a home may be made and a 
family reared, within easy distance of the sea- 
board, and amidst the wholesomest, healthiest, 
and most independent conditions to be found 
anywhere on earth; provided only that the 
settler is content with a simple way of living, 
and to produce mainly for the food require- 
ments of himself and family — relying on the 
sale of honey, timber, and in time on fruit- 
growing and dried fruits, for the ready money 
to procure the necessaries and small luxuries 
which he cannot produce for himself. 

"The whole of the mountainous region 
above described, together with isolated patches 
on the seaboard, and in various other parts of 
the State, is clothed with the native forest and 
indigenous undergrowth — these, so far as the 
near future is concerned, constitute its real 
wealth. 



NEW SOUTH WALES: TRADE AND PRODUCTION 



167 



"Those not familiar with this region can form 
no conception of the enormous quantities of 
honey produced by the native forest trees and 
flowering shrubs every year. Occasionally 
the yield takes the form of 'manna,' the honey 
or sweet sap exuding from small punctures 
made in the bark of the trees by the sap-feed- 
ing cicada, or dripping from the leaves till the 
ground is covered as with a light fall of snow, 
with small white lumps of granulated manna 
honey. This formofhoneyproduction,however, 
is the exception, and not the rule. The usual 
thing is for the honey to be secreted in the form 
of nectar in the flowers. The members of the 
eucalyptus family have a little cup in the centre 
of the flower in which the honey is formed. 
Under favourable weather conditions, espe- 
cially in close thundery weather, the secretion 
is very abundant, and the honey can be dis- 
tinctly seen shining in the bottom of the flower- 
cups. Before the introduction of the honey- 
bee much of the honey secreted must have gone 
to waste. Some was gathered by the native 
bee (Trigotia carbonaria), a little creature 
about the size of the house-fly, building a 
resinous comb in which it stores the honey, 
l-^nglish bees that have gone wild in the bush 
are now plentiful, and from their nests in hol- 
low trees the settler may obtain a good deal of 
the stock necessary to start an apiary. 
During the great honey-flows which come 
almost every year, and sometimes many times 
in one year, the honey supply is so abundant 
that much of it, even now, must needs go to 
waste for want of bees to gather it. In one 
of these flows about 130 colonies in the writer's 
apiary last season brought in two tons of sur- 
plus honey in a little over a week." 



Australia is veritably "a land flowing with 
milk and honey," and not the least of her riches 
is the possession of settlers like Mr. W. Hessel 
Hall, who have realized that their southern 
motherland holds a heritage of health and happi- 
ness, such as he has elected to enjoy in his frugal 
Blue Mountain home. 

All along that belt of mountain country, such 
homes can be happily established. The writer 
of Australia Unlimited, who has spent the greater 
number of his own years in the Bush, knows 
what perfect health and splendid spirits this free 
life in the open brings. 

If the Man on the Land cultivates a love of the 
beautiful in nature his years 'will never know 
monotony. The clear Australian morning, with 
its carol of birds, its cool winds and freshening 
dews, uplifts his spirit and fills him with a mighty 
strength, and he sees the sun rise above the odor- 
ous forest into a sky of cloudless blue. His day's 
pleasant tasks accomplished, he sees the sun sink 
again behind the forest in a splendor beyond 
words. After his evening meal is over, he sits 
upon his porch mayhap with a softened bush, 
arrayed in silver, before him. The procession 
of the seasons brings him interest and delight. 
The warm spring rain is good to hear upon the 
roofs of iron or shingle. Summer gives him 
reddened fruit and ripened sheaves. In Autumn 
he counts his gains and meditates his future plans. 
Winter reinvigorates him with colder winds and 
cleansing frosts. No day throughout the year 
need be without its interest, its efforts, and its 
joys. 




Trevltt's Seedling Apple, Yanco. 



i68 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




'Hog-Eaisiug and Bacon-Curing Increase the Income of the Man on the Land' 



Vor the man of more ambitious mould, there 
are greater chances and wider fields of endea- 
vour. If he possess the genius of organization, 
if he can handle big projects, the Commonwealth 
is yet broad and young. Thousands of personal 
histories might be cited in every Australian State 
of men who "started off scratch," and have won 
out. Men who came into the battle of life with 
no silver spoon, no heritage of broad acres or 
bank accounts, have gained riches in every walk 
of life. There is not a country town nor an 
agricultural or mining district in Australia with- 
out illustrious examples of success achieved by in- 
dividual merit and industry alone. Our muni- 
cipalities, our Parliaments, our Chambers of 
Commerce and Manufacture, can boast a long 
roll of such honorable names. 

In commerce and production New South 
Wales, like her sister States, holds ever-widening 
domains. The Pastoral Section of this book 
will give examples of many who have engaged in 
that staple industry, and the results of their 
enterprise. 

The dairy farming industry has already had 
passing reference. 1 he horizon of its expansion 
lies beyond the most prophetic vision. It is 
practically illimitable. The total export of 
butter from New South Wales in 1913 was close 
on a million English sovereigns in value. Some 
day it will probably be twenty millions. Austra- 
lian dairymen are now turning out highest grade 
butter and competing successfully with expert 
Danes. For some years the northern coast of 
New South Wales has been almost exclusively 
a dairy farming proposition; but dairying on irri- 
gated farms has yet to come, and there are thou- 
sands of suitable dairy farms still locked up 
within large areas, and devoted to less payable 
purposes. Systematic inspection by expert 

officers, a general supervision of the dairy indus- 



try, sympathetic treatment, special education, the 
supply of thoroughbred stock, have long been 
part of the administrative policy of the State. 
Great improvements have been effected in trans- 
port, carriage, storage and shipment. 

The modern dairying industry in New South 
Wales has very largely been developed on co- 
operative lines. As a result, districts have been 
rapidly enriched by full profits going into the 
hands of the producers. The prosperity of the 
Coast has been phenomenal. Everywhere one 
travels, from the Tweed to Twofold Bay, one 
finds co-operative factories, with their local 
groups of suppliers, large and small, and the 
almost universal story is one of success. 

Side by side with dairy farming, hog raising 
and bacon curing increase the income of the Man 
on the Land. Most of the bacon factories are 
now co-operatively controlled. 

Domestic animals throughout Australia are 
singularly free from disease. Sunlight and sweet 
pasture,^ and a dry air undoubtedly account for 
this. 

The advantages to the farmer are unequalled 
In any other part of the world. Genuine Aus- 
tralian products may be freely accepted abroad 
as being wholesome and clean. Unfortunately, 
Australian products have sometimes been adul- 
terated by unscrupulous foreign traders, and 
inferior foodstuffs which never saw Australia, 
freely passed off on the English public, under 
the disguise of an Australian brand. 

Our products have for years been subjected to 
a heavy handicap. It speaks well for their 
quality that, despite all disadvantages, they have 
slowly but surely come right to the front. . . . 
Combined pig and dairy farming in New South 
Wales is nowadays a highly-profitable occupation. 
Here again people from Northern Europe will 
find excellent openings. It should be remembered 







13 
C3 



60 

a 






169 



170 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



that dairying can be carried on throughout the 
year in Australia. There are no long, cold 
winters wherein domestic cattle must be housed 
and hand-fed; and none of those climatic dis- 
advantages which make the persistent labors of a 
dairy farmer still more strenuous in other 
countries. 

As far north as the Atherton Tableland — 
which is a long, elev-ated plateau, right in the 
tropics, still covered for the most part with dense 
jungle- — the dairy cow and the bacon hog are 
doing perfectly well. With a climate better 
beyond comparison than that of Denmark, larger 
areas of land, greater varieties of animal foods, 
and rapid transport to the same markets, Aus- 
tralia has come into successful competition with 
the most scientific farmers in Europe. 

Economic and sanitary feeding, and a steady 
improvement of breeds, have made the modern 
hog quite a cleanly creature by comparison with 
the pig of tradition. As a gleaner on the wheat 
farms, an absorber of skim milk in the dairy sec- 
tions, he has economic uses. Foodstuffs, which 
would otherwise go to waste, are converted by 
the curious chemistry of nature into marketable 
meat. Our living areas being always on the 
hberal scale, the domestic hog gets plenty of 
grubbing room. He has the advantages of sun- 
light, and abundance of food and exercise. The 
climate is congenial to him. In some places wild 
pigs have become very numerous. Like the buf- 
falo, horse, and kine, these animals find Austra- 
lian conditions conducive to rapid development. 
On th^ frontiers of our civilization herds of wild 
horses. East Indian buffalo, wild pigs and cattle 
still roam in their thousands. 

The future may demonstrate that silk, flax, and 
cotton can all be commercially produced in New 
South Wales. For the cultivation of flax and lin- 
seed there will undoubtedly be an opening; but 
while proved industries are profitable, there is a 
difficulty in establishing new ones. 

Tobacco and cigar leaf of splendid quality are 
grown in this State in small quantities. Ulti- 
mately Australia should produce enough for her 
own consumption and a large balance for export. 
Great Britain alone imports tobacco, raw and 
manufactured, to the value of five million pounds 
sterling per annum. Australia's own little 
tobacco bill amounts to over half a million a year. 
Large quantities of tobacco are manufactured in 
Australia from imported and local leaf. A visit 
to Dixson's and Cameron's factories in Sydney, 
and Cameron's and others in Melbourne, discloses 
the fact that particular attention is paid to the 
health and well-being of the operatives engaged. 
It is indeed doubtful if tobacco-workers in any 
other part of the world are working under such 
sanitary conditions or receiving a higher rate of 
wages. 



Under the Federal Bounties Act of 1907 a 
bonus of 2d. a lb. was paid on locally-grown cigar 
leaf — high grade. The period set down for the 
payment of this bounty was five years from the 
passing of the Act. In 1914-15 £349 had been 
paid under this schedule — representing a total 
production of 41,891 lb. . . . 



The reader of this section must keep in mind 
that, although the oldest of the States, New South 
Wales has, during a comparatively recent period, 
come into the world's field as an exporting 
country. The year 1897 was the first in her 
history when production exceeded consumption. 

Out of a probable 25 to 30 millions of acres 
suitable for wheat-growing. New South Wales in 
1 9 13 had, according to the Statistical Bulletin, 
just 2,231,514 acres under crop. Her total for 
all crops, wheat, maize, oats, cane, hay, vines 
and potatoes, was much short of four million 
acres. Wheat-growing in Australia is a proved 
proposition that need give the farmer lit- 
tle anxiety. He has but to keep his eyes 
open, profit by the experience already 
gained by others, conduct his farm on the lines 
of an ordinary business, and, in any established 
wheat district within reasonable reach of trans- 
port, he may look forward with certainty to a 
competency in a few seasons. There is no 
country on earth to-day which can offer the same 
possibilities, and no country in which the neces- 
sary interval spent in developing those possibili- 
ties into certainties can be more healthily or 
pleasantly lightened and brightened by the man 
on the land. Australia can challenge the world 
in this respect. She is destined to be the granary 
of the world, and the men who get here now with 
the necessary capital will stand to profit most — - 
they and their children! 

In British markets, Australian wheat has the 
highest value. As far back as 1904 it com- 
manded 1/3 a quarter more than Argentine, 6d. 
higher than Canadian, and 3 - higher than Eng- 
lish grain. Constant experiment and accumulat- 
ing experience are certain to increase the quality, 
not only of wheat, but of all Australian products. 
We are essentially a progressive people, and our 
Governments lead the way in the endeavour to 
elevate national averages. The wealth which 
older nations have wasted in war has in our case 
been applied to development in the arts of peace. 
Our militarism — now the most comprehensive 
citizen-soldier system in the world — has been 
organized not for conquest, but for defence. 

That New South Wales can produce her wheat 
more cheaply than any other country testifies to 
the fact that neither soil, climate, nor method is 
deficient. 



NEW SOUTH WALES: TRADE AND PRODUCTION 



171 



During the last twenty years the method has 
been practically revolutionized. In this refer- 
ence the name of the late William Farrer, of the 
State Agricultural Department, stands in the 
same relationship to Australian agriculture as 
that of Berthelot to France. 

From the year 1790, when James Ruse, the 
first Australian farmer, began to crudely till his 
plot of ground at Parramatta, down to the pre- 
sent time, no man has deserved better of his 
country than William Farrer. 

Farrer possessed the two first qualities of 
genius, inspiration and patience. His original 
mind perceived that in agriculture, as in other 
branches of industry, the business of New South 
Wales was to establish precedents rather than to 
follow them. For years he devoted himself to 
the breeding of special wheats, which would be 
more adaptable to the conditions of Australia 
than those previously cultivated. As the result 
of his long labours, he produced half-a-dozen new 
types of wheat — drought-resisting and rust-proof 
— which revolutionized the industry, brought mil- 
lions of acres within profitable possibility, opened 
up widening avenues of export, and enriched 
whole districts. 



Let us hope that a life as noble as that of Wil- 
liam Farrer will long be held up as an example to 
Young Australia; that his name will be written in 
letters as golden as the harvests he has created. 

With twenty to thirty millions of acres to come 
under wheat, with an increasing production in 
butter, wool, and other commodities, with rapid 
developments taking place in manufactures, con- 
struction, and national enterprise, the future pro- 
gress of New South Wales is generally assured. 
The total value of production per head of popu- 
lation is already higher than in any other country. 
The average export of New South Wales is only 
exceeded in Belgium, which is, or was before the 
war, a clearing-house for Europe. 

It is not possible to exhaustively detail all 
the industrial, commercial, or financial openings 
which the Mother State presents, nor to elabor- 
ate the many-sided aspects of her primary indus- 
tries; but it could be shown that she is capable 
of supporting a prosperous and contented popu- 
lation quite equal in numbers to that of Germany. 
In the new era of accelerated progress and in- 
creasing prosperity, upon which the Common- 
wealth has undoubtedly entered, she is destined to 
take a leading part. 




Harvesters at Work 




172 



(173) 



i^ 




Open Boat Sailing on Sydney Harbor 



SYDNEY HARBOR AT NIGHT. 



FROM the Botanic Gardens comes a heavy 
odour of magnoha flowers. A sound of 
tramping feet is heard down darkened 
avenues of Moreton Bay fig-trees. Occasional 
shadows of flying foxes flit across a moon just 
risen above their spreading branches. 

It has been a warm day. The city is cooHng 
down. On balconies and verandahs white dresses 
show in the moonlight. Laughter and the voices 
of children echo from gardens facing the sea. 

At Circular Quay electric trams are dropping 
their passengers. There is a large proportion 
of lovers. On white nights like these the Harbor 
calls its votaries by thousands. 

The prosperous fruit vendor by the Quay 
dreams of Venice and Naples as he watches the 
lights reflected rn the waters. It is better here 
— as much beauty and infinitely more money. He 
blows cigarette clouds. He is content. 

Alongside the outer wharves liners are 
berthed, leviathans of Orient and P. and O., 
lean Messageries, broad-beamed Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha, and clean white Royal Packet Dutchmen. 

Further along the waterside, cargo vessels, 
tramps, interstate steamers, traders, sailers 
(growing fewer), wheat-ships, wool-ships, cattle- 
ships, are crowded. 

Federal Shire, White Star, Aberdeen, Ameri- 
can, — house flags of a hundred companies will 
break from their peaks at sunrise and a babel of 
polyglot speech arise. 



Night and day it is one of the busiest ports 
in the world. Its trade is increasing by leaps 
and bounds. Each succeeding year the tonnage 
is heavier, the volume of import and export 
greater. 

During thirteen years the port has undergone 
a revolution under the Sydney Harbor Trust. 
No less than seven millions of money have been 
spent in improvement of the harbor and fore- 
shores. 

A summary of the Harbor Trust's operations 
gives the following facts, which may be 
of interest to shipmen and merchants of the 
Seven Seas : — 

Sydney is the fifth port of the Empire, its mari- 
time trade being exceeded only by that of four 
ports in the United Kingdom — London, Liver- 
pool, the Tyne, and Cardi£ The number of 
vessels entering the port during the year ended 
June 30, 1 9 14, was 10,142, with an aggregate 
tonnage of 9,437,310. This shows an increase 
over the previous twelve months of 469 vessels 
and 723,248 tons. During the last ten years the 
tonnage has been more than doubled, the figures 
for 1902-3 being 5,960 vessels, and a tonnage of 
4,160,757. The tonnage of goods imported dur- 
ing the year was 5,081,270, showing an increase 
of 221,182 tons over the figures for the preceding 
year, the value of the oversea and interstate and 
State imports being £53,613,030, and the value of 
oversea exports £31,105,773. 



174 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED. 



If the ghosts of these unwilling colonists who 
mourned by Circular Quay a hundred years ago, 
that Australia would never pay England for 
settlement, could read these figures they would 
surely tremble with annoyance at being convicted 
as the silliest prophets in history. 

"Exclusive of the numerous ferry wharfs and 
the multitudinous jetties used for private pur- 
poses, there are in Sydney Harbor 55,000 feet 
of wharfage in actual use for shipping, and 
another 12,000 feet under construction. 

"The principal wharfs are leased by the trust 
to the various shipping companies, a reserve of 
open wharf accommodation being maintained 
for the convenience of vessels visiting the port 
casually. Most of the wharfs have good shed 
accommodation, and the latest are being fitted 
with up-to-date mechanical appliances for hand- 
ling cargo. Great improvements have been 
carried out in Woolloomooloo Bay, the chief of 
these being a new jetty running 1,140 feet down 
the centre of the bay. The jetty is 208 feet 
wide, and has a covered concrete roadway 53 
feet in width down the centre, with double- 
decked sheds on either side. The cost of the 
jetty is in the neighbourhood of £200,000. Ow- 
ing to the great increase in the ferry traffic, 
some of the big liners that used to berth at Cir- 
cular Quay have had to find accommodation else- 
where. Seven berths are still available for ship- 
ping there, giving a total length of 3,654 feet. 
A large proportion of the trade of the port is 
done in Darling Harbor, where there are 91 
berths available, and all In constant use. The 
Pyrmont jetties are fitted with steam cranes and 
electric coal elevators. These jetties are used 
chiefly for loading coal, coke, frozen meat, and 
stock. Horses and cattle are shipped from here 
to the East in fairly large numbers, and last 
year 142,410,1461b. of frozen and preserved 
meats was sent away from the port. Wheat for 
export is transferred to ships from the Darling 
Harbor wharfs by electric conveyors, capable 
of loading 12,000 tons a day into seven vessels. 
Provision is being made in Jones' Bay for extra 
berths for the use of the largest oversea vessels, 
and at Johnstone's Bay and at other places im- 
provements are being carried out. 

"The scheme laid down by the Commissions to 
meet the pressing needs of increasing trade and 
the larger modern vessels embraces the remodel- 
ling of Darling Harbor, and an extensive wharf- 
age scheme In Johnstone's, Blackwattle, and 
Rozelle Bays, which are In the heart of the ex- 
tending city. The scheme will probably take 
ten years to complete. The new wharf frontage 
will be about 42,000 feet, and give accommoda- 
tion for 71 600-feet vessels, or a fewer number 



of larger ships. The cost of this work, includ- 
ing the resumption of the foreshores beyond 
the present limits of the Trust's domain, will 
probably be £6,500,000." 



These are facts! But what care the happy 
couples coming arm in arm to the ferry-boats? 
What care the pleasure-seekers of Sydney, flock- 
ing joyously to the Circular Quay? 

If sorrow or poverty has a dwelling anywhere 
in this harbor city, neither ventures abroad on 
nights like this. 

Watchers on South Head see an orbed moon 
rising out of the Pacific an hour ago: the most 
beautiful harbor In the world is now a sheet of 
silver dotted with golden lights. 

Between North and South Sydney rapid ferries 
churn continuously to and fro. The service is 
kept up during the twenty-four hours of day and 
night; for North and South Sydney face one ano- 
ther like Brooklyn and New York. There is 
much talk of joining them by bridge or tunnel. 

Across the gangways of a fine double-ended 
steamer, built to meet a chance roll between the 
Heads, a constant stream of passengers Is pour- 
ing. From stem to stern this Manly ferry Is 
ablaze with electric light. Her long, clean decks 
are crowded above and below. 

A gong sounds, and she glides swiftly into the 
stream, the band on the upper deck playing the 
latest comic opera music, or the baritone singer 
repeating for the hundredth time the favourite 
ballads of the day. 

Tired business men put down their newspapers 
and take off their hats, to benefit by the harbor 
breeze that Sydney loves so well. Amorous 
youth draws closer together; smokers pull lazily 
at their cigars. No healthy human being can 
surely be unhappy amid such surroundings. The 
"melancholy Australian" Is conspicuous by his 
absence. A close scrutiny of these passengers 
fails to locate a single misanthrope. 

They are a bright-featured, smiling crowd, 
with good physical development, and universally 
well dressed. Smart girls, athletic youths, robust 
men and women — one sees among them the cheer- 
fulness and well-being that result from pleasant 
conditions and contented lives. Unprejudiced 
world-travellers have remarked the general air 
of prosperity which distinguishes an Australian 
crowd and contrasted it with the haggard, under- 
developed assemblages In countries where climate 
and condition press upon the masses to a degree 
which Australians luckily are unable to realize. 

The observer who enjoys a run to Manly by * 
moonlight will return Impressed. 



SYDNEY HARBOR AT NIGHT 



175 








Surf-Bathing at Manly 



Settling himself to comfortable enjoyment, he 
sees the twinkling shore-lights marking familiar 
marine suburbs. 

Populous North Sydney presents a hillward 
illumination of street lamps merging into the 
lights of Neutral Bay, Cremorne, and Mosman, 
each with an efficient ferry service of its own. 

On the south side, Elizabeth Bay, Double Bay, 
Rose Bay follow one another with decreasing 
radiance. Rapidly moving lights on the dark 
hills beyond mark the electric trams en route to 
Vaucluse and Watson's Bay, served also by fre- 
quent ferries. From the cliffs over Watson's 
Bay the South Head lighthouse sweeps the night 
with broad revolving beams, visible for twenty- 
five miles. 

On the south side again he picks up Athol Gar- 
dens and Chowder, and rounding Middle Head 
sees the scattered lights of Balmoral, while be- 
fore him glows gaily the gaslit Corso and all the 
brightness of Manly-by-the-Sea. 

Passing the moonlit gateway of the Heads, 
with a darker line of ocean behind it, he feels 
for a few moments the slow heave of the great 



Pacific. Then the double-ended steamer glides 
into a fine pier, and he is at liberty to go ashore 
and amuse himself. 

The marine suburb. Manly, has overrun a neck 
of land separating the Harbor from the Pacific. 
A glorious arc of golden sand forms its ocean 
frontage, which has become one of the most popu- 
lar surf-bathing resorts around Sydney. 

During the last decade surf-bathing has grown 
generally popular. The results among a rising 
generation are brown, healthy bodies and a 
brighter outlook on life. Youths no longer congre- 
gate at street corners. They are to be seen 
on the beaches enjoying the surf, finding a vent 
for surplus vitality in healthy exercises among 
invigorating sea-breezes. 

Manly is proud of its progress. It is doubt- 
less the fairest and brightest seaside resort on 
the shores of the Pacific. As a residential suburb 
its popularity has led at times to a house famine, 
and the values of its real estate are a steadily- 
ascending quantity. 

The stranger will stroll quietly down the 
Corso. Along a busy avenue leading from pier 



176 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



to ocean beach, people are walking, bare-headed 
for the most part. Many are either going to or 
returning from a cooling-off in those slowly break- 
ing waters, from which one emerges as from a 
Fountain of Youth. The chronic surfers are 
happy beings. Great health is within them, and 
the deepening brownness of the skin a constant 
delight. One can pick out "beach girls" from 
their paler sisters, who lessen in numbers each 
year, for this surf-bathing is likely to become as 
popular in Sydney as it is in Polynesia. 

Having found the Esplanade, our stranger will 
also find an easy-chair provided by a progressive 
municipality. If not minded to enjoy the exhila- 
rating exercise of a surf bath, he may sit and 
watch the bathers splashing in the moonlit surf. 

Let him realize that all around this wondrous 
harbor, and on many ocean beaches adjacent, 
night is musical with the laughter of a pleasure 
loving and prosperous community. 

Amusement is cheap in Sydney; a paternal 
Government makes every popular resort acces- 
sible by train and electric car service, and entre- 
preneurs lose no opportunity to increase the 



dividends of picture shows and other popular 
entertainments. 

The harbor itself is a perpetual attraction. 
A progressive Harbor Trust neglects neither 
the useful nor the beautiful in its administration. 
The government of the harbor is more difficult 
than the government of a province, but as we 
have seen, it is satisfactorily carried out nowa- 
days. 

Hulls of commerce move in ordered proces- 
sion up and down its sunlit waters. At night its 
silver pathways are crossed and recrossed by 
hundreds of small crafts. The tired ships come 
home : the brave ships go out with black smoke- 
plumes trailing, red and green eyes steadily glar- 
ing; but there is no confusion and little noise. 

With electric-lit ferry steamers trailing in tor- 
tuous courses like fiery caterpillars, blazing quays, 
colored lamps, harbor lights, and lights of ship- 
ping, the harbor, seen from a distance on moon- 
less nights, is even more wonderful. 

During summer months Sydney holds constant 
marine carnival. The nights on the harbor are 
not the least of its attractions. 




Yachting on Sydney Harbor 




5 

00 



B 



177 



(178) 



NORTH SYDNEY AND BEYOND. 



THE City of Sydney grows around the fore- 
shores of Port Jackson like a branching 
tree on hothouse soil. Its advance in 
building has been greater during the last decade 
than that of any modern city. During that period 
old Sydney has practically disappeared, and a 
new town sprung into existence. Contours have 
altered, old landmarks have gone, new suburbs 
have been called into being and whole areas re- 
modelled and improved. 

In buildings of all kinds Sydney spent 
£6,250,000 in 19 1 2, and well over seven millions 
in 1913. 

On either side the Harbor this rapid growth 
has gone on. The extraordinary spread of the 
northern suburbs really meant the creation of 
another city. At first purely residential, this city 
of the north side has developed a business sec- 
tion — largely retail — and an activity of its own. 

It has a suburban railway system connecting 
with the Northern Trunk Line at Hornsby and 
terminating at Milson's Point ferry: so that one 
may go right around Sydney by train, out by 
Strathfield Junction, Ryde, Pennant Hills, and 
back through Pymble, Killara, and Lindfield to 
the North Shore wharf. 

Its connecting ferries give access to the metro- 
polis at thirty different points along that glorious 
foreshore which extends from the Spit to Parra- 
matta. It has its electric tram system, extending 
from Curl Curl to Chatswood, connecting up 
Manly, Mosman, Neutral Bay, Milson's Point, 
and the Lane Cove. 

It enjoys the possession of Middle Harbor and 
Lane Cove River, two most picturesque assets; 
and its western slopes extend to the banks of 
the Parramatta River. 

Height and position, with hills overlooking the 
Harbor, make North Sydney desirable as a site 
for healthy, breezy homes. Beyond its business 
streets it is largely a garden city, where the villas 
and cottages of the great Australian middle 
classes stand prettily among trees and blooms. 

It is a good day's outing to make that loop 
around Sydney — especially in Spring, when the 
suburban gardens vie with one another in their 
displays of choice and beautiful flowers. 

One has a choice of transport, but the way 
by road and car Is certainly most enjoyable. 



We will undertake another of these little 
jaunts which leave visitors with pleasant pictures 
to bear away In memory when they leave Sydney. 

Our way Is by the old Parramatta Road, where 
coaches and bullock-drays tolled In our grand- 
fathers' days. It is crowded now with electric 
cars and automobiles. We take the turn-off to 
Gladesvllle and cross the Parramatta river by a 
long iron swing-bridge. 

Comfortable villas, whose green lawns slope 
gently to the waterside, blue and silver bays, 
orchards, sparkling reaches, with a low-funnelled 
ferry flitting backwards and forwards to the land- 
ing-places, red tiles amid green foliage, patches 
of eucalyptus and a road winding around the 
inlets — flash past like pictures on a screen. 

Hunter's Hill, standing between the Parra- 
matta and Lane Cove rivers, presents its gardens. 
As we cross the heights along the road to Pymble 



1 ^ 


/^ 


H 






4m 


¥ 




a 







In George Street, Sydney 



NORTH SYDNEY AND BEYOND 



179 



these flower gardens give place to orchards 
smothered in pink and white blossom. The air is 
heavy with scent of flowers. As we look back 
through openings in patches of tall, straight bush 
timber we get charming panoramic views of Syd- 
ney. We can pick out familiar suburbs and, be- 
yond the crowded parts of the metropolis, behold 
sapphire seas and emerald fields. To the west- 
ward stand the mountains, blue ramparts indefi- 
nitely outlined through a soft haze. 

The road to Pennant Hills is just a succession 
of picturesque ups and downs through forest and 
clearing and the rapidly-extending suburbs of 
the North Shore line. 

At Pennant Hills we touch the edges of the 
old Parramatta orange-groves, somewhat fallen 
back these last few years. 

This is a romantic country, full of old Colonial 
homes surrounded by delightful gardens, where 
grey old men and women sit m easy chairs, with 
historic tales to tell. 

Here wild roses bloom along weather-stained 
fences, and English oaks make green contrast 
with less vivid Australian foliage. 

Years ago Parramatta oranges were consid- 
ered the finest in Australia; but the opening of 
inland districts for citrus culture has put them in 
the shade. 

We turn northward again from Pennant Hills 
into the sandstone country beyond Hornsby and 
enter the Kuring-gai Chase, dedicated as a 



National Park for North Sydney in 1894, and 
embracing 35,300 acres. 

Kuring-gai Chase has a full frontage to both 
sides of Cowan Creek, from the head of tidal 
water to its outlet in the Hawkesbury River, and 
it runs eastward to Pittwater. 

The Park has been left largely in its native 
state save for the cutting of roads over steep 
hills and across steeper gullies to points of in- 
terest. 

The track into Cowan follows a sandstone 
gorge, which, in its primitive ruggedness, will 
give the stranger an idea of the Lower Hawkes- 
bury country. 

As it winds along the face of the gorge, falling 
rapidly lower, the landlocked waters of Cowan 
come into view. They make an ideal fishing and 
boating resort. 

The N.S.W. Government Tourist Bureau is 
responsible for the statement that — 

"Both in Cowan Creek and Pittwater, fish 
"of all kinds are plentiful — snapper, black 
"bream, whiting, flathead, and flounder are 
"to be caught, and in fine weather, by taking 
"the launch from Pittwater, an excellent 
"day's sport is obtainable on the deep-sea 
"fishing-grounds off Barrenjoey. The Cowan 
"Creek oysters have a firmly-established re- 
"putation amongst the visitors to the 
"Chase." 




J _ "■ ". Ti.-.«js«ift««i'r-i-.-.v 



Euring-aai Cbas« 



i8o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Hawkesbury Eiver at Newport 



This testimonial applies pretty generally to the 
Hawkesbury, which has been the base for many 
a joyous fishing camp. 

The Hawkesbury rock oyster has a flavor 
which would have inspired a Roman bard. Fried, 
curried, stewed, devilled or raw, this eternally 
popular shell-fish retains its hold on the taste of 
a fickle public. Politicians may come and go, 
governments may change, star artistes dim and 
fade — but the Hawkesbury oyster still clings 
firmly to the favor of festive Sydney. 

Fishing, house-boating and scenery attract 
many people to Kuring-gai Chase. 

All Australian Governments in the matter of 
national sport and amusements diffuse a spirit 
similar to that which animated Cheeryble Bro- 
thers. The N.S.W. Government, as befits the 
oldest and richest State, is specially paternal in its 
attitude. So we find the Tourist Bureau arrang- 
ing cheap fares and facilities for pleasure-seekers 
to visit all parts of picturesque New South Wales. 



One need never be at a loss in Sydney, for an 
inexpensive day's outing — the difliculty is to make 
a choice among the long list of delightful trips on 
offer. 

To exploit all the attractions of Kuring-gai 
Chase would require a fortnight at least. 

We leave Cowan with placid, land-locked 
waters o'ershadowed by hills, and climb again 
to the opposite summit of Bobbin Head. 

The indented bays and long, winding, salt- 
water arms of Cowan fading away behind us, 
we turn out of the Wahroonga Park and pick up 
the Newport Road. 

This carries us over some broken sandstone, 
until, reaching the top of Foley's Hill, we see 
beneath us the blue reaches of romantic Pittwater 
spreading north to Broken Bay and Newport, 
while Rocklily, Narrabeen and Curl Curl follow 
one another down the coast to Manly and Port 
Jackson. 

It is a delicious bit of hazy coast with beach 
and foreland and shallow lagoon to vary its 
beauty. 



NORTH SYDNEY AND BEYOND. 



181 



Here Youth and Pleasure may dawdle the 
halcyon hours away. Soft Pacific breezes, golden 
sands, good hotels, a shade of sheoaks and the 
cool surf bring much summer patronage to 
this series of seaside places. The pleasant 
road takes us across the mouth of Narrabeen 
Lagoon and through Curl Curl to Manly. It is 
a lotos land where one might sit facing the blue- 
est of seas and dream forever, were it not for 
the thorn of duties unfulfilled. 

From Manly to the Spit, and thence to Mac- 
Mahon's Point by the ferry, and we are still in 
dream country. Each fresh hilltop brings into 
view some new panorama, with little marine cor- 
ners and backgrounds. We get glimpses of the 
harbor and the ocean, a stretch of city roofs, 
the red tiles of residential suburbs, green squares 
of public parks, an outline of some prominent 
building in miniature, or a familiar tower or 
spire. From the heights of North Sydney we 
command the great Southern city, which glows 
in the glory of a sunset which is beyond Art. 



Mosman, Cremorne, Neutral, throw each a 
picture on the screen as we glide along towards 
the punt at MacMahon's Point. 

The perversity of human affairs will naturally 
cause us to get to the wharf just as the ferry is 
starting out into the stream. 

We fill in the wait by watching dusk creeping 
over the town. As the electric switches summon 
their currents from scores of dynamos, the ferry 
steamers are lit in quick flashes, their grey masses 
changing from inchoate shapes in an instant to 
illuminated moving hulls. They glow like mush- 
rooms suddenly displaying their phosphorescent 
lights through darkness. 

An interstate steamer of ten thousand tons 
leaves her berth and swings into the fairway. 
Her siren hoots horrid warnings at lesser craft 
that dare to cross her path. 

A yacht-nosed China steamer creeps cautiously 
up stream, leaving behind her a whiff of Asiatic 
cookery. 

The spires, and stacks, and domes of the 
greatest city in the South are slowly fading into 
curling smoke and overhanging haze. 




Tea Gardens, Como 




The Empire Falls, Blue Mountains 



182 



(i83) 




A Trout Stream in the Australian Alps 



PICTURESQUE NEW SOUTH WALES. 



THE exile to New South Wales of a hundred 
and twenty years ago wearied under a 
loneliness as intense as the future naviga- 
tor of space may some day feel when his ether- 
ship is wrecked on a distant planet from which 
there is no recall. 

He perceived no beauty in a land which from 
Gabo to the Tweed is wooing the tourist to-day 
with a thousand siren songs. 

To the eternal greenness of Australian trees 
a century of settlement has added the charm of 
alternate cultivation and pasture. Foliage and 
flowers of Europe flourish in village and clearing, 
cereals of Europe ripen in the paddocks. In 
various climates, north and south, along this 
glorious coastland, suitable agricultural products 
and fruits have been introduced from all over the 
world. 

It is pleasant to see the peach-blossoms in 
young orchards, with dark forest-clad hills be- 
hind them. 

It is pleasant to watch sugar-cane waving on 
the black flats of Richmond River. To view 
beyond them Australian hills with patches of 
jungle, still holding wild figs and ripened cabbage- 
palm fruit for flock pigeons as they fly south in 
early summer. 



Pleasant is the fertile Hunter Valley with Its 
historic recollections. 

Pleasant, too, are the green maize fields of 
Cambewarra, and the lucerne paddocks of Bega in 
the south. 

From Sydney, beautiful modern Sydney, home 
of progress, pleasure and hospitality, stranger, 
tourist, holiday-maker or student can label his 
luggage for hundreds of places of interest near 
and far. 

Let us put care and statistics equally aside, and 
go on a short preliminary journey: — 

Sir and Madam, — We have brought to the 
door of your excellent Sydney hotel a comfort- 
able motor-car. 

Strapped to the footboard is a corpulent 
hamper. It contains a chicken fattened at Pros- 
pect Hill; ham cured on the South Coast; bread 
made from Cootamundra wheat; fruit from 
Parramatta orchards, and, if you are not an 
abstainer, a bottle of good red wine from the 
vineyards of the Hunter River. 

The contents of our basket will reflect no dis- 
credit on the Mother State. They are all of 
first quality and flavor. 

The summer morning is cloudless. Skies ^nd 
seas are both wearing sunlit blue robes. With the 
softest of south winds blowing in our faces we 
will depart by the Illawarra road. 



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In the neighbourhood of Cook's River we will 
see some old-fashioned homes, dating back to 
days when the gentlemen of Sydney wore shoe- 
buckles and slipped loaded pistols into their 
holsters ere they went a-riding along this old high- 
way. 

A fleeting flash of blue waters — that is Botany 
Bay, where Cook landed one historic autumn 
afternoon from his cat-built bark of 368 tons. 

A large flat rock under the jetty at Kurnell is 
pointed out as the exact spot where the Com- 
mander first put his foot on Australian soil. 



We leave the Botany Bay resorts, Brighton-le- 
Sands, Sans Souci and Sandringham, on the left 
hand, and run down by a well-travelled road to 
Tom Ugly's Point, where a punt conveys us across 
George's River, an arm of Botany Bay. 

Further up is Como, where the Illawarra rail- 
way crosses this picturesque saltwater estuary. 

Everywhere around Sydney delightful little 
marine resorts throw out appealing vistas of wave 
and sand. No city in the world, mayhap, can 
offer so many natural attractions. The wonder 
is that Sydney people are so energetic with such 




Fairy Dell Falls, Blue Mountains 



The New South Wales Government has a 
reserve of 248 acres around the landing-place, 
which is dedicated to the people for all time. 

It is a good place for school picnics, where 
young Australia, tired of play, can lounge on 
grassy slopes with the wide Pacific before them, 
and dream of national destiny. 

The Government Tourist Bureau at Challis 
House, Sydney, has a standing offer before 
teachers to arrange trips for school children at 
all times in parties of 50 or more. On these 
occasions special trams are provided via Botany 
or La Perouse, and special steamers convey the 
children across the Bay. 



constant lotos-calls in their ears, so many alluring 
pictures before their eyes. 

All punts in New South Wales are Government, 
and free. Undelayed by any collector of tolls we 
roll on over a gravelly road bordered by heath, 
tea-tree, and wattle. We pass Sutherland, 
whence a tramway conveys surf-bathers and 
fishermen to Cronulla, a bathing beach lying like 
a silver half moon slightly south of Cape 
Solander. 

We will remember that Cook called the north 
headland of Botany Bay, Cape Banks, and the 
south headland Cape Solander, after the two pro- 
minent scientists who accompanied him in the 




o 



r—t 



■3 









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,i4flUflk 







The Waratah 



"cat bark" Endeavour — long since gone to her 
grave in the mud of Newport, Rhode Island, 
U.S.A. 

From Loftus a branch line of the Illawarra 
railway runs down to National Park. 

Sydney is rich in parks. She has the beauti- 
ful Centennial right at her doors, Kuring-gai 
Chase on the north side of the metropolis, and 
National Park on the south. These three cover 




Flannel Flowers 



the largest areas, but there are scores of smaller 
parks, gardens, and reserves scattered through 
city and suburbs. 

The National Park is 18 miles from town. It 
has an area of 36,300 acres, with a frontage to 
the Pacific Ocean of yi miles — a liberal provision 
for the health and pleasure of Sydney people. It 
is mostly plateau, 300 to 500 feet high, indented 
by the waters of Port Hacking, full of rugged 
natural beauty, deep glens, rocky gorges, caverns, 
cascades, green fernery, palm trees and native 
vegetation. 

Those wild flowers which grow in such abund- 
ance along this coast, and particularly in the sand- 
stone belt between Woy Woy and Waterfall, 
here englamor the flowering months of the year 
with color. 

In Spring the delicate Tecoma aiistnilis hangs 
out its purple-tipped ivory bells among masses of 
its own green leaves, with which it has arched and 
hooded other native trees and shrubs. 

It vies with the starry clematis for supremacy 
among the climbing vines of the Bush. 

Here white flannel flowers, with green centres, 
blooming in crevasses of the rocks, remind Alpine 
travellers of the edelweiss. Labillardiere, the 
famous French botanist, found the flannel flower 
growing on the eastern coast early in the nine- 
teenth century, and labelled it Actinoliis Heli- 
anthi. It belongs to the Umbelliferae, and despite 
popular belief, is not closely allied to the true 
edelweiss. 

Occasionally the hill tops blaze with scarlet 
native tulip, and that regal Telopea speciosis- 
sima, the Waratah, national flower of New South 
Wales; now cultivated in gardens, and freely 
depicted in wood and iron, pottery, stained glass 
and stone by patriotic Australian designers. 




In National Park, near Sydney 



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In marshy places, from August to March, the 
"Christmas bells" (Blandfordia nohilis) droop 
scarlet and golden bugles from slender, sappy 
stems. 

Along the banks of creeks scarlet banksias toss 
in the wind their silky plumes like "pompoms" in 
the shakos of marching grenadiers. 

Many varieties of Acacia pour out from golden 
treasures their bounteous perfumes. 



work and worry in various pleasant amusements. 
Port Hacking River is also one of the many good 
fishing grounds along the eastern coast. 

The road onward from National Park through 
Heathcote and Waterfall is for a time uninterest- 
ing. Once or twice it opens a vista of hazy hills 
and distant sea. 

Then comes Helensburgh, a busy little town 
centred round a colliery. 




Bulli Pass, Illawarra District 



In this National Park one also finds the yellow 
heath-leaved Dillwynia, the graceful Epacris 
longiflora (the crimson and white native fuchsia 
so dear to lovers of Australian wildflowers), the 
honey flower {Lambertia formosa), the pink 
Boronia pinnata, the darker colored Boronia ser- 
rulata, popularly known as the "Native Rose," 
and, lending scarlet contrast to the white- 
flowered eucalypti, the dainty Christmas Bush so 
beloved of sunny Sydney. 

In the National Park are rest houses for visi- 
ors, boatsheds and a Government accommodation 
house, much patronized by week-enders who can 
fill their lungs with air doubly sweetened by odori- 
ferous forest and open sea, while they forget 



One of the greatest coal fields in the workl is 
tapped here. It extends from Newcastle to 
Wollongong. Sydney is built over it, and all 
the towns between. 

The railway line goes down by cliff and cutting 
and tunnel through Stanwell Park — a seaside 
corner of great beauty, with green waving palms 
and golden beaches — and Otford. 

Beyond Otford the railway traveller Is treated 
to one of those transformation scenes in which 
Australian Nature achieves effect by sudden con- 
trast. 

The train emerges from the darkness of the 
last long, tedious tunnel; swings round a sharp 
curve, and discloses a magnificent panorama of 



PICTURESQUE NEW SOUTH WALES 



189 




Christmas Bells 



cliff and sea on one hand, with the jungle-covered 
ramparts of Illawarra mountains towering up 
on the other. 

These ranges guard the richness of the South 
Coast; they stand like a wall between it and the 
rest of the State. 

The next stage of our car journey from Helens- 
burgh, across the fringe of a sandstone plateau, 
brings us to Bulli Bass. 

In an Instant the whole scene before us has 
undergone a magical change. We have been 
travelling over a rather barren country for some 
miles, covered with marsh and stunted eucalyptus. 

As the car stops we find the land falling away 
a full five hundred feet. We are looking down 
now upon a sunlit coastland rolling out in indes- 
cribable beauty as far as our eyes can see. 

Over the edge of the precipice, right beneath 
us, is a sub-tropical jungle, vividly green except 
where a flame tree thrusts its lighted torch 
through arches of matted vines. 

This "brush" at the foot of the Bulli Pass 
once extended far to the southward, an unbroken 
forest of beautiful vegetation; but the land was 
too rich to remain a forest for long — except along 
the mountain sides, it has been cleared and con- 
verted into pastures. 

There is a peculiar romantic air over Illawarra. 
Standing here on the edge of the mountain wall, 
we look down upon a land of seeming enchant- 
ment. 



It is as still as a picture; so filled with the happi- 
ness of a good dream, so flooded with trans- 
lucent sunlight that it brings to your heart a sense 
of eternal well-being. Nor doubt nor dread are 
with you. Your soul has been sprayed by a jet 
from some heavenly fountain; surely there is 
neither death nor sorrow in the world, nor any 
ending but beauty and content eternal ! 

Over all the world you cannot look down upon 
a fairer land than that which lies in emerald and 
azure at your feet. 

Yonder spreads the noble Pacific, that Cook 
and Carteret sailed, that Balbao saluted trium- 
phant from his peak in Darien. 

Chapters from its splendid story run through 
your mind, the Easter Islanders building their 
colossi, the sweep of the war canoes, the smoke of 
gunpowder darkening the sky line where Captain 
Tom Cavendish is pounding the sides of the 
Manila galleon; Pizarro bearing south to Peru; 
Torres at the helm, Tasman pacing his high 
Dutch poop; the old wooden clippers bearing up 
for Sydney town — all the romance of trade and 
discovery. In the cur\es of golden beaches, lazy 
Pacific rollers are breaking — too far away to 
hear the sound of white surf. Down a green 
strip of coast — mountains on one side, and ocean 
on the other — the little coal towns follow one 
another; groups of toy houses in squares they 
seem from this height and distance. 

Below Wollongong, Lake Illawarra glistens, 
and beyond that the green farms of Kiama. 




o 
a 

n 



190 



PICTURESQUE NEW SOUTH WALES 



191 



We can picnic in a comfortable shade with all 
this before us. 

Below the Lookout the road dips steeply into 
the jungle — a mountain road overhung Ijy tree- 
fern and vine. 

Half-way down is a magnificent Illawarra fig 
tree festooned with creepers, climbing ferns, and 
epiphytal orchids. 

The jungles are carpeted with maiden-hair 
ferns and mosses; sweet with the odour of moun- 
tain musk. 

Our homeward journey takes us past the Lod- 
don Falls, by another road, and on to the quaint 
little village of Appin, where briar roses and 
alders grow around shingled houses of the old 
colonial time. 

When coaches ran overland from Campbell- 
town to Bulli, sixty or seventy years ago, Appin 
was a place of importance. Now it is only among 
the aged cypress trees in the little Appin cemetery 



that we can find memorials of the Old Colonial 
Days that are no more. 

From Appin to Campbelltown is by another 
romantic road, through long avenues of straight 
young eucalypti, by many an old farm house, 
over many a hill top from whose summit one sees 
— behind a foreground of green pastures — the 
Blue Mountains in the distance. 

At Campbelltown the Appin road junctions 
with the southern road that took the overlanders 
to Melbourne when the Victorian diggings broke 
out. Many a good man went down that road 
with his swag on his back, and came back on the 
box seats of Cobb and Co.'s coaches — his fortune 
made. 

It is a road with historic memories. By it 
we run smoothly into the sleepy town of Liver- 
pool, over Prospect Creek by one of Governor 
Macquarie's stone bridges, through Bankstown 
and the western suburbs back to town. 




A Mountain Boad 



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■-! •Jii,«WM, anv, ' 



MOUNT KOSCIUSKO. 



THE geologist says Mount Kosciusko is the 
oldest mountain in the world; that it was 
at one time twice as high as it is now; that 
it presents features of interest entirely apart from 
the rules and regulations of the Alpine Club. 

The N.S.W. Immigration and Tourist Bureau 
— a national institution where officials are trained 
in the virtues of patience and courtesy — regards 
Mount Kosciusko as one of its leading attractions. 

Government has spared no expense in making 
it comfortably accessible for both summer and 
winter visitors. 

Like many other things, evolution of Alpine 
sport in Monaro has been a slow process. 

Most people still believe that Australia is a 
universally hot country. They cannot realize that 
ice-skating, ski-running, tobogganing, and the 
snow sports of the Northern Hemisphere are 
possible over some hundreds of square miles of 
this Continent. 

Mount Kosciusko (7,328 feet) is the highest 
point in the Commonwealth; but it is only a hump 
in a mighty chain. At a distance it appears, to the 
casual eye, no higher than the mountains which 
surround it. 

Beginning in low hills not far from the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, this great dividing chain runs 
across three States, growing in height and bulk 
as it comes southward. 

Like the trunks and roots of a colossal tree, 
its greatest strength is at its base. 



Let us go down to Monaro and have a look 
at the oldest mountain in the world. Its ancient 
head was whitened with snows of immemorial 
winters (or burned with the herce heat of tropi- 
cal summers) before Cotopaxi or Popocatepetl 
were born. The giant summits of Europe were 
squalling volcanic babies long after it had 
reached mountain adolescence. In seniority it 
ranks older than Caucasus, Andes or Alps. 

With white head bowed beneath a burden of 
unthinkable Time, it commands the respect due 
to the patriarch peak of a planet on which man 
is but a recent occurrence. 



Under the arched roof of the finest railway 
depot yet constructed in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, at one of the many long platforms, a 
heavy engine is just coupling to its train of cars. 
It is 8.15 of a winter's evening, and the Cooma 
Express is timed to leave Sydney's Central Station 
in ten minutes. 

The passengers carry heavy overcoats, rugs, 
and furs; their long night's journey will be for 
the most part through snow-covered mountains. 
The carriages are all amply provided with foot- 
warmers, the sleeping-berths with extra rugs. 

The train is bearing a team of Monaro foot- 
ballers home, and a team of Sydney tennis players 
is going down to compete with Cooma. Other 
passengers are carrying golf sticks and guncases. 



MOUNT KOSCIUSKO 



193 



Again the "Melancholy Australian" is nowhere 
visible. Mayhap he is away somewhere reading 
about the "weird expectancy" of the Bush. 

As the train pulls out there are cheers, good- 
byes, and a chorus. The best thing is to get to 
bed early. The chronic traveller will sleep com- 
fortably in his berth and waken fresh for morning 
tea. On rising, he finds the water in the ewers 
at the end of the car quite icy. The train is 



breezy motor journey towards the higher moun- 
tains. 

He will, perchance, leave Cooma with the fog 
blotting out its rather picturesque surroundings, 
and see nothing of interest until his car tops the 
first rise southward of the town. 

Then noiselessly, magically, the car glides out 
of the fog into brilliant sunlight, and there breaks 
before his vision a scene he is not likely to forget. 




Picnic on the Snowy Biver 



running through a thick fog. Cooma is wrapped 
in a grey blanket, so he betakes himself to the fire 
on reaching his hotel. 

They give you good thick steaks in Cooma, hot 
buttered toast, fresh eggs, and tea with cream. 
It is a town of nearly 3,000 people, the capital 
of a well-watered mountain country mostly held 
in large pastoral areas. The soils are black and 
fertile. They grow rye, oats, lucerne and Euro- 
pean fruits to perfection. Monaro sheep, horses 
and cattle are among the best in Australia. 

Having laid in a good breakfast, the Kosciusko 
tripper wraps himself in a heavy overcoat, covers 
his ears carefully, rolls his travelling rug tightly 
around his knees and prepares himself for a cool 



As if some genius had drawn a curtain aside 
and disclosed an enchanted picture, he sees the 
road winding ahead through a landscape of 
rocky hills and grassy plains crossed by running 
streams. 

In the far distance, the spotless ranges — 
which claim his vision most — stand all dazzling 
white with snow. Against the cloudless skies he 
sees them rising and falling — an ivory sea from 
which arise in clearest contours, white peaks, like 
islands of alabaster. 

There lies the Australian Birthplace of the 
Snows; there stand the Frozen Mountains where 
the winding Murray and the beautiful Snowy 
Rivers have their chill beginnings. The Murray, 



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Jindabyne, on the Snowy River 



daughter of snows, who, having wedded herself 
to the waters of the sun, pours out her flood at 
last into the Southern Ocean; the Snowy which 
sweeps through the fastnesses of Eastern Gipps- 
land and springs to meet her lord the Pacific 
across the sands at Mario Bar. 

This coming in a second out of dense fog into 
cloudless sunlight, takes the traveller's breath 
away. If he hails from warmer latitudes and 
this is his first sight of snow-capped mountains, 
the sensation will be all the more vivid for its 
suddenness. 

Whether the opening out of this wonderful 
view is sudden or comes with due preparation, It 
cannot fail to impress and delight all those who 
are fortunate enough to make this journey in 
winter. 

The road onward to the Creel is full of pleas- 
ing pictures. 

The plains of Monaro, strewn in places with 
granite boulders stained by Time, are swept by 
clean, cold, health-giving winds. 

The people one meets are finely developed. 
The tall daughters of Monaro are renowned for 
their fresh complexions and splendid figures, and 
the riders of Monaro are celebrated for their dar- 
ing horsemanship. They are, in fact, a race of 
mountaineers of the very finest type. 

On green herbage by snow-fed creeks, shaggy 
cattle are grazing. Willow and poplar are fami- 
liar features of the landscape. From old 
shingle-roofs stone chimneys carry off the smoke 
of fierce house-fires made up of logs piled in tre- 
mendous fireplaces below. 



The air of winter is nippy even at midday, 
when the sun is shining. The summer nights 
are cool, and frosts occur at unexpected times. 

The road passes through the village of 
Jindabyne, across the rapid Snowy, and over the 
singing Thredbo to the Creel. 

Here the tra\eller is refreshed with a good hot 
meal, and, leaving the black alluvial flats and 
lower slopes of Monaro Mountains behind, 
begins to climb by wooded hills and ridges 
towards that distant snow that he saw shimmer- 
ing on the skyline many miles away. 

In summer the Creel Is a hiding-place for trout 
fishermen. In these snow-fed rivers the speckled 
and brown trout increase and multiply with a 
rapidity unknown to their native waters in the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

It Is a curious fact that the blessings and pests 
of other lands spread beyond all precedent in 
Australia. 

In winter the motor services end at the Creel. 
Passengers are conveyed over the remaining nine 
miles to the Hotel Kosciusko by coach. 

The road is constantly up-hill by an easy 
gradient. 

Slowly climbing towards the Roof of Australia 
the traveller looks down at certain points to see 
the road by which he travelled from Cooma wind- 
ing away over river and plain behind him. The 
vegetation begins to alter in character. Black 
wattles and snow gums appear, the trees are 
stunted, there is more dead timber, and now 
comes the snow. 

First there are small light patches, lingering In 
shady places, on the trunks of prostrate eucalypti. 



MOUNT KOSCIUSKO 



195 



As the track ascends to higher altitudes, these 
patches grow larger and more frequent. Springs 
of water oozing out through the earth are sur- 
rounded by thin ice and small stalactites. 

Gradually the whole forest grows whiter, 
whiter still, until at last the coach reaches a point 
where every tree and bush is mantled. The 
entire landscape has been transformed. Fre- 
quent creeks splash their steep courses through 



reared driver holding his reins firmly in mittened 
hands. 

The last dwelling on the road is a Government 
camp, where provisions and stimulants are kept 
for travellers in case of accident. This leaves 
the Hotel Kosciusko and Betts Camp (half-way 
between it and the summit) to house the only 
inhabitants of all this vast winter region. The 
rest is primal Nature and perhaps a solitary 




Ski-Bunuers at Hotel Kosciusko 



arches of glittering ice: long icicles depend from 
the bushes by which they are o\erhung, sheets of 
ice gleam around the snow-covered boulders of 
their winding beds, ice crystals cling to the 
sedges — the ways of these mountain waters have 
become crystalline and cold! 

Snow dazzles unaccustomed eyes with its sun- 
lit brilliance. The rocky hillsides are covered, 
save for a few damp patches here and there; the 
treeless ranges beyond are robed in immaculate 
white. 

The road itself is covered over now with half- 
frozen and re-frozen snow. Mountain-bred 
horses place their feet carefully, a mountain- 



"hatters" camp. Summer for a few brief 
months will cover the snow-coxered slopes of 
these mountains with beautiful wild flowers and 
convert the gullies and flats into pastures. Sheep- 
men will bring up their flocks to fatten on the 
summer feed and, for a season, the summit of 
Kosciusko will be accessible to tourists in 
motors. 

But now, and for months to come, the mountain 
and the mountains beyond it away to the Victorian 
Alps stand silent, white, and lone. An adven- 
turer on snow shoes may make a dash for the 
summit of Kosciusko, using Betts Camp as his 
base, but the great white hills that surround it, 



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and extend beyond it to the southward, will sleep 
under uncrumpled sheets until December suns 
awaken them. 

The last mile or more of road is marked out by 
tall posts to prevent coaches and travellers from 
floundering into snow drifts. A gang of men 
is kept to clear the track with snow ploughs after 
sudden falls. 




A Dog Sled, Kosciusko 



At length, feeling colder than he has ever felt 
before, perchance, the traveller sees the welcome 
chimneys, roofs and gables of the two-storied 
Hotel Kosciusko with its lakelet frozen over at 
the foot of the slope, and the mountain hunching 
up behind it. 

The Government of New South Wales has 
spent many thousands here. The chateau— as 
it should be called — is splendidly appointed, and 
its capable manager, overlord as he is of a little 
isolated world in the snow — rules his dominion 
capably and well. The chef is a genius, the hotel 
service is excellently organised, the establishment 
heated throughout by steam, the rooms electri- 
cally lit and supplied with hot and cold water; the 
lounge, billiard, dining, smoking, music and ball 
rooms equal those of the best Alpine hotels. 

Six thousand feet above sea level, surrounded 
by brooding mountains older than the Himalayas, 
the guest may now settle down comfortably to the 



enjoyments which a paternal management has in 
store for him. 

Resting after his sixteen hours of travel from 
Sydney, he looks out from a world of new and 
modern appointment upon a world old when 
Alpine Europe was hardly settled on its bases. 

Sixteen miles further on, the wrinkled forehead 
of Kosciusko is bared to catch the last beams of a 
wintry sun. Below him, on the frozen lakelet, 
skaters, aglow with pleasant exercise, are edging 
appetites for dinner. 

The chateau is built of Monaro granite. In 
this climate the fireplace assumes a greater im- 
portance than in other parts of Australia. The 
fireplaces of the chateau are arched with rough- 
hewn blocks of solid stone. During the long 
frozen months, their red hearths will devour huge 
reserves of firewood heaped outside. 

From Toowoomba, in Queensland, to Wal- 
halla, in Victoria, the wood pile is a prominent 
feature of mountain homes. 

These People of the Snows are hardy and 
happy looking. Nowhere is the air purer or 
more exhilarating. Summer and winter alike it 
is a veritable source of energy, a constant stimula- 
tion that carries no reaction 

Over the little valley in which the Hotel 
Kosciusko stands there is a hill which the manager 
has called "Alpine View." 

With a pair of gum boots on his feet and an 
alpenstock in his hand, the visitor is counselled 
to make the ascent after breakfast. 

From a natural platform on the tall granite 
rock that crowns this hill, the view will be full 
repayment for his morning climb. 

He looks over the valley and sees the vestal 
ranges sleeping for the winter in long, white 
nightgowns descending to their feet. He sees 
the humpbacked mountains of which Kosciusko 
itself is the highest point. Behind him is the 
evergreen forest, every tree and bush drooping 
under its canopy of snow. Dazzling white snow- 
drifts fill the crevices of the rocks; beneath him, 
lipped with ice, the creeks wind among their 
snow-covered boulders, bestowing farewell kisses 
on these paternal granites before they depart 
from their birthplaces to the warmer embraces of 
Gippsland and the Riverine. 

There is gold in these creeks. After the 
spring rains come and meet the snows, an occa- 
sional fossicker follows up the streams. They 
tell you of a hermit who has lived for years in a 
gully some four miles back from the hotel. Now 
and again he comes in with his "dust," and takes 
out a pack-horse laden with provisions. He is con- 
tent with the ranges for his companions; and the 
living he makes suffices for him, as for many an- 
other solitary throughout the great Australian 
Bush. 




Olub Lake, Snowy Mountains 



197 



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AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



It is safe to say that a majority of native-born 
Australians have never seen snow. For this 
reason Kosciusko appeals more strongly to those 
initiates who behold here the Bush transfigured 
and supremely beautiful. 

For the first time they see those peculiar grey 
clouds in skies which seem to draw nearer to the 
earth. Magpies carol in the tree-tops, their sweet 
melancholy notes heralding a coming change. 
Then the first dri\-ing flakes come floating down 
through the forest and dancing across the open 
spaces like white feathers driven by the wind. 

The air thickens. The neophyte watches the 
noiseless flakes descending in myriads, gradually 
altering the shapes of trees, blotting out the 
nakedness of the earth and slowly transforming 
a commonplace everyday landscape into a world 
of wonder and delight. 

Australian snow scenes are especially beautiful 
from the fact that our forests are evergreen. The 
bleakness of the European snowscape is absent. 
The world of Nature takes on a new and delicate 
beauty, all ruggedness is toned down and the 
whole effect is delicate and fairylike. 

To most people the chief attraction of Mount 
Kosciusko will be its novel winter amusements. 

At the luxurious hotel they may spend a holi- 
day in modern comfort and indulge to the full in 
snow sports of all descriptions. Ice skating, 
tobogganing and ski-ing annually bring their 
devotees from great distances. The Australian 
need not visit Switzerland nor Scandinavia for 
these pleasures. He has his own snow season 
extending from May to September each year. 

Ski-riding was freely practised in Monaro 
before it extended into Europe from the Scan- 
dinavian countries. Westward from Kosciusko 
is Kiandra, the highest town in Australia. It is 
cut off regularly during the winter, owing to the 
deep snows which surround it. The connecting 
roads can only be negotiated on ski. This first led 
to the development of ski-running; the establish- 
ment of a championship course, annual races, and 
finally an extension of the sport to Kosciusko, 
which is more accessible. 

The skis used in this country are constructed 
of light and pliable mountain ash, one of our 
most useful timbers. The ski is a smooth narrow 
plank 3i inches to 4^ inches wide, and from 
seven to nine feet long, about an inch thick in the 
middle thinning to half an inch at both ends. The 
front of the ski is turned up. The foot fits 
through a broad leather band laced over the 
centre, with the heel left free, or is strapped over 
the toes and the back of the heels. 

Without doubt ski-running, once the art is 
acquired, ranks among the most pleasurable 




The Summit of Mount Kosciusko 
(The highest point in Australia) 



and healthy sports in the world. One can invest 
it with considerable excitement also. 

The amateur finds that his skis have a devilish 
habit of going just exactly where he doesn't want 
them to; but his falls are amusing even to him- 
self, and he naturally escapes unhurt in the soft 
snow. If he Is prepared to cut a few ludicrous 
capers at first, doesn't mind a few spills, and per- 
severes, the pleasure he can enjoy afterwards in 
flying over the polish,.J surface of the earth at 
express speed, more than compensates for the 
initial falls and failures. Experts perform some 
incredible feats on ski. On the steep courses they 
can get up to automobile speed and negotiate 50- 
feet flying jumps with confidence and safety. 

With ski the whole face of the country can be 
explored, as far as the explorer cares to go. In 
winter the summit of Mount Kosciusko may be 
reached by an expert in this way. 

But, for the average tourist, the time for this 
interesting journey will be summer, when the 
ascent is made without personal exertion. The 
Blue Lake and a magnificent panorama of moun- 
tain scenery may then be viewed — under a clear 
sky — with all its sweeping hills and granite mono- 
liths and mighty gorges. 

In summer this mountain climate is the most 
invigorating in Australia. One's sojourn in a 
land of entrancing beauty and interest is made 
more pleasant by the splendid health and spirits 
which arise from the inhalation of dry, pure air 
impregnated with oxygen. 

A summer trip to Kosciusko is a prescription 
which any patient finds easy to take. It has 
effected many a cure. 



(i99) 




Orescent Head 



THE NORTH COAST. 



I 



DURING the winter of 19 13 the author of 
Australia Unlimited was working south- 
ward from Cairns to Stanthorpe via 
Townsville, Cloncurry, Winton, Longreach, 
Rockhampton, Roma, and other places on the 
Queensland map, taking notes for this book. 

He had sampled the winter climates of Mount 
Kosciusko and Cairns, and found them some- 
what different. He spent his last really cold day 
of the year at Stanthorpe — shook hands with the 
mining warden and his junior on a bleak moun- 
tain platform and boarded the Sydney express a 
little before sundown on a wintry afternoon in 
mid-September. 

They give you a good meal in the busy refresh- 
ment room at Wallangarra, where you leave a 
comfortable Queensland car for an equally com- 
fortable New South Wales car on a broader 
gauge line. 

The sun had lighted the summits of the last 
Queensland hills with a wan golden light, but 
over the border in New South Wales the western 
skies were filled with a beautiful afterglow. On 
a pale green background of sky, reddish-black 
clouds were floating behind the silhouetted gums 
along the ridges. One of the passengers in the 
car said, apropos of this remarkable effect, which 
we were watching from the windows, that if a 
man wanted to enjoy life, artificial life, he should 
ive in Vienna, but if he wanted to be a healthy 



man, and live a long time, he must remain in 
Australia. ... 

It was cold at Tenterfield. The big fireplace 
in the hotel, packed with blazing logs, reminded 
us that September and Spring are not synonymous 
all over the Commonwealth. 

Magpies were carolling gaily when the sun rose 
next morning over that pretty old town, sur- 
rounded by its grey New England hills. 

Weeping willows down by the sandy creek 
swung their drooping branches in response to a 
morning breeze that blew cold and fresh on the 
cheek. 

Thin mists were clearing over the pine-tops, 
smoke ascended from the chimneys — it was a 
bracing day, when we took our seats in the old 
F.N., with the collars of our overcoats up round 
our ears and rugs o\er our knees. 

We swung out cheerily on the main coach road 
to Lismore, passing fields of barley, potatoes, and 
other products of colder climates. 

In and out of granite hills, where the fine 
coastal rivers of New South Wales have their ■ 
beginnings in clear and rapid creeks — we went 
down to Drake, a cold little mining village. At 
Tabulam the country opens, and the road crosses 
the Clarence River by a fine bridge. The Clar- 
ence even here is a broad stream. 

At Tabulam, before the door of an old- 
fashioned inn, motors going over the mountains 




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400 



THE NORTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



201 



and motors coming down from the tableland 
assemble these days for lunch. When the writer 
caravanned down from the (jreat Range thirteen 
years ago there were no motors, and the weary- 
ing coach journey from either Tenterfield to 
Lismore, or Glen Innes to Grafton, occupied a 
day and a night. The motor accomplishes it in 
five or six daylight hours. The motor is play- 
ing an important part in recent Australian de- 
velopment, and will play a still more important 
one in the future. 



Fat dairy herds and green fields are the fea- 
tures of this prolific country, not one-half so pro- 
lific as it will be made in the future after farming 
men have learned the lesson that is coming to 
them. 

You cannot keep taking everything out of land 
and not putting anything back. You cannot 
allow the breed of your stock to deteriorate. 
You must not sow one kind of fodder grass and 
expect it to last indefinitely. You must learn to 
rotate your crops. 







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A Boat Harbor on the Eiclmond Eiver 



Over beautiful foothills, crowned with tall 
hoop pine, we travelled into brush lands covered 
with scented shrubs and tropical jungle growths. 

Now and again we passed long bullock-teams 
laden with smooth, barked pine-logs going to the 
isawmills at the foot of the ranges. 

We had entered a perceptibly warmer atmos- 
phere. Some miles westward from Casino, we 
Struck the outer edges of the dairying districts. 
[t was now typical North Coast. Lush grasses 
[covered the fields, patches of uncleared jungle 
still remained along the creeks. Frequent 
Bwamps, edged with red water-weed, told of a 
leavy and regular rainfall. 

Casino had grown in ten years to a busy little 
city. We crossed the North Coast railway line, 
which is being builded in sections to link up 
Sydney and Brisbane by a coastal route, and 
turned northward over rich basaltic hills and fine 
black flats towards Lismore. 



We glided into Lismore at nightfall. Twenty 
years ago this city did not exist. To-day it is 
one of the brightest, most active and most pro- 
gressive centres in the Commonwealth. It owes 
its increasing prosperity mainly to the dairying 
industry, and for this reason alone the North 
Coast will do well to carefully consider the best 
methods of improving and sustaining both pas- 
tures and herds. 

Paspalum has spelled profits; but the future of 
paspalum on scrub country is a matter of doubt. 
Already the fields are becoming matted over with 
the roots of this valuable grass, and in conse- 
quence the rain does not penetrate the soil. 

Lismore is a city in which its inhabitants take 
pardonable pride. It boasts fine buildings, 
broad streets, good hotels, public institutions, and 
leads the North Coast. 

On the cleared hills beyond Lismore is Wol- 
longbar, the Government Experimental Farm, 



202 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



situated on typical Big Scrub land. We motored 
away on a balmy Spring morning towards 
Ballina, calling in at the farm for an hour or two 
en route. 

At one time these enormous far-spreading 
northern scrubs were regarded as worthless 
country, except for the cedar which grew in them. 

Hardly any productive part of Australia but 
has, at one time or another, been set down as 
good for nothing. 

The Big Scrub lands are basaltic, red and 
chocolate, and lighter in color than the volcanic 
soil of the South Coast, except on the river flats, 
where black alluvials prevail. 

Wollongbar, 273 acres in area, is one of 
several invaluable demonstration and training 
farms conducted by the New South Wales De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Among many interesting experimental plots at 
Wollongbar that producing Queensland cattle- 
cane came under observation. This species of 
sugar-cane grows 50 to 60 tons to the acre in 
these coastal districts, and is valuable as a winter 
feed for stock. It lasts six years. 

The manager of Wollongbar opined that the 
paspalum fields, which have been the mainstay of 
North Coast dairymen for many years past, will 
have to be ploughed in the near future. This 
can be done for £2 an acre with bullocks. Chiefly 
owing to the falling-off of paspalum, pasture lands 
which have been sold for as much as £40 an acre 
can be bought at present for £25. 

It should not cost more than £4 to £5 an acre 
to bring this land back to its original productive 
value by ploughing, manuring with bonedust, and 
re-sowing with couch-grass, which will keep the 
paspalum open when it re-appears. 

The weight of opinion seems to be in favor of 
Rhodes grass as against paspalum for the North 
Coast in future. 

The average dairy farm in the Big Scrub has 
been from 150 to 200 acres in area, which is far 
too big. Eighty acres of this country — from 
which it is possible to get three crops a year with 
manuring — is more than enough for a holding. 

Any man who farms eighty acres of Big Scrub 
land thoroughly is sure of a handsome living, but 
genuine farming and land speculation are two dif- 
ferent propositions. 

Curiously, against established tradition, wheat 
does well on Wollongbar, and does not suffer 
from rust. 

Experiments at this station have shown 
that black winter rye will be one of the best 
growths for the Big Scrub. It is a good cropper, 
and an effective milk producer, and the district 
seems to suit it. 

Apart from its experiments in grasses and fod- 
ders, Wollongbar has accumulated valuable facts 



concerning the growth of hemp, fibres, tropical 
fruits and various economic plants. It is a 
school of importance for students and dairy 
farmers who receive as well the benefit of its care- 
ful tests with Ayrshires, Jerseys, Guernseys and 
their crosses. 

Leaving Wollongbar we rolled over a good 
macadamised road through one of the finest dairy 
districts in the world. 

Westward, beyond a wide coastal sweep of hill 
and dale, loomed the distant ranges from which 
we had descended the day before. 

Their grey granite heights and cold gorges 
were but a \-anishing memory. 

All around us glowed sunlit vistas of another 
land, warmer, more prolific, and pleasanter to the 
eye. 

Here the green sugar-cane rustled, here the 
air was heavy with a scent of clover. Here the 
sun glistened on the backs of many a fine dairy 
herd knee-deep in pasture. 

We crossed running creeks, where pittosporum 
bloomed. We surmounted hills and saw be- 
neath us farm houses standing amid groves of 
bananas. 

We skirted margins of swamps, where purple 
red-bills, sickle-beaked ibis, and white cranes 
stalked in search of food. 

Spur-wing plover pittered on the flats. Covey 
quail piped in the long grass, and jacksnipe 
arrowed across the marshes. 

By hill and dale, and pine and palm, we went 
down from Wollongbar to Wardell — a riverbank 
township surrounded by a grove of forest oaks — 
and waited there for the punt to convey us across 
the Richmond River. 

A barge, deeply laden with sugar-cane, was 
being towed upstream by a noisy asthmatical 
river tug. The wind ruflled the surface of the 
river, and far off we could hear a noise of ma- 
chinery where the juice of the cane was being 
expressed and converted into good Australian 
sugar at Broadwater mill. 

The ancient puntman brought his craft slowly 
to the bank. The farmers' carts rattled off and 
we glided on. 

On the opposite side we turned the car north- 
wards in the direction of Woodburn. The road 
follows the river, and one could not but notice 
how the water-hyacinth, that bugbear of tropical 
streams, was spreading on the Richmond. 

Large areas of land were still under sugar- 
cane, despite the profits that dairy-farming has 
brought northern settlers. It was cutting sea- 
son. Gangs of white labourers were slashing 
the jointed stalks with their murderous-looking 
cane-knives, and heavy draught-horses were draw- 
ing trucks laden with cane along the tramlines 




A Holiday on Biclimond Biver 



203 



204 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



that lead from the fields to loading-places on the 
river bank. 

Yesterday it was Australia of the Snows. To- 
day it is Australia of the Sugar Cane. It is always 
well, when people speak of the Australian climate, 
to ask which climate they mean! 

New South Wales alone has several. The 
difference between Tenterfield and Woodburn is 
almost as great as that between Florida and New 
York. 

As we applied thirstily for a cold drink in the 
bar of the Woodburn inn, where we pulled up for 
lunch, we might have reflected that ski-ing and 
ice-skating were still in full swing at Mount Kos- 
ciusko. 



and potatoes, its excellent bacon and dairy pro- 
duce. 

A prosperous and hospitable population of 
50,000 have found a field for their labors between 
Tabulam and the sea; but the Valley of the Clar- 
ence and the country surrounding it would sup- 
port thousands more. 

Some day the output of these coastal districts 
will mayhap be increased ten-fold under irrigation 
and intense culture; as it is, they contribute greatly 
to the wealth of New South Wales. "Timber, 
Butter, Maize, Gold and Wool" — that is the 
refrain these river waters sing as they roll 
towards the Pacific, through an Eldorado of their 
own. 




In the Big Scrub, Richmond Biver 



Erom Woodburn on the Richmond to Chats- 
worth on the Clarence, the road runs mainly 
through fine hardwood forests. 

Half-way between these two places is New 
Italy, where an industrious and thrifty remnant 
of the Marquis de Rey's ill-starred New Ireland 
settlement have proved that the Italian makes a 
good Australian citizen. 

From the summit of Marora Hill we looked 
down upon the Valley of the Clarence, rich and 
lovely, the home of agricultural wealth and 
abundance ! 

This broad majestic river spreads out its many 
arms and branches through a wide delta of ever- 
fertile alluvial soil. For more than half a cen- 
tury it has been celebrated for its maize, sugar 



The Clarence district has a most interesting 
history. Its original settlers were largely com- 
posed of Scots and Germans, whose descendants 
are, for the most part, well-to-do farmers and 
business men. 

The Teuton and the Gael have intermarried. 
Their progeny, born and raised in a land where 
the sugar cane and the banana flourish, appear to 
be a healthy type. They are naturally careful 
and conservative. The banks of Grafton are 
said to have a bigger average of fixed deposits 
than those of any other Australian town. Grafton 
itself is one of the most charming places in the 
world. Located on a bend in the great river, its 
broad streets planted with beautiful trees, its 
gardens ablaze with the flowers of tropical and 



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o 






bo 

a 






205 



206 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



temperate climates, at certain seasons of the year 
it can only be described as an Eden, not lacking 
Eve, for it has been named, and fitly — "the City 
of Fine Trees and F'air Women." 

The leafy avenues of Grafton in springtime 
are rendered glorious by purple jacaranda and 
golden silky-oak, while here and there a flame-tree 
blazes like a royal Richelieu among the darker 
bunya pines and sycamores. 

"See Naples and die." Go to Grafton and 
live. But preferably go not in early summer, 
when the atmosphere is laden with promise of the 
rainy season — unless you are used to hot, moist 
climates. 

But go to the Clarence sometime, any time, if 
you would behold a green gem blazing brightly 
in the tiara of settlement which this queenly coast 
so proudly wears. 

Go to the Clarence! It is a land of romance, 
of beauty, of pleasure, and friendship and laissez 
faire. You will have boating and fishing and 
shooting and moonlight picnics; Scottish gather- 
ings. Burns' nichts and Bavarian festivities. 

You will hear the skirl of bagpipes in the 
banana groves; you will eat American ices in 
Prince Street, and at the farm houses they will 
give you fresh milk and perhaps passion-fruit and 
cream. 

At least one evening a week the town band will 
play in public and, perchance, you will attend the 
annual regatta on the river, or see the Friendly 
Societies' Demonstration. Most certainly you 
will go by steamer to Copmanhurst, and behold 
the upper reaches, and most surely ^ou will go 
down the river to Ulmarra, where you can almost 
see the maize growing on flats of incredible 
richness; to Southgate, where the wharf will 
be ashine with polished milk-cans; to Lawrence, 
with water-hyacinth purpling the swamps on its 
outskirts; to Maclean, the centre of a river dis- 
trict of its own; to Brushgrove, surrounded by 
dairy farms; to Harwood, where the Colonial 
Sugar Company has a splendid mill; to Palmer's 
Island, where the sea-breeze grows fresher but 
the land is still lush and green; to Iluka, quaint 
fishing village, with a broad river frontage and 
an ocean beach across the sands, and finally to 
Yamba, the watering-place of the Clarence, where 
you may fish, surf-bathe and cull fat oysters from 
the training wall — if you wish. 

If you are a sportsman you can spend many in- 
teresting hours along Carr's Creek, and AUipo 
Creek, and Alumny Creek, the Coldstream, the 
South Arm, the Broadwater, and by many other 
creeks, arms, branches and swamps within the 
delta of the Clarence. 

You may go to Red Rock or Broome's Head 
for snapper, to Orara for quail, to Lionsville to 
see gold-mining; to the copper-mines of Cangai, 



and to Yugilbar station to see the only Moorish 
castle in Australia. 

Between Copmanhurst and Yamba, a distance 
of sixty or eighty miles, there are a hundred 
islands in the river. Many of these are under 
cultivation; but some have been reserved for 
recreation grounds, or other purposes. 

From the uncleared islands one can get an 
idea of the magnificent vegetation that covered 
the banks of the Clarence when the first settlers 
came there seventy years ago. Grafton was then 
a cedar brush. Enormous banyans, nettle trees, 
rosewood tulips, myrtles, silky oaks, and all 
the growths of a superb jungle covered the site of 
the present city. 

First fortunes were made out of cedar; later 
money was won and lost in sugar growing; but 
the permanent stability of the district was finally 
established on dairy farming. 

A healthy rivalry exists between Lismore and 
Grafton. Lismore, much younger, but flushed 
with quick success, accuses Grafton of being non- 
progressive; but the old district is solid, if slow. 

There is no poverty on the North, but increas- 
ing comfort and every prospect of a bigger future 
than its oldest inhabitants have yet realized. 

Pioneering on the North Coast has never been 
attended with the doubt and difficulty which had 
to be met and overcome in less favoured parts of 
the Commonwealth. 

In order that the district may learn more of 
its present and future possibilities, a paternal 
Government in Sydney some ten or twelve years 
ago established an experimental station on the 
higher lands a few miles north of the city. 

As the writer had seen the beginnings of this 
Government farm in a modest clearing in forest 
and jungle, it was a decided pleasure to revisit it 
after a decade. 

A marvellous transformation had taken place. 
Entering the gates of the farm, a magnificent field 
of wheat first met his astonished gaze! The 
Clarence had never appealed to him, or to the 
local inhabitants for that matter, as a wheat- 
growing country; yet, here was a fifty-acre block 
of "Thew" — a Farrerized wheat — high as the 
fence and level as a billiard table! 

It just happened that the farm contained a 
patch of red soil on which the management had 
sown wheat — with results beyond expectation. 
There was £850 worth of wheaten chaft on that 
particular block. Higher up the river, the visi- 
tor remembered, around Yugilbar, were belts of 
similar country which will, no doubt, yield similar 
results. 

Grafton Experimental Farm reflects all credit 
on the New South Wales Department of Agri- 
culture. It would gladden the heart of any good 
Australian. For, perhaps more than any other 



THE NORTH COAST OF NKW SOUTH WALKS 



207 



station, it is showing what a catholicity of climate 
Australia possesses. In what other part of the 
world do we find wheat and pineapples growing 
to perfection side by side? 

After ten years, the writer of Australia 
Unlimited returned to a spot which he had known 
as forest and scrub, to find it teeming with produc- 
tion. 

Of splendid sheep and pigs, fine dairy cows, 
and healthy poultry, the Farm has plenty. 



But evolution applies to Australian settlement 
as to other things. The Clarence, young as it 
Is, has had its cedar age, its maize period, its 
sugar epoch, and now it is enjoying a prosperous 
dairy farming era. 

Its permanent future may be in irrigation with 
mixed farming, and intensive culture. But it 
will always be a prosperous, fertile, and beautiful 
district. . . . 




Government Experimental Farm, Grafton 



Lucerne, potatoes, maize, bananas, citrus fruits 
in their several areas, all proclaimed the Clarence 
to be a land eminently adapted for mixed farm- 
ing. 

Local landowners have not yet seen the neces- 
sity for intensive farming on smaller areas. They 
have gone on taking the same crops off their 
ground year after year. 

But the time will come on the Coast when 50- 
acre farms will be considered quite large enough 
for individual holdings. On 50 acres, even 
under present easy-going conditions, a man may 
readily clear £250 a year. 



We crossed the Clarence (nearly a mile wide 
at Grafton) by a crowded steam punt, and found 
South Grafton dusty and busy. 

The building of the North Coast railway line 
was in progress, and all the resultant activities 
were finding expression in what was once rather 
a dull place. The city on the south side of the 
river promises to give Grafton proper a close 
run for supremacy in the future. Fine new 
buildings had been erected; the business places 
were constantly crowded; everybody seemed to be 
earning or making plenty of money. The 
"melancholy Australian" of tradition as usual was 



2o8 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



not visible, nor did this scene present an air of 
"weird expectancy." 

Comfort, prosperity, and content will be found 
on the North Coast. But the traveller will seek 
in vain for that "typical Australia," of which he 
has read so much. 

As a souvenir of the Clarence, we bought a 60- 
Ib. tin of "Ironbark" honey for 14/6, and 
strapped it to the footboard of the car. 

There is a flavor about North Coast honey 
which will remain in one's memory for years. 

From the summit of the hills overlooking the 
river, the road takes off to Nymboida, passing 
through much forest country. The Nymboida 
collects from the southern watershed of the 
Clarence, and is itself a noble river where it 
empties into the parent stream. It receives some 
of the fall from the Dorrigo tableland. 

Beyond the Nymboida the road ascends into 
the Guy Fawkes, a plateau covered with great 
hardwood forests, containing much good farming 
and pastoral land also. 

These districts all receive an abundant rain- 
fall. They contain patches of stiff gravelly soils, 
but there are thousands of acres suitable for cul- 
tivation. In no other part of Australia does one 
iind more beautiful forests or clearer streams. 
The waters of the Nymboida run swiftly over 
beds of smooth pebbles. Long green water- 
weeds sway at its edges. Around these silken 
streamers the platypus feeds. 

The air of the Nymboida is cooler and drier 
than that of the coastland. 

Hills rise steeply from the river, and surmount- 
ing them the traveller is presented with one of 
the finest Australian views. 

Beneath him is the valley of the Nymboida, 
through which the river, with its strong mountain 
spirit, cleaves a wide passage. 

The walled mountains of the Dividing Chain, 
with their high spurs and deep gorges loom in 
blue distances. 

Very still and solemn are these mountains. 
Their lower heights are covered with dark pines, 
their sides are clothed with forests, at their feet 
the rivers toss and tumble like mountain children, 
shouting at their play. 

In the gullies grow palms, tree-ferns and deli- 
cate ferns. 

The musical tinkling of bellbirds, the purling 
of clear waters over moss and orchid, screams 
of parrots or the thud of marsupials, these are 
all the sounds that break their virgin stillness, 
except for the rare grating of a wheel along the 
main road, or the chatter of horsemen riding in 
company. 

Along this Armidale road are fine uplands 
covered by hardwood forests, broken here and 
there by stretches of dense sub-tropical jungle. 



growing in chocolate soil similar to that of the 
Tweed and Richmond. 

If the traveller turns off the Armidale road 
at Tyringham, and takes an easterly course, he 
can go over via Perrott's Pinch into the Dorrigo. 

It is eleven years and more since the writer 
drove a buggy and pair over Perrott's Pinch from 
Tyringham, but the memory of that adventure 
has not faded. They say the road has been 
improved: for the traveller's sake, we will hope 
so. 

The few settlers who had taken up land in the 
Guy Pawkes prior to that time were doing reason- 
ably well, growing potatoes, for which the 
country was specially suited. 

I wrote then: — 

"There is no doubt that the country of the Guy 
Fawkes is destined in the future to grow immense 
quantities of wheat, potatoes, and the valuable 
commercial products of a temperate climate. 
About Tyringham and higher up toward the New 
England tableland, cold-country fruits flourish 
and do well. The pastoral and grazing possi- 
bilities are also considerable. At the present time 
sheep-breeding is being tried on a small scale, and 
Lincolns and merinos are said to do well. 

"The few settlers, who, with the old cattle 
stations, at present occupy the Guy Fawkes, find 
an outlet for their stock and produce at Armidale. 
On our way up the hills we met some bullock 
teams coming down to Grafton laden with pota- 
toes. Much of the farm-truck which now goes 
to Armidale would, if Guy Fawkes and Dorrigo 
were connected by rail with Grafton, probably be 
shipped there. The immense possibilities of the 
Guy Fawkes and Dorrigo and much of the inter- 
vening country, could be reduced to approximate 
statistics. Suflice it to say that the country is yet 
almost virgin. A few isolated settlers are in a 
primitive way endeavouring to make a living, and 
are holding on to their selections in the hope of a 
future. Without railway communication it will 
be impossible to open up this country. The cost 
per team of haulage to the Clarence on a ton of 
Guy Fawkes potatoes is £1/5/-; the present 
market price of a ton of potatoes is £3 in Grafton. 
The profits to the grower can readily be cal- 
culated. Yet these people, so productive is the 
soil, so certain the seasons, and so favourable the 
climate, are able to live, and, in a way, are doing 
well. The Guy Fawkes was settled or part 
settled from New England." 

The edge of the Dorrigo Scrub is just thirteen 
miles east from Tyringham. Don Dorrigo is a 
plateau, averaging 2,500 feet in height, and vary- 
ing in width from five miles to thirty, which, with 
its spurs, runs out from the main range near 
Guyra to Coramba, 30 miles south of Grafton. It 



THE NORTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



209 




'The Farmer's Friend' 



is without doubt one of the finest belts of vol- 
canic upland in New South Wales. Eleven years 
ago when the writer went down from Tyringham 
as a special commissioner, to report on this coun- 
try, it was unoccupied except for a few pioneer 
selectors at Dorrigo and Little Plain, who were 
putting up a good fight against odds. 

One could do nothing else than take up a brief 
for these settlers and their country — equally de- 
serving of attention. 

On the western descent into Dorrigo, from 
Tyringham, or on the seven miles climb, from the 
Bellingen on the eastern side, a descriptive pen 
might spill phrases until they piled into volumes. 

The western slope of the plateau is singularly 
romantic and beautiful. In places the country 
opens out like a park, where well-trimmed forest 
oaks, purpled in their autumn dress, stand sil- 
houetted in clumps against a background of the 
most vivid and peculiar green. This unusual 
greenness of the bald hills on the western ap- 
proach to the Dorrigo is due to the presence of a 
certain indigenous herbage, which does not 



appear to grow in any other part of the country. 
The Dorrigo rises in a series of abutting slopes, 
perfectly bare of trees, and vividly green. On 
the summit of these slopes runs a dark line of 
dense forest, through which lofty pine trees rear 
their ebon spires against a sky of blue. 

Ascending over the Bald Hill, from Armidale 
side, as one draws near to the dark line of forest 
at the summit, it becomes more definite and 
understandable. The characteristics of the scrub 
show more clearly. It is like the approach to 
some tropical island whose rich vegetation seems 
to grow up out of the seas as one nears it. 

The traveller will stand at last before the 
entrance to a dark avenue of tangled tropical 
growths, broken by tall pines, and looking back 
to the westward see the blue ranges piled away 
to sunset. So dense and tall is the Dorrigo 
forest, that, although the sun may be swimming 
high in the heavens, one seems, on entering the 
scrub, to suddenly drop into the coolness and 
shadow of late afternoon. This wonderful 
Dorrigo scrub is destined in the near future to dis- 
appear before the utilitarian hand of civilization. 

While the land was being cleared for first 
settlement, great logs of valuable rosewood were 
constantly burnt off with other ornamental 
timbers. Australian rosewood is at the present 
time one of the most valuable timbers in the 
world. It is in demand by the builders of Eng- 
lish railway carriages, and with judicious local 
enterprise, it would be in equal demand in 
America. For the enlightment of readers, it 
may also be mentioned here that there are in the 
Dorrigo pine trees holding 9,000 feet of good 
saleable timber under the one bark, and that the 
selectors have wastefully burnt off this timber 
in order to clear their land for cultivation. 

But lest any critic of Australian methods 
should find herein, as Sir Rider Haggard has re- 
cently done, argument for a charge of national 
waste, all sides of the question must be taken into 
consideration. In justice to the Australian 
settler, it must be remembered that the best 
timber forty or sixty miles from a railway is worth 
nothing; that uncleared forest land is valueless 
and unproductive, while land cleared of forest 
and devoted to agriculture is an increasing value 
to the individual and the State. 

In 1902 i wrote of this country: — 

"At the present moment the best part of the 
Dorrigo, the land which is destined one day to 
support a large and prosperous population, is 
locked up by Government in timber reserves. The 
attempt which is being made by the authorities to 
preserve a vast area of valuable forest is a com- 
mendable one, but while it keeps the timber stand- 
ing as a public asset, it is a distinct loss to the 
State in another direction. The land of the 



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AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Dorrigo is of greater national value than the tim- 
ber, but neither land nor timber with judi- 
cious management, need remain unremunerative 
— a dead waste. If the Government of the State 
were to gradually throw open the Dorrigo re- 
serves for settlement, reserving the market tim- 
bers on each block, at the usual royalties, the 
whole difficulty might be overcome. There is not 
the slightest doubt that if this were done, sawmills 
would be erected, and an additional encourage- 
ment given to settlement. There is money in the 
Dorrigo, and it only needs a little business enter- 
prise to exploit, for the general benefit of the com- 
munity, one of the best strips of country in 
Australia. 

"With an elevation of 2,500 feet, these lands, 
now covered with the most magnificent forest I 
have ever beheld in any part of the world, would 
become in a little time an agricultural Eden, sup- 
porting a large dairying and farming population. 
Away back from the unrecorded aeons of the 
past, the forces of Nature have been at work on 
the rich volcanic loam, enriching it with ages of 
vegetable decay. The very air of the scrub is 
heavy with the odor of exuberant fertility. On 
entering into the scrub for the first time, by one of 
the many tracks hewn through the dense forest 
by the axes of cedar-getters, I felt as one who 
stands at the entrance of some ancient cathedral 
reared by giants of architecture in mighty days 
of old. 

"After a few steps, the coarse glare of day is 
shut out, and one walks as if in cathedral light, 
where scarcely a sound breaks the solemn still- 
ness. Here and there, in patches of sunlight, 
the leaves of the tall scented lily gleam vividly 
green. Dark, glossy-leaved creepers cover the 
trunks of the trees. Above the pilasters of tall, 
graceful palms, quaintly marked like the pillars 
of an Eastern temple, hang tremulous leaves. 
Then come the great dark trunks of the pines, 
and looking up into their tremendous heights, one 
beholds their crowns white with hanging moss — 
veritable patriarchs of the forest, they wag their 
grey heads at Time." 

Shortly after, on the reiteration of these facts, 
the See Government began to throw open 
the Dorrigo for settlement. The Hon. Walter 
Bennett, then Minister for Forests, realized that 
the Dorrigo would be of a greater value to New 
South Wales as an agricultural district than it 
could ever remain as a forest reserve. The 
official objections to occupation having been over- 
come, the settlement of Don Dorrigo began. 

The author's prophecy has been over-fulfilled. 
No district in Australia has gone ahead more 
rapidly than the Dorrigo during the last decade. 
Farm after farm has been won from the jungle, 
settler after settler has sprung from small 



beginnings to independence, and everywhere there 
is progress. Nor have the forests been utterly 
wasted. Mills have been established and have 
sawn out millions of feet of hardwood and orna- 
mental timber, much of which has found a port 
at Coff's Harbor, which in turn, from a mere 
village, has developed into one of the busiest and 
most populous centres of the whole North Coast. 

Leaving the Armldale road — which has been 
responsible for this digression — our car took the 
dusty highway that dips out and falls over coastal 
hills and occasional flats towards Coramba. 
These North Coast hills are yet covered with 
forest. What their uses will be in the future is 
hard to say. At present it were well if they 
remained forest reserves. 

The flats are fertile and for the most part 
occupied by selectors. It Is a pleasant land to 
travel through at most seasons of the year. In 
Spring the forest oak Is In flower and the 
eucalypts are crowned with bright young leaves, 
like woodland altars tipped with flame. 

You will follow the road for some miles 
through an open forest In which tall straight 
pillars of spotted gum stand as supports to a vast 
green canopy. Then you will drop down to a 
level stretch of farmland with, maybe, a quaint 
old shingle-roofed homestead standing back from 
the roadway in a grove of ornamental trees, with 
a garden surrounded by weather-stained paling 
fences, over which roses are trailing. There will 
be cowsheds and barns at the back, ploughed pad- 
docks sprouting green maize, a running stream 
with dairy cattle grazing along its banks. 

These old selections and all they stand for of 
pioneer history are facing a new feature In the 
landscape — earthworks and bridges, ballasted 
track and steel rails; for the North Coast railway 
line is being carried along past their doors. The 
wattle and hickory which bloomed so profusely 
every spring-time along this northern road, 
have been rudely torn from their roots, clematis 
and tecoma cast aside, hills ruthlessly sliced and 
their tops and sides hauled away to make em- 
bankments, and now the solitude of Glenugle Peak 
Is disturbed by whistles of ballast trains. Coach 
days are going, and days of railway carriage and 
motor-car have come. 

South Grafton is already In touch with Glen- 
reagh, which is not sleeping amongst Its fertile 
flats and ringbarked clearings, but like Coramba, 
young and flourishing, has responded to the call 
of progress. 

The road into Coff's Harbor from Coramba 
goes down by many a sharp curve, from hills 
covered with rich jungle, to the sea. 

The growth of Coff's Harbor since the Dor- 
rigo was opened has been remarkable. Once 
given the impetus which, from now on, it is likely 



THE NORTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



2lt 



to receive, the whole State will go ahead at the 
same speed. 

Coff's Harbor may be taken as an example of 
Australia's possibilities. The establishment 
of fine, modern timber mills followed the influx 
of settlers and in ten years a place which con- 
sisted of a hotel, a wharf, and a few scattered 
houses, has grown to a busy little city. Sensible 
administration induced settlement, and enterprise 
and natural resources did the rest. 

When the tide of European migration turns 
southward, as it must inevitably do, it will be 
found that Australia can offer more opportunity 
for investment and labor alike than even the 
United States of America, which now carries twice 
the population of Britain. Australia is, in fact. 



Between Bellingen and Nambucca stands one 
of the finest hardwood forests of the North; 
grey box and turpentine are its predominant 
timbers. 

This valuable forest extends for thirty miles or 
so back from the coast, and then gives place to 
"apple-tree," and good open country, suitable, it 
is said, for closer settlement. 

Without cutting into the forests of the North 
Coast — which, for the most part, cover land un- 
suitable for agriculture — there will be an enor- 
mous total area on which population can be 
settled with every prospect of success. 

Just before sundown we glided into the green 
valley of the Macleay. New South Wales is 
seen here in a particularly happy mood. If a 




On the Paterson Elver 



a better America where men and women who are 
capable of intelligent effort can confidently look 
forward, with reasonable personal luck, to ulti- 
mate independence, achieved under the best living 
conditions in the world. 

Every hour in our journey down coast this fact 
was brought home to us. 

The country was so obviously rich, so capable 
of development, so responsive to treatment. 

At the Bellingen everybody was doing well. 

At Nambucca they were shipping their thou- 
sand boxes of butter a week. 

At Macksville, a pretty little township on the 
banks of the Nambucca River, prosperity was 
evident, and so on from river to river for 
hundreds of miles. 



stranger, who had gathered his impressions of 
Australia from the writings of men like Kendall, 
Gordon, and Clarke, were transported to the 
Macleay, he would feel as if he had gone to sleep 
in a desert and wakened in a flower garden. He 
would demand to know what spirit of perversity 
had caused an apparently sane people to accept 
foolish utterances as expressive of (heir joyous 
and beautiful country. 

He would see a broad and navigable river flow- 
ing through an Eden of fertility. He would 
learn that on these river flats 80 to 90 bushels of 
maize to the acre are common, while they have 
actually produced as high as 130 bushels, and that 
their average yield, season after season, has been 
40 to 50 bushels. 



212 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



On land valued at £35 to £40 an acre, he would 
behold perennial crops of lucerne, giving sub- 
stance to herds of milch-cows rivalling as wealth- 
producers the best dairy herds in Europe. On 
living areas (60 to 80 acres are sufficient) he 
would find not peasants but individual proprietors 
with modern equipment, good banking accounts, 
smart driving outfits — probably motor-cars. 

He would be gratified to see co-operative butter 
and cheese factories giving the farmers the full 
profits of their industry. In fine he would see 
eight to ten thousand people enjoying a pros- 
perity which left no room for failure, poverty or 
distress. 

Kempsey lies in the centre of this prosperity, 
and partakes of it with the complacent air that 
comes of good fortune well assured. 

Like other Australian towns, it is becoming 
modernised, but there still remain many old 
shingle-roofed houses of an earlier period. It is 
noticeable for its beautiful children and pretty 
young girls. 

Kempsey leaves with the visitor a pleasing 
memory of flower gardens, handsome pine trees, 
green flats, clover, weeping willows, and con- 
tented-looking cows. 

Tall banyans by the river bank remain as 
examples of a scrub which has long fallen 
beneath the settler's axe. 

Morning on the Macleay would be a good sub- 
ject for some painter who wished to depict the 
happy rural side of Australian life. In his 
picture he would show pink peach-blossom in the 
orchards, and cottages smothered in purple 
wistaria. 

Being mere artist he might not express the 
clear carol of the magpie, the twittering of spar- 
rows, the defiant crowing of roosters, or the low- 
ing of cows. But if he were minded to extend 
his canvas a little he could throw in a background 
of wondrous blue hills, or, to invest his picture 
with character, he could paint in an apple-cheeked 
housemaid illuminated by clear early sunlight, 
sweeping out yesterday's dust from the doorway, 
a little bare-legged girl coaxing a cow along the 
footpath, and a sturdy householder vigorously 
cutting kindling wood in the near foreground. A 
homely subject, but one that would be a more sane 
and truthful expression of Australia than tragic 
canvases on which are depicted terror-stricken 
settlers fleeing before bush fires, or emaciated 
swagsmen in the last throes of thirst. 

Between the Manning and Hastings Rivers 
there is another valuable belt of hardwood forest. 

The main North Coast Road crosses the Hast- 
ings five miles above Port Macquarie. 

Here is another fine river flowing through 
farmlands. 



Port Macquarie, one of the State's earliest 
settlements, makes the seaport for this delightful 
district. 

For him who wishes to read the Book of Old 
Colonial Days, and reconstruct in fancy the life 
and manners of Australia's first generation, a 
visit to Port Macquarie will be filled with interest. 

It is a queer old town standing by the bluest of 
seas. Some of its buildings are a hundred years 
old, a great antiquity for an Australian house; its 
Norman church was erected about 1824, and, in 
a cypress-shaded cemetery overlooking the town, 
there are many ancient headstones. 

Along the North Coast Road the Lisbon 
lemon grows wild, and crops freely. If the tra- 
veller prefers the homely squash to fresh milk or 
the liquors of the vine he may have it free of 
charge. Presumably it does not pay to cultivate 
the lemon along here, as the settler lets his trees 
alone and the birds carry the seeds hither and 
thither, so that there is no lack of lemons. 

Citrus fruits and vines have both been ade- 
quately proved in the North, but, while other 
industries bring in greater profits and settlement 
is scattered and transport expensive, wine mak- 
ing and fruit growing will have to stand aside. 

It is admitted that Australia can be the great- 
est wine-producing country in the world. The 
State of New South Wales has many fine payable 
vineyards and in days to come will have many 
more. 

Between Port Macquarie and Camden Haven 
is a village called Kew. At a bush hotel our car 
pulled up for lunch. The railway-builders had 
reached thus far and erected their usual camps of 
calico and scrim. 

Now here, if anywhere, was the site for one 
of those "typical" Australian short stories, be- 
ginning with a column of mournful word-painting 
about a dark forest full of "weird expectancy," a 
half column on flies, a half column on heat, and 
perhaps a column and a half of a fight around 
the bar of the wayside pub. 

All the characters would be adorned with spade 
beards, wear red shirts, moleskin trousers and 
snake-buckle belts. They would speak a typical 
dialect, half cockney and half Western Ameri- 
can. Their profanity would be expressed by 
dashes and asterisks in great profusion. 

Unfortunately for the reputation of our 
alleged "descriptive Australian writers," none 
of the essentials for this purely imaginative story 
materialized. 

In New South Wales the Licensing Act is 
strictly enforced. A disturbance at a hotel would 
mean a black mark against the proprietary; it 
might even lead to a cancellation of license. Con- 
sequently there are few disturbances at country 
inns. I have not witnessed a public-house 










9 
o 
OS 

» 
o 



213 



214 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



fight since 1890, and I travel the Bush more 
than most people. There were no flies, and the 
weather was ideal. The North Coast is com- 
paratively free from flies at all times. The 
few young men about the hotel were clean-shaven 
— beards are out of fashion in the Bush. 
They were dressed in ordinary modern clothing, 
spoke fair English, and used no bad language. 

The meal, a shilling lunch, was served at a 
crowded table, to a good-mannered, good-tem- 



But if he is going towards Camden Haven he 
should take a kit of fishing lines. 

Or if he means to remain around Taree, on 
the Manning, let him take dancing shoes and a 
mandolin. He will find all these pleasant north- 
ern districts cheerfully sociable. 

As evening falls there will be many cosy lamp- 
lit rooms and much piano-playing. It would be 
an interesting statistical item, and one worth pub- 
lishing abroad, to compute the number of Austra- 




MUking Machines, Manning River District 



pered company. It consisted of soup, excellent 
Australian beef, abundant vegetables, and custard 
and pie. 

The only complaint one might make was that 
the helpings were rather plentiful. 

This is the Bush of Reality. It may be com- 
monplace, but it betokens good, cheap conditions 
of living, personal comfort and security. The 
prospective citizen need have no fear that he will 
be subjected to the disagreeable experiences of 
some Australian heroes of romance. In migrat- 
ing to the Mother State, the last item he need 
add to his outfit is a lethal weapon of any kind. 
Unless he is travelling into the far back country 
in summer, and not always then, he need not 
even provide himself with a waterbag. 



lian houses that possess a piano. The average 
is probably the highest in the world. . . . 

The Manning has fine fat black lands along its 
valley, and possesses good back country. For 
the Comboyne Scrub, like the Dorrigo, a future 
can safely be predicted. The Comboyne is a 
well-watered high land, with rich soils. It is yet 
mostly covered by tropical jungle, but, like all 
scrub land of the North, will be found suitable 
for dairying and mixed farming. 

Taree, the principal centre for the Manning, is 
another "old colonial" town, its gabled houses 
and ancient gardens standing side by side with 
the dwellings of a modern day. 

Wingham, on the North Coast railway line, is 
surrounded by lucerne and maize. Like most 



THE NORTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



215 



places of any or doubtful importance throughout 
the Commonwealth, these northern townships 
have their green parks and recreation grounds 
where the "melancholy Australian" finds excuse 
for gathering in quest of amusement. 

At Wingham, although it was September, we 
found the night air frosty. We rose with the 
sun to complete the last stages of a long journey. 
Our way had been over dusty roads where bul- 
lock teams were hauling logs to many mills. 
Across clear creeks and over shining rivers, 
through glades of palms and forests of hard- 
wood, by farm, orchard, and township for many 
hundreds of miles we had seen nothing but 
natural beauty, permanent fertility and genera! 
prosperity. 

Only one thing might be said of this great 
North Coast — it was not carrying enough people 
— and that can be said of Australia generally. 

I looked across in the clear morning light to 
the blue peaks of the Great Dividing Range, — 
which I had crossed some weeks before as a low 
range of hills between Townsville and Cloncurry. 
They were the birthplace of many a river that 
finds an outlet in the Eastern Pacific between 
Cape Bowling Green and Hobson's Bay. 

Through some mountain gap out yonder, this 
clear fast-flowing Manning River, too, came down 
to water the rich lands of Wingham and Taree 
and all the little towns and settlements that are 
growing along its fertile banks. 

We travelled by a winding river road some 15 
miles into picturesque hills and found that we had 



taken a track which led to Armidale, impassable 
for cars beyond the point where we made our 
discovery. 

Albeit we got a late breakfast of cheese and 
biscuits, the mistake was worth while, for the 
road, as far as we followed it, led us by river 
reaches and jungles and shining hills full of the 
morning's glory. 

We got back on the main highway to Glou- 
cester, which took us over more hills, and through 
pretty valleys, by citrus orchards, dairy farms 
and scrub and forest to Stroud, where this parti- 
cular journey ended. 

Stroud is another "old colonial" village, which 
the builders of the new railway left five miles 
from a station, as if they loathed to disturb that 
colonial air which it wears so happily. 

It seems a pity to modernize places like these, 
and yet the utilitarian eye perceives how such 
country can be made far more productive than it 
is now. Scientific fruit-growing, the cultivation 
of lucerne, irrigation, intensive farming, — the 
land cries out for these things — and it will not 
always cry in vain. 

At Stroud we finished a car journey of 600 
miles through the North Coast District of New 
South Wales, a journey which lay all the time 
over a demesne of intense fertility blessed by con- 
stant good seasons, abundant rainfall and a 
benign climate. 

This Arcadia is capable of supporting a hun- 
dred times its present population, and yielding 
a hundred times its present wealth. 




On the Manning, near Wingham 




53 
O 



2l6 



(217) 



THE SOUTH COAST. 



IF you would behold fertility allied to great 
beauty, if you are interested in Earlier Aus- 
tralia, if you are a lover of mountain, 
meadow, river and sea, of green pasture lands, of 
subtropical vegetation, pack your portmanteau, 
provide yourself with rod, gun, and camera, and 
go for a long holiday down the Southern Coast of 
New South Wales. 

The manner of your journey rests with your- 
self. The roads are good, the inns comfortable; 
you may motor if you can afford it. You may 
drive, or bike, or travel by train. If you are of 
strenuous habit, you may walk and send your pack 
by the railway, but the true pedestrian's pack is 
mostly carried on his back. 

Many years ago the writer, with an artist 
friend, packed an outfit into a village cart, and 
essayed to drive from Prospect to Eden. Later 
experience gained in driving a light caravan from 
Parramatta to Townsville convinced him that the 
village cart is a most unsuitable vehicle for an 
expedition of this kind. 

The artist was Arthur Frederics, who drew the 
pictures for Jerome K. Jerome's ever popular 
book, "Three Men in a Boat." He claimed 
"Montmorenci," the dog of that famous work as 
his very own, and did not fail to draw — invidious 
comparisons between him and our dog. 

But Frederics admitted that house-boating on 
the Thames was pale sport beside village-carting 
over the Bulli Pass without a brake. 

Eighteen years of sunlight and shadow have 
come and gone since we undertook that memor- 
able journey. Frederics went back to London at 
the finish — he had been anxious for an experience 
of the Bush before he left Australia — but its plea- 
sant memories are with me yet. 

Of my patient and industrious travelling com- 
panion I have heard nothing for many years, but 
if Time has spared him, and he should chance to 
read this, I know that from his cosy corner in 
the Savage Club he, too, will look back upon those 
days in Illawarra with no regret. 

The joint resolutions which we made to write 
and limn a Delightful Book have faded Into 
that over-populated Limbo where the ghosts of 
good literary and artistic resolutions are laid. 

Our journey — which we had plotted for weeks 
with the enthusiasm somewhat of youth — began 
with a series of accidents. 




Seal Bocks Lighthouse 



I was to have met Frederics at Campbelltown. 
We had arranged that he should catch the morn- 
ing train, and by making a daylight start from 
Bossley Park I reckoned to be there before him. 

At that time my plant included an old black 
carriage horse, which had belonged to an under- 
taker, and was therefore regarded as sedate, 
reliable, and suitable for a journey of the kind. 
A horse with a serious upbringing, slow of habit, 
could be expected to breech a heavily-laden trap 
down steep pinches without brakes, and remain 
around a camp at night. 

That and a steady day's pull were all that we 
required. I turned this supposed valuable ad- 
junct to a quiet driving tour out to grass when 
the expedition was first arranged. The last 
week I brought him in and had him hardened with 
good Central Cumberland maize, grown in my 
own paddock — full of nutriment and free of 
weevils. 

No horse ever had more considerate prepara- 
tion for a holiday. 

Before dawn on the appointed day I packed the 
cart with provisions, tent, fly, aVe, ammunition, 



4i8 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



fishing lines, and all the paraphernalia of camp- 
ing out. 

I departed just as "dawn's left hand was in the 
sky," and made the first three miles with all the 
joy of- an excursion in my blood. 

It was one of those glorious summer mornings 
that we get in sunny New South Wales, and the 
little orchards and vineyards along the Lans- 
downe Road were gemmed with dew. 

At the foot of Cecil Hills there was a culvert. 
To my intense surprise the staid, respectable 
funeral animal that I was gaily driving stopped 
dead and refused to budge. 

Nothing annoys like a "collar proud" horse. I 
laid the whip across his unregenerate loins, and 
he responded by kicking the dash-board in. 

If one's maiden aunt had suddenly invited a 
bishop to a boxing contest, one's astonishment 
could not be greater than was mine. 

The rest is too disgraceful to be detailed even 
after a long lapse of time. The black horse posi- 
tively refused to move except in circles. He 
wound up a most uncouth gymnastic display by 
backing the village cart and its contents into the 
drain. 

Time softens the harshest asperities of life. I 
like to believe now that a sense of propriety, born 
of the serious avocation which the animal had fol- 
lowed for so many previous years, militated 
against his being an accessory to what promised 
to be an entirely secular holiday. 

But neither Australian resource nor German 
philosophy are proof against a horse finally 
determined to jib. 

I might have consoled myself with a 
Schopenhauerean deduction that because all know- 
ledge Is relative neither of us had any actual 
existence — but that conclusion would not get the 
cart to Campbelltown. 

So I threw myself on the mercy of a small 
farmer near-by, who availed himself of my neces- 
sity by charging me a sovereign to drive me 
with his own plough horse the remaining two 
miles to Liverpool, where I promptly wired to 
the unsuspecting artist to get off the Southern 
train. 

We secured some of his baggage, and the rest 
went on to Campbelltown, accompanied by an 
irate conductor and an engineer who wanted to 
know what his train was being delayed for. 

After a consultation of war at the nearest hotel 
we determined to hire a horse somewhere, and 
went out looking for one. 

Liverpool is a quaint and ancient town which 
still clings to the leisurely traditions of Governor 
Macquarie's period. 

On the banks of George's River it has dozed 
for a hundred years, and it resents all haste. 



Nevertheless, In time we found an enterprising 
baker, who agreed to hire us a horse for the 
modest sum of two shillings a day. 

I offered to exchange him the black horse and 
give him a pound to boot, but he would not trade. 
We pulled out of Liverpool about midday 
with the baker's mare, who adapted herself to the 
village cart with refreshing docility; and so 
began one of life's happiest journeys. 

At a shady creek on the old Southern Road we 
outspanned for lunch. The clouds of threatened 
disappointment were dispelled under a blue sky, 
and we jogged away light-heartedly along the red 
road that goes over hill and dale through Ingle- 
burn and MInto to historic Campbelltown. 

That night we pitched our tent in a clump of 
forest oak by the village of Appln. The grilled 
chops, cooked bushman-fashlon on the coals, the 
billy tea, the little sundries of an open-air meal, 
and, above all, the pipes of aromatic tobacco 
smoked under the stars — the gipsy pleasures, 
which are free to everybody in this glorious 
country of ours, sent us to our rugs and blankets 
in a mood of tired contentment. 

To waken refreshed after a long sleep, and 
hear the sounds of the Bush around you, to splash 
into a clear creek for your morning bath, and 
then to fall with good healthy appetite upon your 
open-air breakfast — these are among the delights 
of the Open Road. 

One advantage of jogging along with your own 
cart or caravan, is that you are bound by neither 
time nor convention. You can make your day's 
journey one mile or twenty, as it pleases you. 

On the south side of Appln the road crosses 
over a creek by a wooden bridge. 

A little flat of green grass, shade, and clear 
running water, issued such a pleasant invitation 
that we pulled in for lunch. 

Afterwards we lounged in the shade, smoking 
and listening to the cicadas shrilling their eternal 
love-songs through the forest. From midday 
till half-past four — unable, perhaps unwilling, to 
shake off the exquisite laziness of a hot summer's 
afternoon — two care-free travellers, a chestnut 
mare, and a black dog watched the sun's decline 
through sleepy eyelids. 

Then the travellers decided that it was too late 
to go any further that day — rest after effort, or 
before it, is a fine thing; the South Coast was 
always there; one day did not matter. 

The artist made a fine pretence of taking pencil 
notes of surrounding vegetation with sunset 
effects. 

We camped under the bridge, as it looked like 
rain. Some belated horseman thundering over- 
head about midnight, wakened the artist out of a 
profound slumber. He seized the tomahawk 
and prepared to defend his unfinished sketches at 



THE SOUTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

Otherwise the bridge made 
for one night's lodging at 



219 



the cost of his life, 
a quiet open-air inn 
least. 

The next night we camped on the BuUi Pass, 
with Illawarra, like the Promised Land, spread 
out below us. We got to the Lookout while it 
was yet early in the day, pitched our tent and 
watched the changing sunset lights across a still 
and beautiful Illawarra, as we ate our evening 
meal. Then the moon rose out of the waters 
to the eastward, and flooded mountain and coast- 
land with silver. 

Twinkling lights of Bulli and Corrimal and 
Wollongong lay far below us; the air was sweet 
with the scent of mountain musk. It was a 
memorable camp. 

A steep macadamised road goes down the Bulli 
Pass. It has been cut along the edge of the 
mountain wall, holds several sharp turns, and must 
be negotiated at a reasonable pace. 

Between the tree ferns, vines and palms one 
gets enchanting vistas of a beautiful hilly jungle 
falling away towards the sea, with bits of beach 
and meadow in the southern corners of the pic- 
ture. 

Frederics acted as a brake by holding on behind 
as I led the horse down the steeper pinches. 

We stopped at every bend in the road to wipe 
the perspiration from our faces and admire the 
view. 

Half-way down the mountain there is a cold 
spring bubbling up out of the rock alongside the 
road. It is surrounded by ferns and green 
damp moss. We had a smoke there. 

Further on is a giant fig tree. We took the mare 
out and let her graze on a patch of rich buffalo 
grass, while we inspected this ancient banyan, one 
of the most beautiful trees in Australia. 

The jungle was cool and shady. Staghorns, 
pheasants' nests, orchids, and climbing ferns 
decorated the boles of the trees; the ground was 
carpeted with luxuriant maiden-hair fern, mosses, 
and leaves. There were avenues of tree ferns, 
cabbage palms, and bangalows, and a running 
creek. 

It was a good place to fool about in during the 
heat of the day. To get a correct perspective of 
the Illawarra one must not be in a hurry. These 
sixty miles of country between Coal Cliff and 
Shoalhaven are worth lingering over. 

At Bulli we found an excellent hotel. Here is 
an Australian coal town, but it presents little of 
the ugliness associated with coal mining in other 
parts of the world. 

There are plenty of green fields and gardens, 
and by its surroundings Bulli hiight be classed 
more as an agricultural than a mining centre. 

As far back as 1863 the coal measures were 
tapped here. The output is of the highest quality, 



and the southern fields, which are being worked 
at various points, cover an enormous area. Dur- 
mg the last few years many important industrial 
works have been established at different Illawarra 
centres; great harbor improvements have been 
effected and a considerable influx of population 
has taken place. 

With rich volcanic soils, and still more valuable 
coal beds, this beautiful Illawarra, long known 




Water Trees, South Coast 

as the "garden of New South Wales," is becom- 
ing one of the State's best mining, agricultural and 
manufacturing belts. 

Between Sydney and Nowra, for 92 miles the 
railway traverses a green idyllic coastland. Be- 
yond that the visitor finds another South Coast 
district readily accessible by motor car and coach, 
which will yield him rich treasures of sport and 
scenery if these be within his quest. 

Towards this Southland we set out from Bulli 
in due course, trotting cheerfully along a good 
hard road through the villages of Woonona and 



220 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Bellambi, where the coal miners' youngsters 
grinned cheerfully at us as we passed by their 
cottages. 

In the distance westward stood Mounts Kembla 
and Keira, and, often through the forest trees that 
overhung the roadway we caught glimpses of the 
Pacific, never bluer than along this coast of palm 
and vine. 

The old colonial town of Wollongong, natural 
capital of Illawarra, gleamed before us, with the 
Tom Thumb Lagoon shining on its southern 
margins. Here Matthew Flinders landed on his 
courageous voyage down the coast, and from his 
little cockle-shell the lagoon got its name. 

Once it was the haunt of wildfowl; as once the 
rushy flats beyond it towards Dapto were the 
haunts of quail. Even now one gets good shoot- 
ing along this coast, and fishing grounds are 
everywhere from Gabo to the Tweed. 

That night we slept at a farm at Spring Hill — 
full of youthful memories for one of the party. 
At old Spring Hill, emancipated from school, and 
later from a dull commercial office in Sydney, he 
would tick off each day of vacation or holiday 
with a sigh of regret. 

Spring Hill was in sooth a paradise for youth. 
Those memorable days were spent in fishing at 
the mouth of the Thumb, tramping up quail on 
the rushy flats, waiting at dusk for wild duck in 
the swamps, watching the fig trees for flock 
pigeons, riding across to Kembla and Keira, 
camping by Lake Illawarra, indulging to the full 
the glorious activities of youth. 

Many a black-backed flathead tautened a wait- 
ing line, many a stone plover rose through the 
tea-tree and fell, and many a plump brown quail 
went into the bag in those golden days. It is 
well for a man to carry memories of such days 
with him from youth to age. Their brightness 
makes amends for amber-colored days which 
closed in grey twilights of regret. . . 

Driving by the margin of Lake Illawarra, we 
saw next day the Five Islands lying off the land, 
and thought again of Matthew Flinders pluckily 
navigating his little row-boat over new and un- 
charted seas. 

Through the picturesque village of Dapto 
trotted the baker's chestnut mare. It was clear 
and cloudless weather, with cool sea-breezes to 
freshen the nights. 

We had left the coal country behind, and were 
journeying now In leisurely stages through dairy 
districts, which follow -the coast to Eden in the 
South. Lush lands these, growing clover, maize, 
and lucerne; well-watered with rippling creeks, 
by whose banks grow weeping willows and green, 
scented lilies with unassuming flowers that throw 
out an unexpected snare of perfume upon a scene 
where any dreaming poet might find Inspiration 
for his Epicurean muse. 



One English artist had already been convinced 
that Australia was not a land "where bright blos- 
soms are scentless, and songless bright birds." 
He had at least inhaled the subtle fragrance of 
the scented lily, and heard the blue-cap sing. 

From Albion Park we might have taken the 
road over the Macquarie Pass to Moss Vale, and 
enjoyed some of the finest scenery in picturesque 
New South Wales; but a different itinerary lay 
before us. 

At Shellharbor we rested and lunched, enjoy- 
ing the greenness and blueness of this delightful 
seaside village. 

At Minnamurra River we outspanned and went 
a-fishlng. For a summer holiday along this coast, 
take a good rod, an ample kit of lines, from silk 
twist to stout snapper, a variety of hooks (fly 
hook and shark hooks as well), spinners, catgut, 
and flies. An eminent authority asks — 

What is he doing, the great god Pan, 
Down in the reeds by the river? 

Making a Poet out of a Man, 
Down in the reeds by the river ! 

Any acknowledged god in the mythology might 
be competent to make a poet, out of a man, but 
the question of making a fisherman out of the 
average citizen is quite another matter. 

There are a limited number of people born to 
be "compleat anglers," and the great majority 
must be content to be mere amateurs. 

Anyone can catch fish, when fish are biting, but 
the inspired fisherman Is he who can coax fish to 
his line when they are diffident or shy. He must, 
above all things, learn the mysteries of bait — 
which entails an understanding also of the habits 
of the finned divisions. Once he has mastered 
this, the rest will be with his patience, foresight 
and skill. 

The wise fisherman will never be disappointed 
along the South Coast. 

These points we discussed in subdued tones on 
a sedgy bank while a making tide brought in the 
feeding fish. 

We talked of all the fish we might catch along 
the South Coast, from sand mullet In the lagoons 
to whales at Twofold Bay; of beach fishing for 
whiting with longest hand-lines; of rock fishing 
for groper and cod; of the sea salmon which 
came up coast in myriads at certain seasons, and 
are caught by many an enthusiastic beach fisher- 
man and wasted; of red bream, squire, and 
schnapper, so plentiful on the reefs off shore; of 
the tunny, which is found at Montague Island; of 
purple scaled jew-fishes running up to a hundred 
pounds weight; of cunning black bream; hungry 
flathead which can best be attracted by a moving 
bait; of mullet amenable to dough, and garfish, 
surface swimmers which bite freely on occasions, 



THE SOUTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



221 





Dairying at Coolangatta 



i 



and all the various finned denizens of seas, 
estuaries, deeps, shallows, creeks, lagoons and 
rivers which we would land in wriggling multi- 
tudes before our trip was done. Imagination is a 
fine thing, and useful to a fisherman. 

Later on, with the camp fry-pan sizzling over 
red coals, and our catch of whiting and flathead 
cleanly scaled and washed in salt water before us. 
we agreed that the life of the open is the real 
thing, and that the pale habits of cities were only 
ghosts of pleasure beside its flesh-and-blood reali- 
ties. There were mosquitoes at Minnamurra, 
but we anointed our faces and hands with citron- 
ella, made a smoke at night and promised to fix 
up the mosquito-net when we camped next time. 

It is a lovely bit of road between Shellharbor 
and Kiama. The railway cuttings show the 
basaltic nature of the country. In fact, Sydney 
draws a large proportion of its bluemetal from 
the famous quarries of Kiama. 

Like all our volcanic soils, Illawarra, Cambe- 
warra and Shoalhaven are perennially fertile and 
eminently adapted for dairy farming, and Kiama, 
a little over 70 miles from the metropolis, has 
long been a prosperous place. 

The Blowhole, a subterranean syphon, which, 
in rough weather, dashes clouds of spray a great 
height into the air, has always been a popular 
attraction; but the clean little town itself, built 
along the edge of its bar harbor, and over the 
adjoining hills, facing the Pacific on one side, with 
the Saddleback Mountain behind it, and sur- 
rounded by its fertile district, is a holiday-maker's 
haven. 



From here visitors can readily reach Jamberoo, 
one of the loveliest valleys in the world; where 
they will see rural Australia in all its poetic fer- 
tility, and quiet peace — an Australia as different 
from that drought-stricken country so lovingly 
depicted by ignorant traducers, as the downs of 
Devon differ from the desert of Gobi. 

Six miles south of Kiama is Gerringong, a 
delightful little town where green meadows end 
in golden beaches. One comes away from 
Gerringong with an impression of sea breezes, 
sweetened by clover, rustling the leaves of tall 
cabbage palms, standing in fields of burning 
green. Purple hills lost in hazy distances, 
emerald slopes rolling down to meet the sea, sil- 
ver creeks changing now and then to pools 
bordered by flowering meads, and an air of pro- 
found tranquillity — that is Gerringong. 

Berry, seven miles further south, wears a face 
of greater activity. It is the centre of the far- 
famed Coolangatta Estate, much of which has 
been sub-divided and sold as small dairy farms. 

With beautiful country in between dotted all 
over by dairy farms, Nowra follows Berry along 
this southern littoral. Here, on the north bank 
of the Shoalhaven River, the railway ends. 

Nowra, the capital of Shoalhaven, is a centre 
from which a wide area of picturesque New South 
Wales can be explored. 

The road across Cambewarra Pass, like most 
of the passes along the Coast Range, is through 
a glory of palms, tree-ferns, and jungle growth. 

The lookout near the turn-off to Kangaroo 
Valley claimed us for a day. We saw the 




Ironbark Tree, Nowia 



222 



THE SOUTH COAST OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



223 



green Shoalhaven — spread below us like a great 
map — through all its variations of light and 
color, during the changing hours. Again the air 
was laden with mountain musk, and the whip-bird 
and his mate between them made the jungle echo 
with the sudden musical cracking of stock-whips. 

This Cambewarra lookout gives you one of the 
most beautiful panoramic views in the States. 

You see Berry in its green squares far away, 
with Broughton Creek winding like a silver eel 
out to sea. Beyond it Shellharbor and Gerrin- 
gong and Kiama. Below, reduced to miniature 
by distance, you can pick out Greenwell Point, 
Crookhaven and the broader waters of Jervis 
Bay. Behind you are the purple mountains, 
their slopes alternating with clearing and forest 
from which the Shoalhaven unwinds its 250 miles 
of ever-widening silver ribbon, until you catch 
the glitter of its tidal reaches by Nowra. The 
upper course of the Shoalhaven lies within a wild 
romantic land. Rising in the Jingera ranges, be- 
tween Braidwood and Cooma, the young river 
winds through majestic gorges, its banks be- 
ing sometimes cliffs 1,500 feet high; it sweeps 
through lonely valleys, precipitates itself over 
rocky heights, hides its clear pools under masses 



of sub-tropical vegetation, and comes down at 
last to fertilize those green flats which gleam 
between the foothills and the sea. 

South from Nowra the road enters a forest 
which has yielded much good hardwood. 

Fifteen miles' jogging brought us to Jervis Bay, 
now the site of the Royal Naval College, and 
which will be the port for the Federal capital at 
Canberra. 

Here we caught good red snapper and had 
some fair shooting. At St. George's Basin, a 
few miles south of the Bay, we found a great 
shallow saltwater haven with tidal creeks and 
abundant sport. 

By the shores of this romantic basin we made 
more permanent camp and reluctantly spent our 
last days together, for my mate was bound to 
catch his English steamer, and I had to take the 
outfit home to Prospect. 

Southward across the inlet were the blue hills 
of Wandandian and beyond them, southward still, 
the fertile districts of Milton and Ulladulla, but 
for the present they would have to call in vain. 
Not without regret the baker's mare was headed 
back to Nowra, where the artist caught the train 
to town, and the writer fished and hunted his way 
home again. 




Eden 



224 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Pyrmont Bridge 



OUT WEST. 



THE Railway Depot at Sydney is ablaze with 
electric lights. Its author, the late Hon. 
E. W. O'SulIivan, then Minister for Pub- 
lic Works, intended that it should be the biggest 
railway station in the world. His prophetic 
eye surveyed the Future, and beheld the Mother 
State as she is destined to become. He fore- 
saw that for many years the expanding railway 
traffic of a country bigger than Germany was 
likely to converge on Sydney, and endeavoured to 
provide for its expansion. 

The result is a surprise to the most travelled 
stranger when he drops out of his sumptuous 
overland car and stands for the first time under 
the great arched roof of this mammoth depot. 

All day and all night there is a constant coming 
in and going out of trains at the long platforms, 
a hurrying of crowds, a continuous procession of 
passengers past the ticket windows and through 
the gates. 

Electric cars bring in their loads of people, 
drop them in the stone vestibule, pick up other 
loads of people and rush away to the city again. 
From other car systems incoming suburban tra- 
vellers alight. Their vacant seats are eagerly 



filled by outgoing passengers, and so the perpe- 
tual flow of humanity goes on. 

Taxis, hansoms, motors, glide or rattle along 
to the receiving platforms, drop passengers and 
luggage and glide or rattle off with fresh fares. 

Uniformed police keep order, uniformed rail- 
way servants attend to the requirements of the 
travelling public — everything spells organization 
and efficiency. 

We are taking the reader upon another jour- 
ney. We will travel West to-night over the 
mountains and out across the plains to the present 
rail-head at Condobolin, on the Lachlan River, 
over Oxley's "morass" and Sturt's "desert," and 
various other landmarks of the earliest explorers. 
We will find the "deserts" growing wheat, and 
the "morasses" producing wool. We will see 
with our own eyes how superficial and wrong 
some of these earliest explorers were in their 
conclusions. 

All New South Wales night trains are provided 
with comfortable sleeping carriages. Before we 
turn in, a polite car porter comes round with his 
card and lists the names of passengers who desire 
tea and toast at 6 a.m. next morning. 



NEW SOUTH WALES: OUT WEST 



225 



Our car companions are mostly Western men 
— sheep men and wheat farmers, you can tell 
them by their height and build — some commer- 
cials, "drummers" as our American friends call 
them, and a party of officials from the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture who are going out with their 
Minister to open a Government Experimental 
Farm at Condobolin. 

The Minister had been a Western farmer him- 
self, and the champion ploughman of his district, 
before he left the furrow for the forum. Being 



New South Wales. Uncleared ridges are 
crowded with dark symmetrical cypress pines 
( Callitris ) . 

This beautiful tree is botanically believed to 
be the oldest living representative of its order. 
It has a widespread range, is generally accepted 
as a sure guide to good wheat-growing soils, and 
produces timber, bark, oil and sandarac. White 
ants will not attack its wood, consequently it is 
invaluable for building purposes in districts in- 
fested by termites. 




Tumut 



what the newspaper men call "a whale for work, 
he occupies the early hours of the evening dictat- 
ing correspondence to his secretary in a compart- 
ment reserved for the journey. 

The Western mail glides away from the 
crowded depot, and picks out her own track m 
some marvellous way from a complicated net- 
work of gleaming rails. Gaslit suburbs go by, 
with longer and longer intervals of darkness 
between them ; Parramatta is passed, and our big 
Baldwin engine, with its fiery trail of carriages, 
begins to bore heavily into the night. 

We rumble away by moonlit St. Mary's, roar 
across the Nepean bridge at Penrith, and start 
with grinding wheels and snorting funnel to attack 
Blue Mountain grades. . . • 

The car conductor, with cheerful "Good morn- 
ings," is handing round tea and toast. We arc 
rolling over the sunlit wheat lands of western 



It is a curious fact that the cypress pine secretes 
manganese. Bertrand, the French agricultural- 
chemist, applied manganese sulphate, at the rate 
of 50 kilos per hectare, to land on which wheat 
was sown, and obtained an increase in the total 
crop of 22 .5 per cent. 

Another experimenter, Katayama, of Japan, 
has shown that manganese has a stimulating effect 
on oats, barley, rice, and cereals generally. 
Using manganese sulphate to the soil in the pro- 
portion of 0.015 per cent., Katayama found the 
increase was 50 per cent, in the yield of straw 
and 24 per cent, in seed. 

The chemical relations between Australian 
cypress pine and wheat are herein established: 
which supplies one reason for the fact that where 
cypress pine grows well, wheat will also grow 
well. 



226 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



A reference to Messrs. Baker and Smith's work 
on Australian Conifers shows that the habitat of 
the cypress pines, white and black, comprises the 
greater part of Western New South Wales — 
outside of the Black Soil Plains ! 

The traveller, inhaling the smoke of burning 
cypress pine, so typical and. reminiscent of the 
back country, may accept it as an incense to Ceres, 
ascending from many a woodland altar in the 
West. 



another leaf in the Gospel of Work, will tread 
down the grass which their predecessors have 
cheerfully permitted to grow under their feet. 

Already the New is overgrowing the Old. An 
extension of the wheat areas of the Central 
Division is rapidly going on. At present 2,560 
acre blocks are regarded as good living areas in 
this division. If a farmer gets all that is pos- 
sible to get off 2,560 acres, he will have nothing 
to complain of. 




An Orchard at Wagga 



As the train pulls up at wayside stations, this 
pleasant odour of pine is wafted through the car- 
riage windows from the settlers' chimneys. 

Australian settlement may be divided into 
four successive periods: — cattle, sheep, 
WHEAT, LUCERNE. Thirty-five years ago 
the West was cattle land, to-day the West is 
nearly all sheep and wheat. But the Director 
of Agriculture says, with a confident smile, that 
lucerne is going to thrive in places where its cul- 
tivation is still regarded as impossible. 

On its way down to Condobolin, our train pulls 
up at Parkes for breakfast. This is an old 
Western mining township with some history. 

Like Castlemaine and similar places in Vic- 
toria, it is tired and leisurely and lives largely on 
the traditions of more vigorous days. The gen- 
eration that saw the gold rushes and their easy- 
going methods is not yet dead. 

By and bye a younger generation, filled with 
modern energy and ideas, which has turned over 



So rapid has been the increase in production 
that the railways have experienced great diffi- 
culties in providing transport, but the Govern- 
ment is now coming to the aid of the farmer, and 
will shortly install bulk storage on American 
models. 

With ten million acres of good wheat lands 
available in one belt, the Government of New 
South Wales has wisely seen that adequate pro- 
vision must be made for dealing with the enor- 
mous production of the future. 

The Westerner considers that it does not pay 
to haul wheat more than 15 miles to a railway. 
Motor traction may extend this payable radius 
another five to twenty-five miles, but even then 
much railway building and extension will be neces- 
sary. But, as we have seen elsewhere, money 
expended in this direction will be the soundest 
of national investments. 

Through flat "box" forest, interspersed with, 
cypress pine and graceful evergreen wilgas, we 



NEW SOUTH WALES: OUT WEST 



227 



approach the Lachlan. Underneath the wilga 
on the sunniest day there is a patch of dense black 
shade. In time, Westerners will cultivate instead 
cf cutting down their beautiful native trees. 

As we roll across a level landscape our 
thoughts — like the white butterflies which breed 



Poverty in Central New South Wales would 
be as hard to find as snow in Tophet; so every- 
body can come out well-dressed, well-fed, well- 
mounted. 

After lunch a procession of motor cars, buggies, 
coaches, sulkies, and horsemen, with the Minister 



in the "warrior bushes" out here and drift all ^"d Mayor ahead, starts away towards the site of 

over the country — go drifting to and fro. In '^he farm. 

fancy we can look beyond the present, and dimly The Farm is on the far outskirts of the town, 

see a future full of greater activities. All that I" 'ts virgin state it is flat, dull, uninteresting-look- 

these wide western districts need is railways and i_"g; but, as our friend, Mr. Valder, the 



a wise settlement policy. There is room in the 
Central Division for millions of people. Be- 
tween the Macintyre and the Murray what untold 
possibilities await development. There are 
56,000,000 acres in this Central Division. 

From the Black Soil Plains of the far North- 
West to the red lands of Corowa in the South, it 
forms the heart of the State. The railway 
crosses Its entire width only twice — from Werris 
Creek across to Walgett, and from Dubbo, on 
the way to Bourke. 

Lines with great Australian distances between 
them have been pushed out some of the way. 
Narrabri to Moree (this line is in course of 
extension to Mungindi on the Queensland 
border), Burren Junction to Collarenebri, 
Dubbo to Coonamble, Parkes to Condobolin, 
Temora to Wyalong and Barellan, Narromine to 
Peak Hill, Junee to Narrandera, Hay, and Beri- 
rigan, Wagga to Lockhart and Urana, Koora- 
watha to Grenfell, these cross lines all cut into 
the Central Division, but there will be many a 
loop and extension before the whole country is 
adequately rall-roaded. With a progressive 
Government in Sydney these things will be done 
quickly. Railways will be constructed where 
they are justifiable, lands thrown open for settle- 
ment, and every assistance and encouragement 
afforded to settlers. 

Beyond the Central Division lies the Western 
Division with all its splendid story yet unwritten, 
and before the Central Division stands the East- 
ern Division — 62 million acres — with coasts and 
ranges and plains holding countless riches yet 
unwon. 

We arrive at Condobolin in time for lunch, 
a Western lunch, in which roast turkey Is a staple 
dish. 

The district Is alive to the Ministerial visit. 
It has the usual deputations waiting with the 
usual budget of requirements; but, before all 
things, it will be sociable and hospitable. Whe- 
ther the Minister grants any or all of Its requests 



Under-Secretary and Director of Agricul- 
ture, will explain to you, the sites for 



■^:.. 






m : 






Bloodwood Trees 



Government Demonstration Farms are not 
chosen lor their scenic beauty. They are in- 
tended to demonstrate, for the benefit of the 
general public, what the soils and climates of 
particular districts are capable of producing 
under correct treatments. 

It is the business of the farm management to 
discover correct local data, and work for the best 
results. If a farm proves that certain soil, re- 
garded perhaps as poor or useless, will grow 
some particular thing to profit, then the farm is 
fulfilling its object. 



There are several of these farms in New South 
it is gomg to give him a banquet at night, fol- Wales, and the service they have rendered to the 
lowed by a dance and social. An "expectancy" State cannot be over-estimated, 
which is anything but "weird," hangs over this , The Minister for Agriculture, after turning 
part of the Bush. "'^he first furrow, mounts a motor lorry, and tells 



228 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Qood Wheat Land 



the assemblage some of these things. He points 
out to them that, as district settlers, the new 
station will directly benefit them: for that reason 
they should do all they can to make it a success. 
He invites farmers who are anxious to make ex- 
periments, and farmers who are in difficulties, to 
wait upon the manager of the Farm, whose 
function It will be to make their troubles his own. 
He predicts a great agricultural future for the 
Lachlan, and assures them of his Government's 
sympathy in their pioneer efforts. 

All of which is distinctly pleasing and illus- 
trates the better side of democratic government. 

The Director of Agriculture follows. Hespeaks 
to the farmers in a hopeful, encouraging way, 
urges them to avail themselves of the knowledge 
which the department has gradually acquired in 
its continual experiments with Australian seeds 
and soils and stocks, and hints of future possi- 
bilities. The Director is an optimist because he 
knows that, although agricultural production is 
only in its infancy out here, the West will write 
history in this direction during the next 50 years. 
He knows that the great State, of which he is a 
modest but capable and highly important official, 
is increasing her output by millions of pounds 
every decade; that within a few years lands which 
were once regarded as next door to worthless, 
will be worth ten and twenty pounds an acre : 
that in the ordinary course of human events 
steady workers and wise investors need fear no 
failure in New South Wales. Having seen how 
the State Government looks after the interests of 



farmers, we rejoin the dusty procession going 
back to town. 

While the Ministerial party is preparing for 
the evening function, we will look around a young 
city, which the author dimly remembers forty 
years ago as a rendezvous for native tribes at 
tomahawk and blanket time, and an outpost of 
law and order. 

Here was the old bush school where he first 
imbibed the rudiments. A duststorm came along 
one day and blew the roof over the playground. 

Here is the Lachlan, wherein a playmate was 
drowned one sad summer's morning long ago. 
The historic Lachlan, flowing very slowly between 
high banks, winds across rich pasture lands. The 
shadows of the red gums are mirrored with photo- 
graphic reality in its clear quiet waters. 

The river seems to have shrunken since the 
eyes of a bush child, long years ago, watched its 
shadows while his elders fished for "cod " 
in the deep holes. A youth looking for green 
frogs on the bank says that the fish are just as 
partial to that particular bait as ever. 

The so-called Lachlan "cod" is of fine flavour, 
one of the best fresh-water fishes in the world. 
So plentiful in those early days were these huge 
Murray perch that the people of Condobolin fed 
their pigs on the surplus. 

There are a few wistful-looking blacks left out 
of the tribes who used to assemble here for their 
Government blankets and tomahawks when the 
writer knew Condobolin. 



NEW SOUTH WALES: OUT WEST 



229 



The town has a municipal water supply now. 
In our time the house blackfellow brought the 
daily drinking water from the river in two 
buckets, swung from a yoke on his shoulders. 

A kerosene lamp outside a rough public-house, 
a dusty road with perhaps a dozen dwellings, 
police station and court-house — that was the Con- 
dobolin of memory. In this Condobolin the 
hotels are electric-lighted, the dusty road is a fine, 
broad main street, with asphalt pavements, and 
all the old landmarks are submerged under waves 
of progress. 

The future of Lachlan-side is certain. Nearly 
every acre of the Middle West will grow wheat 
to pay. Much of it will produce lucerne and 
other profitable crops. Crosscountry railway 
lines will come in time, population will come, pro- 
gress, civilization, prosperity, cities, towns, vil- 
lages, farms, homes, gardens, factories, industries 
— they will all be part of the future of the West. 
The type will improve under climate and condi- 
tions eminently suitable for the physical and men- 
tal development of Europeans. 

These new countries want the best that Europe 
has to spare; but they have proved their value in 
converting some of the worst into some of the 
best. There is something expansive in the very 
air of our glorious Commonwealth that makes 
for the highest physical and mental development 
possible to the European races. 

To-night a representative of the Government 
and his party are to receive the hospitality of the 
West. See how these "melancholy" Austra- 
lians rise to the occasion ! Observe the 
banquet tables laid out on the long balcony of the 
hotel, which has been screened off from the street, 
and decorated with flowers and greenery. Such 
flowers! English roses as fine as any that grow 
in rural Britain; great red gladioli, and all the 
plunder of Western gardens- — the room is a 
blaze of colour and electric light. Gone are the 
kerosene lamps and guttering candles of youth- 
ful days. Gone are the elastic-sided boots, the 
wide-bottomed trousers, the spurs, the Crimean 
shirts, and all the pioneer crudities. Decorous- 
looking, clean-shaven citizens in evening dress 
occupy the chairs, with the Minister and Mayor 
and aldermen at the head of the table. 

The menu would reflect no discredit on a first- 
class European or American hotel. "The wild 
and woolly West" forsooth! The refined and 
luxurious West, if one prefers facts to foolish 
literary fiction. Here is the real West, here in 
this room creditably represented at a social func- 
tion which includes locally-grown asparagus and 
green peas. Here is the true West and the true 
atmosphere and sentiment of it. 

Listen to the after-dinner speeches of the local 
citizens! Are they bewailing their hard lot? 



Are they complaining of poverty or neglect, or 
drought or disaster? Decidedly not. They 
are putting forward their local requirements, 
mayhap with a little kindly satire and some dry 
humor; but through it all there is a robust spirit, 
a sturdy sense of citizenship, and a keen pride in 
their district. They honor the toast of the 
King, they drink modestly to Parliament, their 
own Parliament, and they pay the Minister and 
his Department the courtesy which is their due. 
They are not all supporters of the party in office; 
but it is a social function and political opinions 
are put aside. This is democracy in our Com- 
monwealth under the Crown. 

Glance around this table ! You have heard 
that Australians in general. Westerners in par- 
ticular, are an unsober people. No criticism was 
ever further from truth. The Minister is a total 
abstainer, his staff and ninety per cent, of the 
assemblage are the same. 

At an early hour the meeting rises steadily to 
its feet and adjourns to the social hall down 
street. In Australia women have an equal voice 
with men in the selection of Parliamentary re- 
presentatives. There is no suffragette trouble. 
The Parliaments of the Commonwealth, State 
and Federal, are left to men, but the women of 
the country help to select their lawmakers and 
their influence in politics is considered good. 

So the Minister, as a matter of course, attends 
the social and will, later on, by request, deliver a 
short address. Meanwhile, in the presence of 
robust women and handsome girls in evening 
frocks, we may gather an impression of Austra- 
lian country womanhood. The impression can- 
not be other than favorable. It will be another 
testimony to climate and conditions. These 
daughters of the West are capable and strong. 
With a well-lit hall, good music, good singing, 
and a good floor for enthusiastic dancers — the 
evening passes pleasantly. 

The concertina is relegated to the further back- 
blocks; the rude functions of the past have given 
place to a refined sociability; the Bush has taken 
on a more modern garb. Friendliness has not 
vanished, freedom is still the atmosphere, but our 
Bush world is correct, conventional, and a firm 
stickler for behaviour, sobriety, and good form. 

It is to this freedom and security and to such 
conditions and chances that Australia to-day is 
inviting citizens from Europe and America. They 
need have no fear, in bringing their women and 
children to the Australian States, that they are 
risking either health or safety. 

Australia offers present prosperity for an 
unlimited number of industrious people and con- 
tinental opportunities for coming generations. . . . 

On a cloudless, sunny morning with just a nip 
of frost in the crystal air which makes mere 



I 



230 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Old Police Station, Lake Cargeilico 



breathing a delight, we bowl out noiselessly from 
Condobolin on a four hundred mile motor run 
across the plains. 

Our road is level but not monotonous. Now 
and again it touches the bank of the Lachlan at 
one of its innumerable bends, passes through 
avenues of drooping branches, breaks out into 
the open, where the salt-bush grows; crosses im- 
mense squares of treeless plain; and enters again 
into belts of timber, where straight cypress pines 
find rootage in rich, red loam. 

The swamp-lands are covered with succulent 
herbage; dry now, but full of nutriment. We 
note that the sheep on these dry pastures are in 
excellent condition, which leads to a dissertation 
on silos and the storage of fodder, on systems 
which are going to solve some final problems of 
settlement all over the Commonwealth. 

The Minister tells how, the previous winter, he 
went a long journey into the North-West, and 
how, on Tucka Tucka Station, on the borders of 
Queensland, he saw lucerne hay which had been 
eighteen years in stack fed to stock, the animals 
accepting it with relish. 

On Sir Samuel McCaughey's station at Yanco, 
lucerne hay has kept perfectly for eight years. It 
is obvious that the losses of early days through 
unexpected variations of season will not be 
repeated in the future. Sufficient water and feed 
can readily be provided to tide over a series of 
dry years, should they occur, and the ever-profit- 
able pastoral industry will be extended far beyond 
its present limits. 



But as we leave the Lachlan above Euabalong 
and motor through the red country towards Lake 
Cargeilico, we see that the future of the Central 
West, away from its irrigation centres, will 
largely be wheat-growing, combined doubtless 
with mixed farming. 

In 1 913 New South Wales added 791,000 
acres to her wheat area, and her present progress 
indicates at least a million acres a year increase 
for some years to come. 

Lake Cargeilico is a splendid sheet of fresh 
water, capable of supporting a thriving irrigation 
settlement when the railway extension from 
Wyalong brings producers into touch with 
markets. 

It is wonderful what results have been 
achieved by industry, even at remote distances 
from transport. At Hillston the Minister re- 
ceives another deputation. Hillston asks for a 
railway through Rankin Springs to Wyalong. 
One farmer relates the experiences of 25 years 
in that district. He has been growing wheat on 
200 acres of land, and carting it 60 miles to the 
nearest railhead, and he admits that he has done 
well. 1 

He fallows his land in July, gives six workings 
to the one ground, and his average crops of wheat 
are from 15 to 18 bushels per acre. Algerian 
oats give him ten bags to the acre. 

Without doubt this wide belt will all be in- 
cluded in the profitable grain-growing areas of 
the Central Division. It is likely that the har- 
vester will give place to the stripper and power 
winnower on big farms; and there will be an 



NEW SOUTH WALES: OUT WEST 



231 



improvement of methods, which will tend to 
more economical and effective production. 

On leaving Hillston, after a night's rain, we 
turn East again. Cypress pine with occasional 
stretches of mallee, wilga, and yarran, proclaim 
that we are still travelling through wheatfields of 
the near future. The rain has made heavy 
going, and our car bogs twice in the deep red soil 
before we reach Rankin Springs. 

Here the fatted turkey again awaits us. Ran- 
kin Springs is no more than a fine stone hotel 
standing in the heart of a great box forest; where 
it was erected 20 years ago in anticipation of a 
railway line — which never came. 

The lands through which we have been plough- 
ing our way all the afternoon, the lands around 
us here, and the lands before us, right through to 
Temora, are all of one unvarying standard of fer- 
tility. 

Between Hillston and Rankin Springs we have 
found only one settler. Large sections are 
tentatively held under what are called in New 
South Wales "permissive occupancy" and "occu- 
pation licenses." 

They range from 33,000 to 128,000 acres; but 
when the railway brings closer settlement in its 
train, they will doubtless be cut up by the Govern- 
ment into 1,500 or 2,000 acre blocks, on which 
families should have no difficulty in making an 
independence. 

With the exception of the Lachlan Range, a 
low line of hills which crosses from the Lachlan 
to the Murrumbidgee, it is all good. At Rankin 
Springs, besides our turkey, basted with cream, 
we are given locally-grown figs and potatoes of 
finest quality, in earnest of the future agricultural 
wealth that lies waiting in the soil. 

In a hundred miles of journey we see but two 
habitations. From Rankin Springs to Wyalong 
we travel the best part of a day through sleeping 
lands, which need but one caressing touch from 
the hand of Progress to awake in smiling fields 
of grain. 

As we approach the railway zone towards 
Wyalong the forest opens here and there into 
wheatfields. Boarding the train at Wyalong we 
find, as we go down towards Temora, that the 
clearings become general. The country is no bet- 



ter, probably not as good, as that through which 
we have travelled for three days, but it is crossed 
by a railway; and a railway, anywhere through 
this Middle West, must bring settlement with it. 

Night finds us at Cootamundra, in the heart 
of the wheat. 

We look back over this rapidly recorded jour- 
ney, and from the long film of nature pictures 
which have flashed rapidly before us, we retain 
some enduring impressions. 

Beyond the winding river, and the long levels 
of brown flat lands; beyond the belts of cypress 
pine — standing silver grey or sombre green, — 
beyond the lakes and cowals dotted with wild- 
fowl, beyond the majestic stillness of the pregnant 
plains, one hears the ploughshares gliding 
through furrows of the future and the rattle of 
harvesters moving down ripened fields. 

For untold ages Australian seasons have come 
and gone across the awaiting West. Spring, 
mayhap, has passed in rain-wet robes of splen- 
dour and scattered grass and flowers over a thou- 
sand miles. 

Summer has followed, and interwoven her 
emerald carpets with frequent threads of gold. 

For unrecorded centuries, before the white 
men came, these priceless pastures subsisted 
mobs of marsupials only; which the black man 
hunted when hunger impelled him. Never a 
shining ploughshare bit into the red earth of the 
plains, never a gardener's spade upturned the 
black soil by the rivers' banks. 

Then came the early colonist, like an Asian 
patriarch, driving his sheep before him. The 
country was mapped out to him in wide grazing 
areas. He "squatted," improved, conserved and, 
with prudence and patience, brought the art of 
wool-growing to a perfection which it had never 
before attained. He has deserved credit and 
earned profit, and these, in all fairness, he must 
receive. Great areas of Australia will still re- 
main to him, for these areas are more suitable 
for pastoral purposes than anything else. But 
as the pressure of population increases and good 
agricultural land becomes more valuable, the wise 
freeholder will turn his country into farms. 
Meanwhile, by an active railway and settlement 
policy the Government of this Mother State is 
hastening inevitable development "out West." 



232 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




A Darling Biver Steamer 



THE WESTERN DIVISION. 



FROM WENTWORTH TO BOURKE. 



THE State of New South Wales covers an 
area of 310,367 square miles, which is 
greater than that of any European country 
except Russia. The area of Germany is only 
208,780 square miles, on which sixty-five millions 
of people exist. 

The population of New South Wales is less 
than two millions. It could probably be multi- 
plied to equal that of Germany without over- 
crowding. The natural resources of the State 
would be sufficient to sustain the increase in stan- 
dards of Australian comfort. 

For purposes of land administration New South 
Wales has been divided into three divisions — 
eastern, central and western. 

The first division extends westward from the 
coastline and includes the Great Dividing Range. 
Its inland boundary runs north to south from 
about the intersection of the 151st meridian and 
29th degree of latitude in an irregular line. It 
terminates at the Corowa district, on the Murray 
River. 

Barraba, Tamworth, Wellington, Temora, 
and Junee lie just within the E'astern Division. 
The Central Division goes back as far as Condo- 



bolin. The Western Division begins at Mun- 
gindi, follows the course of the Barwon for some 
distance, comes south to Euabalong, and takes 
along the Lachlan to the Victorian border. 
All the lands westward of this boundary line to 
the border lie within the third great division of 
the State. 

This enormous territory has for many years 
past been under the jurisdiction of a body called 
"The Western Lands Board," appointed by 
Government. 

With eighty-three millions of acres to super- 
vise, the three Board members have grown accus- 
tomed to travelling. From Milparinka at the 
north-west corner, to Euabalong — in this divi- 
sion — as the crow flies, is a distance of 350 miles, 
and the crow would cross some wonderful plains 
in its flight. 

Being yet a hinterland of New South Wales, 
held under pastoral lease, in trust for future set- 
tlers, a cursory glance over these farthest back- 
blocks will prepare us for a later consideration of 
more settled districts. 

Across the heart of the Western Division runs 
the Darling River, which, having gathered its 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



233 



waters from Queensland and northern New 
South Wales, carries them by a long winding 
channel to its junction with the Murray at Went- 
worth. 

Wentworth is one of the most interesting places 
In the Commonwealth. Here, nearly a century 
ago, the brave but pessimistic explorer, Sturt, 
was met by a painted band of black warriors and 
narrowly escaped death. 

As the meeting-place of our two longest inland 
rivers, it has a geographical importance. Sorrfe- 
times when there has been little rain in Queens- 
land, the waters of the Darling are delivered in a 
clear slow-running current. At other times they 



emu has stretched a long neck' to drink; many a 
red kangaroo has left his tracks in the mud. 

Down this long western river paddle-wheels 
of steamers have churned, towing barges behind 
them deeply laden with wool. They have gone 
up against stream with cargoes of provisions and 
supplies. 

At Wentworth, steamboat men from Echuca 
foregather with steamboat men from Bourke. At 
Wentworth, stockmen from west of the Darling 
talk horse with stockmen from Riverina. 

Twenty to thirty vears ago Wentworth was 
among the towns of Farthest Back. To-day 
modern influences are converting far-back Went- 




The Junction of the Murray and the Darling 



sweep down like a river of milk to join the clearer 
stream of the Murray, snow-fed at its birthplace 
in the Australian Alps. 

The Darling brings to Wentworth the uncer- 
tain contributions of the Warrego and Paroo from 
the far West. It has received the Culgoa, bearing 
its triljute from western Queensland, the Namoi 
with its rich solutions gathered over the Black 
Soil Plains, the occasional surface flow of a 
flooded Castlereagh, the mysterious Macquarie 
and the romantic Bogan. 

On its banks campfires of many travellers have 
been lighted. Bells of pack-horses have tinkled 
in the bends, and the yapping of sheep-dogs has 
been heard. Many a flock of pink galahs has 
been mirrored in its green waters; many a thirsty 



worth into a garden city, readily reached by rail 
from the southern seaboard. 

The country around Wentworth is flat, and to 
those who are not in sympathy with the Australian 
Bush — monotonous. The rainfall is low, averag- 
ing less than 1 1 inches a year. Out at Milparinka 
it is less than 8. But Milparinka, on the same 
meridian, is three hundred miles north, at the 
extreme corner of the Western Division. 

Wentworth enjoys an ideal winter. Mid- 
summer is decidedly hot; hot but healthy, with 
cool nights when one may sleep in the open air 
and awaken to appetite and strength. These coa- 
ditions apply generally to inland Australia. 

Send no pessimist to Wentworth, but a prophet! 
He will tell you that this place is one day to be the 



234 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



metropolis of the Darling, not the Darling of 
1916, with its millions of cubic feet of priceless 
waters going wasted to the sea, but the Darling of 
the future — locked from end to end, its silver 
ribbon fringed by green irrigated colonies as far 
apart as Pooncarie and Bourke. For, as surely 
as the brain of man has learned to harness the 
lightningandbind the genii of mechanical force as 
slaves to the Lamp of Invention, this meandering 
daughter of the Riverina is destined to bring 
wealth and fertility to thousands of Australian 
acres. 

The Government Irrigation Settlement at 
Wentworth has pointed the way. It is one of 
those finger-posts to Progress that already stand 
here and there across Southern Australia. The 
road behind them has been macadamized alter- 
nately with Failure and Success: the road ahead 
will be paved with gold. 

To the behevers in Australia's future, the story 
of the Wentworth Irrigation Settlement reads 
like a lyric. 

The late New South Wales Commissioner for 
Irrigation, L. A. B. Wade, told the Dominions 
Commissioner in 19 13 that there are 250,000 
acres which can be irrigated on the Darling River. 
As a careful engineer, Mr. Wade's estimate would 
doubtless be a conservative one. We will see 
presently what one good western gardener can 
coax 50 acres to yield. In farms of 50 acres 
this estimate gives us 5,000 new homes for the 
Western Division. Under Providence there is 
nothing to prevent it if our people are wise and 
courageous. 

Of Western dry farming possibilities we will 
say nothing at present. 

Let us deal for the moment with certainties of 
irrigation; already foreshadowed at Wentworth 
in the far-back West. 

Wentworth irrigation area consists of 10,000 
acres, located in the eastern angle between the 
Murray and the Darling. 

Of this about 2000 acres had, at the end of 
1 9 13, been subdivided into blocks of from 7 to 
35 acres. Each block receives the water at the 
highest point and slopes to the natural drainage 
lines, thereby minimising the amount of grading 
required to prepare the land for irrigation. 

The water is pumped from the Murray River 
and conveyed to the land by means of sloped 
channels two feet wide at the bottom and 3 feet 
6 inches deep. From September to the end of 
February waterings are given every three weeks. 
This meets the summer requirements. From 
March to August the soils receive their artificial 
moisture once a month. The area thus receives 
an equivalent to the rainfall of the north coast 



of New South Wales, and gets it just when it 
is required for purposes of cultivation. 

The departmental chemist pronounces the 
soil "with judicious watering capable of bearing 
"good crops of anything, especially fruits of all 
"sorts suitable to the climate." 

The Government of New South Wales grants 
Its irrigation leases to settlers here, as elsewhere, 
on most liberal terms. The title is a form of per- 
petual lease. Rents range from 2/6 to 5/- an 
acre. The water rate is £1 an acre. To encour- 
age and assist settlers of small means, neither 
full rent nor water rate is charged until the fifth 
year of occupation. 

Residential conditions on this particular area 
have not been enforced. 

Many of the first settlers were men without 
capital, who kept the pot boiling by working be- 
yond their blocks when occasion offered, as 
shearers or laborers. In Australia any average 
Industrious man can find a road to competence if 
he seeks for It wisely. 

Examples of individual success afford the best 
argument. We will take one from Wentworth 
Irrigation Area : — 

Five years ago an excellent citizen of South 
Australia, of the sterling Devonshire stock, 
moved up with his family to Wentworth. His 
name Is Walter Sage, and It may be said of him 
that he impresses one as a man for whom the 
flowers would be glad to grow and the trees to 
fruit. 

When the author of this book — six years ago 
— went down to Wentworth on a motor boat ex- 
pedition of 1,500 miles from Albury to Lake 
Alexandrlna — which established a world's record 
for this particular mode of travel and strength- 
ened his ever-growing faith In Australia — the 
area was just emerging from a rather troubled 
infancy. A N.S.W. Government had even con- 
sidered its abandonment. 

Two years and a half later he was one of a 
party of parliamentarians and pressmen journey- 
ing by river steamer from Goolwa ' i South Aus- 
tralia to Mildura, Vic, to embark the Scotch 
Agricultural Commission, and Incidentally to in- 
spect proposed lock sites and irrigation settle- 
ments along the Murray. 

Among this keenly patriotic crowd of South 
Australians were some who knew that Walter 
Sage had migrated from their State, and they 
said, 

"If any of these settlers are going to make 
a big success on Wentworth, Sage will be 
among them. He will be right among the 
first." 




Wentworth. 



235 



236 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Peach-Tree two and a half years old, on Walter Sage's Mock, at Wentworth 



So when the writer came again to Wentworth in 
1 9 13, under the gracious aegis of the N.S.W. 
Minister for Lands and Agriculture, and the 
official party was met by the settlers at the pump- 
ing station, he looked around for the South Aus- 
tralian. 

The bronzed, broad-shouldered Sage was 
there; and furthermore, his 50 acres of orchard 
were there, giving eloquent testimony that the 
hands of this Ideal settler had not been idle nor 
his judgment at fault. 

It was only his fifth year on the area, but the 
family crops had given £2,000 clear profit! 

With his two sons to aid him, he had taken ugly 
bush land and converted It Into a garden of fer- 
tility and wealth. Others on the area, including 
an irrlgatlonlst from western America, who 
swears by Australia these days, had done exceed- 
ingly well, but the Sage blocks were yielding the 
greatest returns. 

His nectarine trees at two years old were giv- 
ing him £50 an acre. He had taken three tons 
of peaches to the acre, worth £60 a ton: and one 
particular crop of the same fruit had brought 
him £220 to the acre. But his citrus fruits were 
going to prove more profitable than any. Ideal 
climate, peerless soils and plenty of water will 
make orange-growing in western N.S.W. one of 
the most successful Industries of the future. Nor 
will there be any fear of cold snaps, which have 
caused such tremendous damage to citrus crops in 
America, or the physical disadvantages which 
attend this industry elsewhere. 



Apart from its profits the cultivation of citrus 
is one of those pleasant outdoor occupations which 
seem to bring people health and happiness as 
a natural order of things. 

Among orchardists orange-growers form a 
gentle aristocracy of their own. Nor do the 
people who take up orange-growing need to be 
either rich or Independent. A very modest 
amount of capital suffices an agricultural settler In 
Australia, and even the man who comes to this 
country without any capital at all may be 
sure, if sober and earnest, that he can speedily 
earn and save enough to make a start towards In- 
dependence. 

For example, the N.S.W. Government offers 
him an irrigable holding on the easiest terms, sup- 
plies him with the levels of his land, with expert 
information as to its treatment, remits a part of 
his rent to meet his needs; supplies him with wire 
netting at cost price and gives him five years to 
pay for it — aids him In every possible way to 
success. 

The timbered land on Wentworth area has 
cost about £5 an acre to clear and prepare for 
planting; the open country £2. 

The estimated cost of planting with rooted 
Gordo grape vines — which have returned a nett 
profit of £20 an acre on this area, is about £2/5/- 
per acre. Sultanas and currants require for trel- 
lislng about £5 an acre in the second year. 

Stone fruits, peaches, apricots, nectarines, all of 
which the Western Division grows to absolute 
perfection under irrigation, cost £4 an acre for 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



237 



planting. Cultivation amounts to about £4 an 
acre on Wentworth irrigation area. 

The price of citrus fruits for best varieties 
may be set down at £6 an acre, but planting and 
cultivation would be the same as for stone fruits 
and vines. 

We foresee what the back blocks of Australia 
are going to be when we go over a fifty-acre irri- 
gated garden such as that of Walter Sage at 
Wentworth. 

Here long rows of spreading apricot trees, 
pruned to perfection, will be weighted down with 
luscious fruit when December days — once so 
dreaded as a destroyer of grass — are emptying 
their quivers of golden arrows over the West. 

On umbrella-shaped peach trees, trimmed with 
an eye to shade and fruit-bearing branches, mid- 
summer fruit will blush like the cheeks of Monaro 
maidens. 

Here the dark evergreen of citrus foliage 
makes a fitting background for yellow and golden 
fruit. 

The flavor and quality of these Wentworth 
oranges give them first place in the markets. In 
a little time Walter Sage expects an income of 
£5,000 a year from his block. 

These irrigated soils have produced sorghum 
17ft. in height and lucerne yielding nine cuts in 
one year. Thirty pounds an acre have been se- 
cured from alfalfa crops. Maize 9 feet high, and 
water-melons 65lbs. weight are ^mong the pro- 
ductions of this prolific soil. Millions of acres 
just as prolific are to be found in New South 
Wales. 

System in treatment of his land is the most 
essential qualification for the settler. Given 
systematic attention, the land will do the rest; 
for all irrigable cultivation there is nothing bet- 
ter in the world and very little as good. 

The irrigationist can establish a comfortable 
home, rear and educate a family and enjoy a 
pleasant rural life with flowers, birds, music, and 
friendly association. He will live and labour in 
a garden, where the earth simply pulses with fer- 
tility, over which the skies are perpetually blue, 
and the breeze that sways the drooping branches 
of his fruit-trees everlastingly pure and healthy. 

In time, none of the water of the Western 
Division will be allowed to waste. Its soils are 
far too valuable for an acre of possible irriga- 
tion to remain undeveloped. Money invested in 
irrigation schemes, public or private, is likely to 
yield bigger profits on sounder security than 
money invested in most other things, even in Aus- 
tralia, a land of profitable investment. 

In order to make a personal examination of 
country along the Darling, the author of Aus- 
tralia Unlimited, accompanied of Mr. A. C. 
Roberts, of the New South Wales Agricultural 



Department, and Mr. Walter Sage, left Went- 
worth in a motor car on the 22nd May, 19 13. It 
was one of many long Australian journeys under- 
taken for the purpose of collecting facts and im- 
pressions at first hand. 




Sorghum, nine feet bigh 



With the expert knowledge of Irrigationist 
Walter Sage, the general grip and experience of 
an Agricultural Minister's secretary, and the 
steady hand of Senior-Constable Bob P'erguson 
upon the Renault's wheel, the author felt that he 
was in the way of correct conclusions. 

We set out from Wentworth on a cool grey 
morning, well ovcrcoated and rugged. First dis- 
proof of an Eastern fiction — it is not alwaj's hot 
in the far interior. On the contrary, the interior 
enjoys a long bracing winter. 



23» 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



It was the duty of the passenger who occupied 
the front seat by the chauffeur to get down and 
open gates. The first was about five minutes' 
run from Wentworth. It was a white gate. On 
the other side of it stood a finger-post. 

The left arm bore the legend — 

"BROKEN HILL. 200 MILES." 

The right said — 

"BOURKE. 400 MILES." 

We had entered the Country of Great Dis- 
tances! Between the white gate and Broken Hill 
there was not so much as a village marked on the 
map. Between the white gate and Bourke there 
were two towns — Menindie (population, 250), 
and Wilcannia (900). The rest was sheep sta- 
tions and open plains. 

Gates occurred at frequent intervals all the way 
to Bourke. All the west of the Darling to the 
Queensland and South Australian borders is held 
by pastoral leases and devoted to sheep-raising 
for wool. We were motoring through 400 miles 
of squatters' sheep paddocks. 

Away from the Darling are the typical rich red 
soils of the West. Along the river — brought 
down no doubt from the black soil plains of the 
Darling Downs and north-western New South 
Wales — there runs a wide belt of black land. 

The dominant timber is box. 

The land along the Lower Darling Mr. Sage 
pronounces similar in character to that on which 
his orchard at Wentworth is located. This brings 
us another of those national sums for which the 
writer confesses a fondness. The answers are 
so many mallets to smash the addled eggs of old 
Delusion and make room in warm nests of Facts 
for healthy chickens of Confidence and Effort. 

When we Australians get correct answers to 
a few of these important national sums we are go- 
ing to take top of the world's class. 

We will call this "Walter Sage's Sum," because 
it was checked by Mr. Sage under the shade of 
a redgum tree between Menindie and Wilcannia, 
and the answer he pronounced correct. 

The sum is simple : — 

If W. Sage earns £5,000 in i year from 50 
irrigated acres (citrus) fruit — and there are, ac- 
cording to L. A. B. Wade, 250,000 irrigable acres 
on the Darling — what is the possible capital value 
of the annual fruit production thereon? 

The answer is Twenty-five Million Pounds! 

Citrus lands in cultivation at Renmark, South 
Australia, were last year valued at £269 an acre. 
The capital value of the 250,000 acres, if they 
were under cultivation to-day, would stand prob- 
ably at sixty-five millions of money. A generation 
hence, if values of irrigable land increase in this 
country as they have done in the United States, 



the orchards of the Darling would be worth twice 
as much. 

Few modern investments will return a higher 
rate of interest or ensure a greater increment than 
those offering right throughout Australia. 

Our road — a dusty track innocent of forma- 
tion — followed the river to Sturt's Billabong. 
Here we left the steep gray banks of the Darling 
to cut across country and save that great bend 
in which lies the sandy village of Pooncarie. 

One leaves the river to enter a silent country. 
Spreading redgums give place to stunted vegeta- 
tion. Back from the river the squatters have ex- 
cavated huge dams and conserved immense quan- 
tities of water for sheep. Of natural fodder plants 
— especially saltbush — there is no lack. Pastoral- 
ists of experience west of the Darling know that, 
provided you can establish a water supply, sheep 
will carry through the driest years with little loss. 
There is always a sufficiency of native feed in 
the back country. 

In the near future, when the Darling has been 
locked and conservation and irrigation settlements 
flourish along its banks; when the lakes and ana- 
branches and billabongs are turned to account, 
when proper transport has been established, this 
wonderful river belt between Bourke and Went- 
worth will not only support a great population, 
but it will form a base on which still further settle- 
ment will safely rest — a settlement extending 
right to Tibboburra and Broken Hill. All that 
now has to be left to chance of season will be 
under scientific control. 

It is admitted by men occupying large pastoral 
holdings that if a scientific artesian exploration 
were made of the remote West and proved suc- 
cessful, the whole of those backblocks could be 
converted into 30,000-acre holdings; and it must 
always be kept in mind that the Australian pas- 
toralist thinks in largest holdings because he has 
been and is a product of original conditions. He 
is guided more by methods of the Past than those 
which a clamorous Future are likely to force upon 
him. He has proved a good pioneer, filling a 
useful and honorable function in opening up new 
country; but one tendency of Australian progress 
is to push him further back — unless, indeed, he 
is prepared to fall in with a newer order of things 
and from an overlord of leases become an organ- 
izer of farms. 

If our modern world based its effort on a sen- 
timental rather than a practical philosophy, one 
would regret the departure of the squatter from 
his ancient habitat; a picturesque figure is fading 
from the near Australian landscape; the first 
chapter of the romance of the Wool Kings has 
been closed. But picturesque and romantic as 
medieval Europe appears, nobody prays for a 
return of the old feudal laws and characters. 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



239 



The evolution of human society is everywhere 
inevitable. The Australian pastoralist and his 
function will be remoulded from the melting-pots 
of Time. 

Such thoughts were in our minds, when, at the 
end of a long day's run, we found ourselves for 
a night under the hospitable roof of Messrs. 
Dunn Brothers, at Netley Station, on the western 
bank of the Darling. 

At Netley the Burke and Wills expedition dried 
the beef which they took with them on their fatal 
journey towards the interior. 

There is a fine irrigated garden at Netley. 
Here Walter Sage examined orange trees fifty 
years old, and pronounced them absolutely free of 
orchard pests. He declared Netley garden the 
healthiest old garden he had seen in all his life. 

That day, far back from the river, we had 
carred through red lands, showing only dry feed 
and blue bush, which the same authority declared 
could be occupied as wheat lands to-morrow if 
they were provided with transport. 

One can always be guided by a rehable South 
Australian opinion on wheat. The growers of 
the Central State are now ranked among the best 
dry-farmers in the world. 

At Netley, in the heart of what many good 
Easterners still believe to be a wilderness, we 
found paddocks of green lucerne, giving a cut 
regularly every six weeks. 

Here the orange, lemon, and citron bore pro- 
fusely. Here grew olives, nectarines, apricots, 
quinces, apples, and vegetables in abundance. 
Here, too, were velvety lawns of thick buffalo 
grass, graceful cedars, and flowers. 

The stalwart Dunns talked eloquently of the 
West. The broad-minded Westerner swears by 
his heritage. The land he has won is ever dear 
to him. A conqueror, he is in turn conquered — 
the magical West holds him a willing vassal. He 
is happy in her smiles and accepts with patience 
her occasional frowns. He knows that the worst 
drought is only one of his lady's passing moods. 

The men of Netley told us that their country 
was barer than usual. They had less water on 
their frontages than for several years. 

In their opinion the damming of the tributary 
rivers had led to a great decrease lower down 
and a lessening of navigation — on which the Dar- 
ling largely depends for the transport of wool 
and supplies. 

If The underground-water quest here, as else- 
where, is intensely interesting. Recently the 
divining rod has come into favor on Netley. Now 
the divining rod, divested of all unnecessary 
occultism, is based on some yet unexplained physi- 
cal or psycho-physical fact. The number of scep- 
tics as to its uses is becoming a daily decreasing 



quantity, the divining rod having proved a mys- 
terious but generally exact guide to subterranean 
water. 

Of the two Dunn Brothers, one possessed the 
gift of the rod; the other did not. 

The method adopted by the man with the gift 
is simple enough in seeming. He cuts a green 
forked twig of a native willow or some pliable 
wood, with a stem a foot or so in length. He 
then grasps a prong in each hand and walks 
slowly over the ground it has been decided to 
test. 




Navelencla. Oranges 

(K6te comparative size witb the penny) 



If the diviner comes over a spot where under- 
ground water is situated, the erect twig bends of 
its own apparent volition. In some unaccountable 
way it is attracted towards the surface of the 
earth at that particular spot. So strong is this 
seeming magnetism that the twig will sometimes 
snap off short in the diviner's hands. 

There are diviners who profess to tell whether 
the water below is fresh or salt. From evidence 
collected with great caution over a wide sphere of 
operation in this Commonwealth it would seem 
that they are more often right than wrong. 

Moreover, certain of these men are prepared 
to back their faith with their money, a sovereign 



240 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



test. They cheerfully sign contracts to sink wells 
or put down bores on a basis of no water no pay- 
ment. A jury of scientific sceptics could hardly 
ask for stronger proofs than these. 

On Netley back-country they had just located 
water with the rod. If the rod were right they 
would cart timber from Broken Hill, fifty miles, 
putting on teams, work relays night and day, put 
in a centrifugal pumping plant, and start watering 
their sheep out there, in time for shearing. 



4 



especially well if they could be provided with per- 
manent water. The average rainfall on Netley 
is nine inches a year. For the river frontages 
this does not matter so much; there has always 
been water enough in the Darling. But the fur- 
ther-back sheep cannot all be brought in when a 
drought threatens; animals must drink or die; 
overstocked frontages are as fatal as under- 
stocked back country gone dry. Years ago 
the men of Netley decided to put down 




Irrigating Peas grown between young Fruit Trees, Yanco 



It is amusing to hear the parlor-bred philoso- 
pher of cities or the casual visitor declaiming 
with a superior air that the men of our back- 
blocks are slow-going and lacking in resource. 

Men who speculate £6,000 in a single well are 
not moral cowards. If the back country men 
were what the world has been asked to believe, 
the back country would still be all an open 
domain for the aboriginal and the kangaroo. 

It is a fascinating thing, this Conquest of the 
Wild. Away back from the Lower Darling, 
about 50 miles east of Broken Hill, there is a 
line of Netley holding, where sheep would thrive 



a bore in this good but occasionally arid 
country. The bore went down 200 feet 
and struck^ — air! For a certain number of hours 
in the twenty-four there was a prodigious inrush; 
as if some imprisoned giant under 200 feet of 
earth and rock was filling his Titanic lungs. Then, 
for the remaining hours, air was just as forcibly 
expelled. That Giant breathed so mighty hard 
that the bore had to be abandoned — the casing 
would not stand the strain. Besides, the proprie- 
tary was not looking for air; it wanted water. 
It was certainly air that went in and out of the 
bore because, with casual Australian curiosity, the 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



borers held lighted matches to the outrush and it 
never ignited. 

A number of years elapsed, and another bore 
was put down, some distance away, with the same 
results. Similar happenings are recorded in the 
history of artesian exploration in other parts of 
Australia. The water in some artesian bores is 
reported to ebb and flow with the tides. 

North of Netley (spelt also Netalie) is Menin- 
die Lake, one of a series of lakes which follow 
in a southerly direction. They are filled from 
the overflow of the river in wet seasons and, with 
the great anabranch, help to relieve the Lower 
Darling of its flood-waters. 



241 

area, which could be watered by this cheap and 
simple gravitation scheme. If box-flats along the 
Darling are worth £100 an acre return per 
annum, Cawndilla Lake bed would in all proba- 
bility be worth more. One can dimly see what 
the centuries' deposit of silt would produce in 
the way of lucerne. Lands below the junction of 
the Murray are declared richer because of pre- 
cipitation from the Darling. The drainage area 
of the Darling comprises black and red soils as 
rich as any in the Commonwealth. 

By and by, when the river is locked and cool- 
storage boats are installed, there will be a tremen- 
dous output of fat lambs, which will not receive 



1 — 


1 *^ 

1 ^y^iMMfl^ 


^P 




1 . 




'l^lLx'^^^Hfl 




in 



Children at Menlndle 



They occupy many hundred square miles 
of country, and can with a little inexpensive en- 
gineering be converted into permanent storages. 

One of these intermittent lakes — Yarlta — we 
circled on our first day out from Wentworth. 
Its bed was perfectly dry and bore the appear- 
ance of an immense plain covered with good 
grass, on which the stock were in excellent condi- 
tion. Water is to be got at a shallow depth by 
sinking. 

Menindie Lake offers an opportunity for an 
irrigation scheme. It is fed directly from the 
Darling, and can be made to impound from 20 
to 25 feet of water at a comparatively small ex- 
pense. It is connected by a natural channel with 
Lake Cawndilla, a few miles south. The levels 
of Cawndilla are four feet lower than Menindie. 
The bed of Cawndilla — composed of richest silt 
' — would no doubt make a splendid irrigation 



their condition from "old-man" salt-bush and 
belah scrub; they will be fed on the alfalfa, which 
this belt of beautiful country can produce — not 
only on our theoretical Cawndilla, but right from 
Wentworth to Bourke with proper cultivation. 

There was just a taste of frost in the air on 
the morning our car left Netley, and all the world 
of Nature seemed in an exhilarated mood. 

As we bowled along — now approaching close 
enough to the banks of the Darling to see the re- 
flections of red gums in its greenish-colored 
waters, now crossing from bend to bend, over 
flat plain, the car would run into flocks of galah 
parrots. 

In companies of hundreds, with their beautiful 
pink and gray plumage, they added a splash of 
color to a rather sombre landscape. 



242 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




A River Trading Steamer 



Occasionally we overtook a mob of emus, whose 
awkward gallop several times carried them into a 
wire fence. Then would come a wild tangle of 
birds, flying feathers, avian somersaults, kicking 
legs, and gaping beaks, which ended in broken 
fence wires and dilapidated emus striding at 
accelerated speed towards the horizon. 

It is this tendency to break through wire fences 
which makes the emu so disliked by sheepmen. 
When one saw a raffle of pink and grey feathers 
by a river bank, one knew that an eagle had 
dined off a galah, but the remains of an emu, with 
the usual crow pouring out coarse abuse from an 
adjoining tree, meant as likely as not that some 
stockman's Winchester had been busy on the 
breakers of fences. 

There were many varieties of parrots along 
the way, including the beautiful shell parrakeet, 
its little emerald body flecked with gold, flashing 
as it flew across our sunlit track. 

Given good companionship, a journey such as 
this is a daylong delight. 

It was noon when we came to Menindie, a 
back-blocks village located among the pink sand- 
hills of the West. The landscape hereabout is 
by no means a settled quantity. In the post 
ofiice yard we found sand banked up nearly as 
high as the fence. When a strong wind blows, fine 
red sand is left in drifts, as snow is drifted in 
colder places. 



Menindie is a depressing array of tin-roofed 
houses on a sandhill, with only a few scattered 
trees to relieve its bareness. Yet Menindie might 
be a green oasis, full of shade, fruit trees and 
flowers. The Darling is within reach: a cheap 
co-operative pumping plant would convert the 
ugliest spot in the State of New South Wales 
into an attractive garden town. 

One day Menindie may be an important west- 
ern centre. Let us hope that the generation 
which is coming will realize here and in other 
parts of Australia, that shady streets and green 
gardens make for personal happiness and the 
prosperity of towns. 

As we carried a well-stocked provision basket 
and a "Thermos," there was no necessity to linger 
for lunch in Menindie. So we took the trail for 
Wilcannia, still keeping to the west side of the 
river. A little difficulty with a sand hill having 
been successfully overcome, our car stood in due 
course under a shady box-tree, while Its occupants 
enjoyed an outdoor meal. This open-air living 
is one of the many charms which make Australia 
a land to which every exile will return if he can. 

At dark we were forty miles from Wilcannia. 
We lit our reflectors and went on in the starlight. 
In that wonderfully clear atmosphere the stars 
shine with unusual brightness. The country was 
now quite green as the car glided on across that 
great quiet plain, sleeping under a cosmic arch 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



243 



of twinkling suns. Our lights played mysteriously 
along the blue-bush, brought up ghostly outlines 
of trees from darkness, and dropped them into 
night again. 

Puzzled rabbits crossed and re-crossed before 
the car; night insects flashed through the incan- 
descent beams that lit our track, and now and 
then illuminated the wings of a startled bird. By 
and by we saw the lights of Wilcannia twinkling 
through the night. 

To swing into a lighted street with shops invit- 
ing Saturday-night custom, out of the still, starlit 
darkness — was like passing from one phase of a 
dream to another. 

But four hungry men soon sat down in solid 
reality to a late meal of excellent cold mutton and 
pickles, good bread, good butter, and flavorable 
tea. 

Where was the wild and riotous West of 
story and melodrama? And the heat, flies, thirst, 
shearers in "the horrors," painted blackfellows, 
and all the tawdry setting of alleged "Australian 
literature"? 

Like the "Great Sandy Desert" of South Aus- 
tralia, they have vanished into the Ezvigzeit. If 
they ever were, they are no more. 

We had seen about two hundred bush people 
enjoying themselves at Cuthero, on the Lower 
Darling, on the previous day — a public holiday. 
We had that morning found the people of Menin- 
die tired after their sports and dances, and at 
night Wilcannia was rubbing its eyes and threat- 
ening to go to bed early after it had had a warm 
at the fire. 

But at none of these Furthest-Back places had 
we seen a single person under the influence of 
liquor, nor any fighting, nor heard loud and offen- 
sive language, nor witnessed anything beyond the 
normal conditions of an Australian country town. 



As for the drunken shearer of tradition, the 
loud knocker-down of cheques, the recalcitrant, 
violent, red-shirted hero of a hundred impossible 
fights and foolish adventures, the staggering 
figure in gaiters and a snake-buckle belt and wide- 
awake — he has gone. 

Nowadays, in machine sheds, sober industrious 
mechanics, some being young men from the cities 
and some being small agriculturists, selectors, 
and selectors' sons from the Bush — remove 
greasy fleeces to the rhythmic purring of belts 
driven by electricity. Singularly few of them are 
drinkers, and most of them are fond of sports. 
The majority have tidy banking accounts. 

Just here we will drop in a photograph, show- 
ing a party of these back-country workers, setting 
out on bicycles for their next shed. 

At the Wilcannia Hotel there was a stone- 
floored kitchen with a huge cooking range, from 
which a spacious dining-room was supplied with 
plentiful cookery — for the West is in nothing 
stinted or small. Cobar and Broken Hill, the 
last railway points, might each be well over a 
hundred miles away, but Wilcannia had an abund- 
ance of good things to offer. The old idea that 
people in the New South Wales bush subsist on 
corned beef, damper, and black billy tea is an- 
other of those fictions which are found only in 
imaginative literature. Good bakers' bread, 
made from whitest Australian flour, is obtainable 
all over the country. In any part of the Bush 
fresh meat is constantly available, and the average 
settler can cultivate as many vegetables and rear 
as much poultry as he thinks fit. The rivers, 
creeks, even the remotest dams and lagoons gener- 
ally teem with fish, and game is to be got in most 
parts if a family has appetite for it. In no 
country of the world do the people live as cheaply 
and well as in Australia. 




Shearers leaving Tolamo, Elver DarUng 



244 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Furniture, pianos, pictures, and pots may have 
to be carried hundreds of miles, but the good bush 
housewife has her household gods even "west of 
the Darling," and derives just as much pleasure 
from dusting and tidying as her sister in the 
suburbs of Sydney. 

Faced by these simple domestic facts, after 
toasting ourselves at a huge fire in the writing- 
room, we went comfortably to bed. Glimpsing 
through a lifted blind we saw the moon — which 
we had watched through the oleanders and 
oranges at Netley the night before — rising over 
the spreading pepper trees of Wilcannia, 619 
miles west of Sydney. 

It was a joyous Sunday morning when we glided 
out of Wilcannia. A substantial breakfast stood 
between us and despair. Never did the face of 
Australia seem fairer. Over wide plains of 
black soil and red, with a perfectly blue sky, 
sparkling sunlight, and freshest air to give us 
healthy intoxication, we skimmed on comfort- 
able pneumatic tyres. Good country certainly 
brightens one's spirits. Northward from Wil- 
cannia to Bourke spread the flat lands of the 
Upper Darhng. Far West, in the direction of 
White Cliffs, we saw blue ranges rising from the 
billiard-table level of that mighty plain, through 
which the longest river in the world wound its 
immemorial length, now in straight reaches, and 
anon, like some vast python of the Ancient Past, 
writhing itself into serpentine coils and bends. 

A long morning's run, another lunch in the 
open-air, a glance at the station garden at Killara, 
where they showed us date palms 50 years old, 
and we were still on plains of incalculable rich- 
ness. 

Through the galvanized town of Tilpa — 
where we saw wool waiting for a rise in the 
river to get it away to Adelaide — and on again 
over the same level landscape, broken by clumps 
of graceful wilga or groups of gums, we went 
joyously. 

Blacksoil flats and billabongs, then mayhap a 
beautiful plain covered with grey-green annual 
saltbush — excellent fodder plant — just about six 
inches high and level and even as a crop, we 
crossed again and again. There was to us 
nothing dreary or monotonous in the journey, for 
each hour brought us fresh interests. Every- 
where we visioned beyond scattered fat sheep and 
occasional stations in the bends, beyond the lean 
stockman, the biking shearer pedalling towards 
Bourke, beyond rarely disturbed solitudes and 
vast spaces — a Future in which western New 
South Wales would be an invaluable contributor 
in settlement and industry to the general pros- 
perity of the Mother State. 

We bided at Dunlop Station that night. It 
was cold and frosty. Sitting with the station 



manager before a roaring log fire, we discussed 
the problems of the West. The irrigated gar- 
dens around this station are growing abundance 
of lucerne, fruit, flowers and vegetables. 

Dunlop, Tarella and Nocoleeche are under one 
financial control. They cover three million 

acres of western New South Wales, stretching 
out to the Paroo and Warrego. 

Dunlop (952,000 acres) shore 140,000 sheep 
in the season of 19 12. 

On the western bank, in a pleasant bend of the 
Darling, 90 miles from the Paroo, this comfort- 
able station home is a seat of government for 
the largest sheep satrapy in the State. But the 
quiet, unostentatious hospitality of Dunlop is 
typical of all these west-of-the-Darling stations. 
The stranger's welcome, a hot bath, a good room, 
an excellent meal, a soft bed, made an harmoni- _ 
ous ending to a day spent in gliding over wide salt- ^ 
bush paddocks, lightly timbered flats and pink 
ridges where grey kangaroos hopped quietly away 
from the motor-car. 

The Warrego was in flood when we touched it 
next morning above its junction with the Darling. 
There had been rain away out along its sources 
by Tambo and Charleville and Cunnamulla, in 
Queensland. Yellow waters were flowing lazily 
through the lignum and lapping the trunks of 
drooping gum-trees. A barrier of earth turned 
It away from the station garden at Tarella, where 
oranges and mandarins were ripening In the sun. 
Past losses by flood in that garden had made the 
owner wise. Not only can the Warrego come 
down in flood, but It can stay In flood long enough 
to put another side of the Western water ques- 
tion forward for consideration. 

Some day none of this surface water will be 
allowed to waste, and there will be a wider 
development of artesian supply. 

Then, with irrigation bases along the streams, 
population and production will be tremendously 
increased throughout the Furthest West. The 
larger part of this country will probably remain 
pastoral as at present, but holdings will gradually 
be reduced and general productivity Increased 
beyond calculation. 

The beef and mutton grown out here are of the 
very finest in Australia. S 

With drooping myalls and wllgas to give them 
shade, waving cane-grass on the flats, silver-grey 
saltbush, distant mounds of colored sand, and all 
the wonderful bird and animal life of the Interior, 
these plains throw a glamor In some mysterious 
way over the human soul. 

They bring a pervading sense of restfulness 
and peace to the traveller. The people who 
belong to the plains seem of gentler speech and 
manner. They are among the strong-limbed, 
soft-spoken, brown-skinned Australians who have 



I 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



245 



I 



absorbed the Greater Distances till their hearts 
are widened and their souls enlarged 

What will be the future of north-western 
New South Wales? That is rather a matter of 
deduction than prophecy. Already wheat grow- 
ing has been extended north and west beyond 
Nyngan. 

In the near future it will no doubt be extended 
still further along the western railway line to 
Byrock, even to Bourke. Beyond Bourke — north 
and west — is a great artesian basin proved by any 
number of successful bores. On the Pera bore 
irrigation area, near Bourke, the New South 
Wales Government has demonstrated that citrus 
fruits can be grown to absolute perfection. 

One concludes, therefore, that irrigation and 
dry-farming are going to be part of this vast 
country's future; that ultimately along the War- 
rego and the Paroo, and beyond that again into 
the furthest North-West, industries other than 
pastoral will gradually extend. 

The red hills, covered now with yellow-flower- 
ing gidyea and cypress-pine, will be found some 
function for their undoubted fertilities. 

Instead of Nocoleeche waiting for the Paroo 
to come down once in a while and make good 
grass-country, scientific treatment will make the 
Paroo permanently good. 

Ten million acres in Bourke district are carry- 
ing under a million of sheep. That order of 
things will not remain for ever. Even if rab- 
bits have decreased the carrying capacity of some 
stations by 50 per cent., neither "sheep" nor 
"rabbit" is going to be the last word in the 



development of the Northern-West. Holdings 
of thirty rather than three million acres, with 
seventy-chain instead of seventy-mile frontages to 
natural watercourses, will also be part of the 
future. Three combined N.W. stations yester- 
day shore 300,000 sheep. To-morrow — and the 
life of a generation is only to-day — 3,000 hold- 
ings will produce more than three hundred times 
the annual value of that one crop of wool. 

Australia is yet young, but agricultural experi- 
ences gained during the last decade have thrown a 
new light on the future. 

Everywhere pertinent facts and patent com- 
parisons will come under the observer's eye. 
Everywhere is the beginning of a mighty change 
which the rank and file of Australia have hardly 
begun to realize. But as the tide of European 
immigration and investment turns more and more 
to these shores, which it inevitably must, the in- 
crease of population and activity will be so rapid 
that the mental outlook of the most conservative 
will be revolutionized. 

Of these pertinent facts the Northern-West 
supplies its quota, among them Pera Bore. 

This interesting experiment in cultivation under 
artesian irrigation has been carried on four or five 
miles on the western side of Bourke. 

Some important roads lead in to Bourke. One 
crosses the Darling by a fine bridge, over which 
tremendous bullock teams and trains of camels, 
heavily laden with supplies for the far interior, go 
North and West. At Bourke the Darling is still 
a fine river, kept so largely by a lock and weir 
built by the New South Wales Government a few 
years ago. 




Bridge over the Elver Darling at Wllcannla 



246 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




The Bore at Pera 



The road over the bridge will, if you follow it, 
take you on to . Queensland via Wanaaring and 
Hungerford — which is 647 miles from the obelisk 
in Macquarie Place. Or you may cross into 
Queensland by Barringun in a more direct line; 
or strike out via East along the Culgoa and down 
the Condamine to Dalby and the Darling Downs. 

As a rider, a coach-passenger, or a motorist, 
you will experience no particular hardships and 
jeopardise neither safety nor health. An ama- 
teur bushman, carrying his swag after a pro- 
longed spree, would doubtless find the country flat 
and trying; but a swagman's impressions do not 
alter normal facts, and the facts are that you 
would on either route cross a rich and interesting 
part of Australia. 

Why the opinions of derelicts, who cadge flour 
and mutton from station cooks, should ever have 
been received as authentic expressions of the Bush 
is one of the many profound mysteries of colonial 
thought. 

Men who never planted a cabbage or 
grew a geranium have declared some of the most 
prolific and fertile lands on the earth to be unfit 
for civilized occupation, and their utterly 
unfounded assertions have been accepted as 
gospel truth! 

This mania for distorting realities; for taking 
accidental phases of Bush life and character, and 
representing them as typical, is one that has beset 
the minds of our own writers for two generations. 
So that a majority of city people, and nearly all 
foreigners, still imagine an Australia which is 
almost as far away from the actual prosperous 
productive Commonwealth as neolithic Europe 
from London or Paris. 

Let the reader divest himself of these ancient 
prejudices and stand beside the bore at Pera. 

He is now in the heart of the Back Country. 
He finds himself in a magnificent orangery cover- 



ing 25 acres of ground. Outside of that are 
another 45 acres of cultivation. The water of 
the bore is hot when it reaches the surface; not 
quite so hot as that other bore nearer the Border 
— the deepest in New South Wales, which taps 
the artesian basin at 4,862 feet. The Pera water 
comes from a depth of 1,160 feet, and flows at 
the rate of 80,000 gallons a day. 

It has been flowing so for 17 years, and during 
that period the water has constantly been used for 
irrigating the 75-acre farm of which it is the life- 
giving artery. 

The original site was gidyea scrub. The yel- 
low flowers of the gidyea {acacia homalophylla) 
have an overpowering and offensive odor; al- 
though the tree itself — averaging a growth of 20 
to 30 feet — might be described as ornamental. 

The gidyea flourishes on the red soils of the 
Bourke district. In this red soil, common to 
inland Australia, and of which there are hundreds 
of thousands of adjoining acres just as good — the 
Pera Bore oranges are grown. In the opinion of 
some experts they are the finest in New South 
Wales. 

The Valencias average 22/6 a case. The 
Washington Navels — usual crop 6 cases to a tree 
— bring 17/6. The freight to Sydney is 1/5 a 
case; but most of the fruit produced at the bore 
is sold locally. 

The Washington Navels begin to ripen in May; 
the full crop of Valencias comes at Christmas. 
The trees receive from six to seven waterings in a 
season. The cost of putting down this bore was 
£1,300, and the upkeep of the farm is not great. 

Pera has proved that artesian water may be 
successfully used for the growth of citrus fruit. 
Bore water, however, varies very greatly in its 
chemical constituents. Much of it is likely to 
prove too highly mineralized for irrigation unless 
some cheap means can be devised for precipitat- 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



ing certain salts, which are injurious to plant life. 
This can be done by the use of neutralizing agents. 
It has been found in some places, curiously 
enough, that by mixing water pumped from dif- 
ferent levels, neutralization takes place. 

At Warrawena, 36 miles north of Bourke, on 
the Culgoa River, one hears of a flourishing plot 
of 13 acres of irrigated wheat and lucerne three 
years old. The lucerne here gives nine cuts per 
year. These crops result from artesian water, 
constantly applied without injurious effects. 

Seventeen years' experiment at Pera bore may 
be boiled down to the fact that it is peculiarly use- 
ful for citrus fruits. This subject of artesian 
water has been more fully considered in another 
part of this book. 

Whatever uncertainty may exist about the 
extended use of bore water for purposes of irri- 
gation, there is no doubting what our inland soils 
will produce with surface supplies. 

Adjacent to Bourke weir is a Chinaman's gar- 
den and orchard which have been cultivated for 
many years. This is irrigated by an antique 
pumping plant from the Darling River. 

In the orchard we found stone-fruit trees, thirty 
or forty years old, still healthy and in good bear- 
ing. The trees, although neglected and worked on 
poor miscellaneous stocks, were helping to rapidly 
enrich the Orientals who had leased the ground. 
As usual they produced a luxurious growth of 
various vegetables. The soil here was that rich 
black alluvial which edges the entire length of the 
Darling River. It is an asset of incredible value 
to the State of New South Wales, and should 
ultimately become one of its greatest wealth-pro- 
ducing factors. 

Down at an Afghan's camp on the outskirts of 
Bourke, 40 camels were being packed with goods 
for "Further Back." Turbaned aliens were 
"slinging" cases of hardware and bales of drapery 
on the huge padded saddles whereby the animal 
carried his load. 

This "slinging" freight aboard the "ships of 
the desert" is neither a peaceable nor gentle occu- 
jpation. The camel is admittedly a useful animal, 
[but only the besotted imagination of Asia could 
[have invested him with poetry. His ungainliness 
[is equalled by his vile temper and horrifying voice. 
His simplest function is loud with protest. He 
[will not "hooshtah" unless he roars. He roars 
[during the process of tying his forelegs together 
I — which alone keeps him "hooshtahed" while 
The is being loaded. All the time he is being 
Iloaded he roars, and when he is released he rises 
pike the eruption of a mud spring, and if he can- 
l^not buck off his load he roars protestingly. 

Yet he bears to the people out-back their drums 
)f oil and bundles of brooms, bags of chaff, slung 
three on each side of him — tin buckets, sugar, 



247 

kerosene, buggy shafts, biscuits, dingo traps, and 
all the paraphernalia one sees scattered about the 
loading places at Bourke, at Hergott Springs, at 
Broad Arrow — wherever the camel camps are 
located. 

On the camel's saddle, with its wooden tees, 
and gunny-bag saddle-cloth, much needful mer- 
chandise goes out across the Australian Plains. 

This flat-footed, evil-smelling beast with rope 
crupper and leading string in its nose can go 
safely and profitably where neither horses nor 
bullocks would be possible, and until the heart of 
the Continent is railroaded, the cheap-living and 
much-enduring camel will continue to do his work. 

But at Bourke, as everywhere else, they will 
tell you that Australians can effect more with 
camels than Afghans are able to do. In proof 
of this the number of Afghan camel drivers in the 
Commonwealth is becoming less every year. 

Ultimately the uses of the camel will be over. 
The bullock team is now rarely seen in more 
settled districts. Motor-waggons are displacing 
both horse and bullock throughout the pastoral 
country. Later on they will invade that Far 
Back hinterland where the passing camel train is 
now a familiar feature of the landscape. 

As older methods of transport change, country 
is changing with them. The great Western 
division of New South Wales — easier of access 
and better understood — will be touched in time by 
the steel wand of Progress, and out of its cornu- 
copia of rich abundance it will pour a treasure 
untold. 




'All tha time he is being loaded he roue" 



(248) 



THE WESTERN DIVISION. 



WHAT A RAILWAY WILL DO. 



SOME day it will all come good. For some 
time past New South Wales has been con- 
sidering the question of linicing up East 
and West by the extension of the State railway 
system from its present railhead on the Lachlan, 
to Broken Hill. 

As far back as 1885 surveys were made for 
a line connecting Condobolin, via Euabalong, 
Mossgiel, and Menindie, with Silverton. 

Another survey was made in 1891 for a link 
line from Cobar via Wilcannia. The agitation for 
this route was carried as far as the floor of an 
unsympathetic Parliament and dropped there. 

From that date onward the matter has been 
more or less before the public, and much evidence 
has been collected. 



The Parliamentary Public Works Committee, 
having gone exhaustively into the whole question, 
recommended that the 373 miles between Con- 
dobolin and Broken Hill be constructed. 

As one of the big developmental works of the 
near future, it is interesting to see what the re- 
sults are likely to be. 

When these 373 miles of railway are com- 
pleted. New South Wales will possess an East and 
West route just on 703 miles in length. 

From Euabalong to Broken Hill, a distance of 
over 320 miles, the lands through which the rail- 
way will pass are practically all unalienated — that 
is to say, that although leased in pastoral hold- 
ings for definite periods, ownership still remains 
with the Crown and (subject to the condi- 




What the Land is Growing To-Day 



i 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



249 



tions of present leases and the Western Lands 
Act), the country can be dealt with for settlement 
purposes as the Government may see fit. 

Eight or nine million acres of pastoral lands 
within a radius of twenty miles will be directly 
served by the construction of the line. 

With 6olb. rails the estimated cost of construc- 
tion averages £3,237 a mile. With yolb. rails, 
£3,464 per mile. 

The Chief Commissioner for Railways, in re- 
porting favourably upon this scheme, says: — 

"If the vast territory between the Lachlan 
and the Darling is to become in any way 
an adequate contribution to the national 
wealth and to become amenable to the 
closer-settlement policy of the Government, 
the line is a necessity." 

At present the annual revenue in rental derived 
from the lands to be served by the proposed rail- 
way is £5,586. Many of the holdings are leased 
for 2/6 per annum per square mile! 

Within the influence of the new line there are 
a million acres of mallee which will be available 
for farms. 

The following facts are culled from the report 
of the Public Works Committee : — - 

"In connection with their visit of inspection, 
the Committee on leaving Condobolin travelled 
via the pastoral properties of Kiacatoo and Boo- 
beroi to Euabalong, along the rich valley of the 
Lachlan River, stated to be equal from a grazing 
point of view to the land of the Condobolin dis- 
trict. The country consists principally of a 
series of low-lying flats, partly covered with ex- 
cellent herbage, box timber, and yarran. Thirty 
miles west of Condobolin are patches of black 
soil and sandy ridges, lightly timbered with mal- 
lee and pine. Approaching Euabalong, how- 
ever, the country is excellent for wheat-growing, 
and is fairly well improved. 

"At a point about 25 miles west of Condobolin, 
the Western Division of the State commences, 
and thence the whole of the area to be served 
is held under the provisions of the Western 
Lands Act of 1901, and is controlled by a Board 
of Commissioners. Prior to the passage of the 
Act referred to, the whole of the land in the 
division was held under the provisions of the 
Crown Lands Acts, 1884, and the leases would 
have expired in 191 8, whereas under the exist- 
ing law they will not expire until 30th June, 
1943. The right has, however, been reserved 
to withdraw one-eighth of the area from lease 
at any time gazetted by the Western Lands Com- 
missioners. 

"Immediately to the west of Euabalong the 
country for several miles is lightly timbered with 



box and gum, but is bare of herbage, as the re- 
sult, it has been explained, of the severe drought 
of 1902, and the roots of the natural grasses 
having been eaten out by rabbits. Leaving the 
Lachlan Valley in a north-westerly direction, 
pine, maljee, and yarran country is met with, 
but the bulk of the former is dead, and useless 
for sawing purposes. Following the course of 
the proposed line, and on either side of it, rich, 
sandy, red soil prevails, covered in parts with 
belts of mallee, extending for several miles. 
Midway between Euabalong and Mount Hope 
are to be found undulating ridges, but within 
ten miles of the latter township the country im- 
proves in quality, and although at present used 
for grazing purposes only, may be described as 
of a highly valuable character for wheat-grow- 
ing. 

"For several miles westward of Mount Hope, 
there is excellent wheat-growing land at present 
used for grazing, covered with herbage, and tim- 
bered with pine, gum, mallee and yarran, inter- 
spersed with occasional patches of plain. But 
good as the country is, along this portion of the 
route it improves in quality, and the rich red 
soil in the immediate neighbourhood of Roto 
homestead is of heavy wheat-growing capacity. 
A feature of this portion of the district is the 
absence of watercourses, although ample sup- 
plies of water for stock are easily obtained by 
well-sinking. Situated immediately on the banks 
of the Willandra billabong, an offshoot of the 
Lachlan River, is Roto station, where experi- 
ments in irrigation show the suitability of the 
soil for the growth of fruit. 

"Beyond Roto to Willandra station, a distance 
of thirty miles, the country to a very large ex- 
tent consists of open plain, with narrow belts of 
box timber along the banks of the Willandra 
billabong, and is of superior quality for grazing 
purposes. At the time of the Committee's visit, 
the plains were carrying a luxuriant growth of 
daisy plant, barley grass, trefoil, and other herb- 
age. 

"Silver grass, crow's foot, and other grasses of 
an edible character cover portions of the country 
toward Mossgiel. In parts there are large quan- 
tities of roly-poly, with lignum on the low-lying 
land. Close to the township are extensive areas 
of blue bush, mixed with convolvulus and other 
feed for sheep. The condition of the latter at 
the time of the Committee's visit of inspection 
indicates the suitability of the country for graz- 
ing. 

"Stretches of greyish saltbush plain prevail for 
fifteen miles west of Mossgiel, merging into red 
soil country, bearing luxuriant growths of spear 
and star grass, and lightly timbered with box, 
leopard, wild apple, and belar, as far as Ivan- 

Q 



250 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



hoe. Thence for several miles further west- 
ward there is a repetition of greyish soil, bearing 
spear, barley, and prairie grass, and saltbush. 
As a result of recent bountiful rains the whole 
of the tanks, and many natural depressions, were 
filled with water, and the stock were in splendid 
condition. 

"The whole of the country from Ivanhoe to 
German Tank is regarded as wheat-growing, 
with sufficient rainfall. Traversing the district 
in the direction of the latter point, via Bellpajah, 
an outstation of Kilfera, the country changes to 
red soil, with gently undulating uplands to Ger- 
man Tank, around and beyond which belar is 
the prevailing timber. There are, however, 
occasional patches of mallee and yarran, whilst 
the herbage consists of currant-bush, apple-bush, 
bluebush, saltbush, silver and barley grass, and 
trefoil. 

"To the west of Ivanhoe, a series of lakes 
(with frontages of box timber) formed by 
natural depressions, and occasionally filled by 
the overflow from Tallyawalka Creek, an off- 
shoot of the Darling River, continue almost as 
far as Menindie. 

"Approaching Boolaboolka from German 
Tank there is a change in the character of the 
country, the soil being loose and sandy. Many 
of the yarran trees in the vicinity of the lake 
in this neighbourhood have apparently been de- 
stroyed by flood waters. A few miles west of 
Boolaboolka, the sandy soil continues, and the 
timber consists principally of stunted pine, the 
bulk of which has been destroyed, interspersed 
with belts of bluebush. Cotton plant, nelia, and 
apple-bush grow freely along with bluebush, salt- 
bush and silvergrass. Generally the country as 
far as Menindie is similar, and is interspersed 
with heavy sandy ridges and clay pans, bearing 
bluebush and other shrubs, with box and lignum 
belts near the Darling River, where it is low- 
lying and subject to inundation. 

"Immediately to the west of Menindie, the 
country is of a sandy nature, with box and gum 
flats adjoining the River Darling. Traversing 
the border of Menindie Lake, which, at the time 
of the Committee's visit, was dry and covered 
with dead box timber, the sandy soil continues 
as far as Lake Speculation, where it opens Into 
red-loam country, lightly timbered with mulga. 
Thence to Kars Station, thirty miles distant from 
Menindie, and forty-two miles from Broken 
Hill, the country is similar. Immediately west 
of Kars, however, there is a good deal of open 
saltbush plain, interspersed with nelia bush as 
far as Battery Tank, where the soil Improves, 
and is suitable for wheat cultivation. Thence 
the character of the country changes to heavy, 
undulating, gravelly ridges, devoid of timber, 
and so continues as far as Broken Hill." 



To anyone who understands Australian Back 
Country the facts given above will be of special 
Interest. 

The average rainfall of Condobolln Is 17.23 
Inches; Euabalong, 16.49; Mount Hope, 14.81; 
Ivanhoe, 13.22; Menindie, 9.16; Broken Hill, 

9-33- 

As far westward as Ivanhoe therefore (180 
miles) the rainfall is adequate under conditions 
and methods which have been already established 
In other parts of the Commonwealth for success- 
ful dry-farming. Six million acres will be served 
within that particular radius; which is a fairly 
large block to add to the wealth-producing lands 
of New South Wales. 

The timber and vegetation mentioned In the re- 
port are in themselves a testimony to the quality 
of the soils. We have learned elsewhere what 
cypress-pine and mallee belts stand for. We have 
also seen what the Darling River means as an 
Irrigation proposition. Again, "the last lands are 
the best lands." It looks as If New South Wales 
holds an agricultural and pastoral asset in her 
remote West of far greater value than her people 
have yet realized. 

In our consideration of these wide un-rall- 
roaded stretches of "back-blocks" throughout 
Australia, we must base conclusions not upon pre- 
sent results but upon the vastly improved condi- 
tions which naturally follow the establishment of 
transport. 

Much of this country is described as being "so 
"prolific of rich herbage in fair seasons that It 
"is almost impossible to keep it down with pre- 
"sent stock. With railway construction It Is con- 
"fidently anticipated that the sheep and cattle 
"raising industry will be largely developed. 

"In average seasons the district around Euaba- 
"long, a small township situated In the centre of 
"fairly good grazing country, carries a sheep to 
"6 to 10 acres; but the evidence Indicates that 
"the construction of the line will almost immedi- 
"ately lead to 20 per cent, more stock being car- 
"ried, and will prove of the greatest convenience 
"in times of drought. In view of the probability 
"of large losses as the result of an uncertain raln- 
"fall, the pastoral holdings are very much under- 
"stocked, experience showing that overstocking 
"during dry periods necessitates the lapse of many 
"years to bring the flocks to their normal num- 
"ber." 

Mount Hope — on the line of expected railway 
— is the centre of a copper-mining district, and 
is also surrounded by extensive tracts of grazing 
and wheat-growing country. 

"The evidence shows — and the fact has been 
"confirmed by the Committee from their personal 
"inspection of the district — that the country in - 
"the immediate neighbourhood of and around 
"Mount Hope Is admirably adapted to wheat pro- , 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



251 



"duction. Although wheat is only grown for local 
"consumption, yields have been obtained, even 
"under the old style of farming, of from 15 to 
"29 bushels to the acre. The wool is at present 
"conveyed by road at high rates to Cobar and 
"Nymagee, and its carriage would be transferred 
"to the proposed line if constructed. Most of 
"the holdings are fenced and otherwise improved, 
"and very little trouble is experienced from rab- 
"bits and other pests." 



Irrigation experiments at Willandra with water 
pumped from the billabong "have proved emi- 
"nently successful, and have been the means of 
"producing splendid crops of lucerne and wheat 
"for home consumption." In the opinion of Wil- 
landra management the country is excellent for 
mixed farming, and within twenty to thirty miles 
of the railway 6,000 acres or less would be ample 
for successful settlement. 




A Train from Up-Country 



Roto station lies along a suggested deviation 
between Euabalong and Ivanhoe. Its total area 
is 152,000 acres. The manager of Roto told 
the Works Committee in evidence that the instal- 
lation of transport will "revolutionise the condi- 
tion of the country, permit the settlers to double 
the number of stock at present raised, and to 
'a large extent convert the district into one of 
"mixed farming." 

Willandra is another of the large Western 
Division holdings affected. Its total extent is 
257,000 acres, of which 87,000 acres are free- 
hold. 



Mossgiel station covers 190,000 acres. All 
through this district water of superior quality is 
obtainable at a depth of from 95 to 135 feet. 
Blue-bush country extends over one-half the hold- 
ing, and is stated to be capable of being put to 
agricultural use. The indications are that, with 
the adoption of the dry-farming system, excellent 
results from wheat cultivation may be obtained. 

Mossgiel, Roto, and Willandra would be 
touched by the proposed deviation from Euaba- 
long. Either route will cut through the heart of 
the New South Wales back-blocks, long regarded 
as a drought-stricken area, but in reality compris- 



^ 



2,-2 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



ing an enormous extent of productive soils, which, 
like the Pinnaroo and Eyre's Peninsula, will grow 
wheat, and more. 

North and west of Mossgiel is Ivanhoe, a ham- 
let in the heart of rich grazing lands — also cap- 
able of producing wheat. From here to Menin- 
die there rolls 183 miles of good country. 

The possibilities of irrigation in the vicinity 
of Menindie have received the attention of the 
Public Works Committee. The Lake Cawndilla 
scheme has been mentioned in another part of 
Australia Unlimited. 

The utilisation, for the purposes of irrigation, 
of Lakes Menindie, Cawndilla, Speculation, 
Pamamaroo, and others on the western side of the 
Darling has formed the subject of investigation 
by the Public Works Department. Ten years 
ago surveys were made with a view to utilising 
the lake system referred to for the purpose of 
irrigating Lake Cawndilla, or for a much larger 
system of irrigation to the south. No investiga- 
tion was made of the country south of Lake 
Cawndilla, but samples of soil were taken from 
the bed of the lake itself. At this time alterna- 
tive proposals were before the department, the 
first being a small scheme to irrigate the bed of 
Lake Cawndilla and possibly Lake Speculation, 
from water stored in Lake Menindie. The bed 
of Lake Speculation was proved, by inves- 
tigation of the soil, to be suitable for irrigation, 
and it was estimated that an area of 33,000 acres 
could be utilised for this purpose. It was also 
ascertained that certain difficulties in regard to 
the collection of water in the bottom of the lake 
after it had been used for irrigation were likely 
to exist, and that the water would require to be 
pumped; but beyond samples of the soil being 
obtained and surveys being made, nothing further 
was done in connection with the scheme. 

On the eastern side of the river the lake sys- 
tem comprises Lakes Boolaboolka, Victoria (not 
to be confused with another lake of the same 
name near the South Australian border, which is 
filled from the Murray), Rat-catcher, and a 
number of others, fed from the river in high 
floods through Tallyawalka Creek, which takes 
off from the river 260 miles above Menindie. 
In ordinary seasons the creek does not run, 
but when the river is high, water finds its way 
to all the lakes of the system. In 191 1 an investi- 
gation of this system, with a view to ascertaining 
whether water could be stored for the purpose of 
serving the lands of the Western Division be- 
low the lakes, was made, the conclusion arrived 
at being that the system was well adapted to the 
storage of a large quantity of water and that 
there were possibilities of obtaining sufficient to 
justify the establishment of an irrigation settle- 
ment. 



The writer has no doubt that the Lower Dar- 
ling, from Wilcannia to Wentworth, will ulti- 
mately be converted into one of the most produc- 
tive areas in the Australian Commonwealth. In 
Tallyawalka anabranch on the east side, and the 
anabranch of the Darling on the western side, 
nature has gone ahead of the engineer. The 
Lower Darling lake system, of which these ana- 
branches are a part, will be converted into stor- 
ages, and from more than one irrigation settle- 
ment fruit, fodder, and dairy produce will find 
a ready market East and West. 

Of the Darling and Broken Hill we have 
already read. In regard to the latter, it may be 
added that — 

"Since the opening of the Broken Hill district 
'as a mining field the total tonnage of ore ex- 
'tracted from the mines has been 23,400,000 
'tons, and there are already in sight without any 
'fresh developments 13,400,000 tons. Although 
'the ore now being raised is of low grade com- 
'pared with that obtained in the upper levels in 
'the early days of the history of the field, much 
'larger tonnages are being handled, and the in- 
'dustry, it is contended, rests on a firmer basis. 
'For some years the ore reserves have been show- 
'ing a steady increase and, notwithstanding the 
'fact that the tonnage of crude ore extracted has 
'been on the up-grade, are higher now than at 
'any previous period in the field's history. It 
'is estimated that at the present rates of extrac- 
'tion the ore in sight alone is equivalent to a life 
'of nine years." Development work is continu- 
ally in progress to open up the extensions of the 
known ore bodies, and in some instances have 
proved the existence of entirely new bodies of 
ore. 

During their visit of inspection the Committee 
could not be other than favourably im- 
pressed with the richness of the bulk of the coun- 
try traversed, the remarkably luxuriant growth 
of the herbage, the healthy condition of the flocks 
and herds, and the quality and extent of the fleeces I 
on the various holdings. 

In conclusion we find them highly recommend- 
ing the Government to build this line, which it 
is anticipated will pay from the time of its con- 
struction, and be the means of adding a new pro- 
vince to the State of New South Wales. 

Various Australian Governments have been 
criticised for following a borrowing policy, 
but nowhere in the world can money be 
more safely invested than in Australia; no- 
where will capital, borrowed at current rates 
of interest, give a surer return to the bor- 
rower. The whole structure of modern com- 
merce and finance is based on credit. If an ' 
Australian Government borrows money at, say, 
4^ per cent., interest, and by expending it on re- 



jl 



THE WESTERN DIVISION OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



253 



productive works secures a return of seven or 
eight per cent., it is surely sound commonsense 
finance. 

This is practically what Australian Govern- 
ments are doing. As an asset, the Government 
Railways of the Commonwealth alone more than 
cover the whole of the National Debt. The 
country is young, and what it wants more than 
anything else is engineering. It borrows money 
for engineering projects, which are converted 
into national assets, giving a far greater annual 
return in revenue to the nation than the amount 
of their interest bill. As long as Australian Gov- 
ernments follow a safe, sound policy in the appli- 
cation of borrowed moneys they need not dread 
increasing the amount of the national debt. 

If a New South Wales Government should 



decide to borrow and spend a million and a 
quarter of money on the extension of its western 
railway system from Condobolin to Broken Hill, 
neither the financier abroad nor the citizen at 
home need have any fear that the Government 
was making an unsound investment. The remote 
red West of New South Wales will pour out hun- 
dreds of millions of national wealth when its time 
comes, and the time is coming fast. 

Every year our knowledge of the West is in- 
creasing; every year the Mountains of Inexperi- 
ence lie further behind and the Plains of Promise 
draw nearer. From eastern seaboard to west- 
ern border New South Wales is destined to hear 
the hammers of Progress beating out a glorious 
hymn of Prosperity upon the golden anvils of 
unequalled national resource. 




An Australian Dairymaid 




(254) 



BROKEN HILL. 



Another very profitable year has been experienced by shareholders in Barrier mining and 
investment companies, despite the dislocation of industry by the strike and the less favourable 
metal market. Taking the mining and treatment companies, and the investment concerns, whose 
activity is dependent on the mining industry, it is found that total distributions for the year 
amount to the enormous sum of £1,693,752. Examination of the details shows that the total 
is the gross dividend, no allowance being made for English income tax, and it is found that 
the mining and treatment companies accounted for £1,478,376, while the investment companies, 
such as the Silverton Tramway, Broken Hill Water Supply, and Globe Timber, made up pay- 
ments totalling £215,376. The increase in the dividends for the year is the outcome of the 
still prosperous range of metal prices and the important part which the recovery of zinc concen- 
trates plays in the operations of the Barrier companies to-day. A noteworthy fact about the 
past year in connection with many of these companies' payments was that they were not all 
from current profits. The prosperous conditions produced by exceptional metal rates the 
previous year led to large distributions, and when the metal market reacted dividends were not 
reduced proportionately, so that accumulated profits were largely drawn on in many cases to 
make up the above-mentioned total. The South Broken Hill Company retained the distinction 
of making the largest distribution, and no less than £300,000 was returned to shareholders. Next 
came the North Broken Hill, with £240,000; followed by the Proprietary, £216,000; Sulphide 
Corporation, £192,500; Zinc Corporation, £183,962; Amalgamated Zinc, £162,500; Silverton Tram- 
way, £125,000; British, £115,000; Water Supply, £75,000; Block 10, £50,000; Block 14, £23,000. 
While the figures speak eloquently of the prosperity of the Barrier, it is worthy of mention that 
the bulk of the shares in nearly all the companies are held by British and Continental investors,— 
Melbourne Argus, December 24, 1913. 



AT the further edge of western New South 
Wales, about parallel 32 and distant 
thirty-five miles from the border line of 
South Australia, lies the city of Broken Hill. 

This is nowadays the capital of what explorer 
Sturt described as the most worthless country in 
the world. 

Until the projected Condobolin to Broken Hill 
railway becomes a reality, the latter city must re- 
main most readily accessible from Adelaide. To 
get to Broken Hill from Sydney one travels to 
Melbourne, thence to the South Australian capi- 
tal, and on to the Hill. The journey occupies 
at least three nights and two days by train, and 
covers 1,397 rniles. 

The traveller boards the Limited Express in 
Sydney at 8 o'clock in the evening, and reaches 
Melbourne at i o'clock next day — 580 miles. 

He catches the Adelaide Express again at 4.30 
in the afternoon, and lands in Adelaide at 10 
the following morning — 483 miles. 

That night he takes the Broken Hill Express, 
changes from the S.A. broad gauge line to the 
narrow gauge at Terowie, and arrives at the Hill 
in time for breakfast — -334 miles. 

Its comparative proximity to Broken Hill has 
been a good thing for Adelaide. 

The reader will assume that he is one of an 
assorted crowd of passengers boarding the ex- 
press at Adelaide. As all readers are permitted 
to travel in comfort, he will take his seat in the 
observation car, with easy chairs and abundant 
room. The majority of his fellow-passengers 



crowd the second-class compartments — mothers 
with babies, giggling girls, noisy youths, typical 
bush people bound for intermediate stations in 
the North. 

At Terowie, after he has located his sleeping 
berth in the narrow-gauge train, he can join the 
boisterous crowd which besieges the coffee stall, 
and see for himself that an Australian is not 
necessarily a melancholy character. Most of these 
night-travellers will be miners and miners' people 
en route to the Hill. 

After snatching their late refreshments they get 
into a long car, with parallel seats around the 
sides, not too comfortable if crowded, and settle 
themselves in rugs and top-coats for the night. 

Morning finds the moving train skirting the 
low brown hills of the Barrier. Redgums mark 
dry watercourses which have their sources in these 
hills and may occasionally carry some of their 
flood waters as far as Lake Frome. The land 
is rich, red and arid — flat, saving for the Barrier 
Range. 

The sun rises in a cloudless sky. In winter the 
days are cool and the climate bracing. After 
rains the whole landscape is robed with delicate 
herbage and flowers. Miles of white everlast- 
ings sometimes give it the appearance of being 
sprinkled with light snow. Salt bush, blue bush, 
mulga, acacia, the usual panorama — nothing to 
indicate that over the fringe of hills, from the be- 
ginning of geological time. Nature has been hug- 
ging one of her richest secrets. 



BROKEN HILL 



255 




A Broken Hill " Landscape" 



Then the train glides smoothly into a vast 
amphitheatre in the hills, and the traveller finds 
himself among streets and crowds and steam 
trams and the traffic of a city. 

The people alight. Miners coming back home 
are met by their wives and youngsters; people 
shout recognitions to their acquaintances, the air 
vibrates with questions and answers, and with 
a hotel badge on his cap, a stranded player of 
minor parts comes forward and looks awkwardly 
after our luggage. The cabman charges us 2/- 
each to drive 200 yards. He looks at us as if 
we ought to have paid him double. It is all in the 
manner of mining places. 

Broken Hill is not beautiful, but it is vastly in- 
teresting. 

Early in 1882 this city of thirty odd thousand 
inhabitants was part of a sheep run. If an in- 
spired magician had gone to the Government 
geologist and told him that it was to be the site 
of the greatest silver-lead-zinc mine in the world, 
that prophet would have been told to take more 
water with his whisky. 

After 1883 his pronouncements might have re- 
ceived more attention. 

The discovery of Broken Hill was preceded 
by discoveries of silver-lead in adjoining dis- 
tricts. 



As far back as 1876 Patrick Green found sil- 
ver at Thackaringa. Prospectors got to work, 
and Apollyn Valley, Day Dream, Purnamoota 
and Silverton were opened. Each had its day, 
and if mining authorities are right there are pos- 
sibilities for some of these old fields yet. 

Silverton rose to be a place of some importance 
— until the brighter star of Broken Hill quenched 
its light. 

Prior to November, 1883, this same Patrick 
Green — a Menindie storekeeper, full of faith and 
determination, an optimist — was using what he 
made out of Thackaringa in a mineral quest 
along the Barrier. He largely fathered the pre- 
liminary fields. In 1883, with a party of pros- 
pectors, he arrived at Broken Hill, pegged out a 
copper claim, and sank a shaft. The shaft proved 
barren of results, and the claim was abandoned. 

The actual credit of discovery belongs to 
Charles Rasp, a boundary-rider on Mount Gipps 
Station, on which the Hill was located. As an 
example of what may happen to boundary-riders 
in Australia, he pegged out a claim which six 
years afterwards was valued at £8,750,000! 

A syndicate was formed to handle Rasp's find. 
It was comprised — to quote R. de S. Magnussen, 
who haswritten an interesting account of the early 
field — "of G. W. McCulloch (the overseer of 



256 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



"Mount Gipps), two station hands, a blacksmith, 
"a jackeroo, and two teamsters." This syndicate 
put down a shaft to the depth of 50 feet. The 
original company held their property in seven 
shares. Their claim embraced Blocks 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, 15, and 16. These seven blocks covered 
the property of the original Broken Hill Proprie- 
tary Company. 

It was some time before the syndicate knew the 
lvalue of what it held. Some of the station hands 
found the call of 10/- a week on their resources 
too great. The ground was then costing £7 a 
week to work. They sold out twenty-eighths or 
half-fourteenths of their interests. McCulloch 
was angry because to get at the workings wire 
fences had to be broken and sheep disturbed. 
Sheep have always been a sacred interest in Aus- 
tralia. One day he played euchre with a man 
named Cox on Mt. Gipps Station to see whether 
Cox would pay him £50 or £100 for a share. 
McCulloch won; Cox paid £100 for the share. 
It would have added another million to McCul- 
loch's princely fortune. 

An early speculator bought three shares for 
£320. He sold one for £105, one for £200, and 
kept the third. In six years — taking in the 
bonuses and dividends it was worth £1,250,000. 

Some of the original syndicate became patrons 
of art, famous horse breeders, millionaires. 
Others passed quietly out of the history of the 
Hill. 

The discovery of chlorides in large quantities 
In 1885 brought the Barrier definitely into the 
front rank of the world's greatest mines. In 
1905, twenty years later, the value of Broken 
Hill's trade — export and import — for the year 
was £2,612,334. 

Not bad for Sturt's "worst country in the 
"world." Sturt was almost as far away from 
the true Australia as Dampier. 

By 1905 the Broken Hill Proprietary Coy. had 
paid in cash and bonuses nearly £1 1,000,000. The 
storekeeper on Mt. Gipps was a pessimist. His 
mind was full of that peculiar disbelief which has 
been so prevalent in Australia. This type of 
colonist has always looked on the darkest side. 
If the rain did not come at the expected time, there 
was sure to be a drought. If it did not stop 
raining precisely when the pessimist imagined it 
ought to, there was sure to be a flood. 

If a crop showed signs of a poor yield, the dis- 
trict was permanently unsuited for agriculture. 

If the harvests were plentiful the prices were 
certain to fall — and so on. This mournful band, 
whose delight it has been to prophesy disaster 
and defame the country, have been called 
"calamity howlers." New South Wales has had 
them from the very beginning. 



So the storekeeper on Mount Gipps sold his 
original seventh interest In the greatest silver- 
lead-zinc proposition in the world — for £25 ! 

This Is what the half-yearly report of the 
Company In 1887 said: "After eight months' 
time another of the original syndicate also 
sold out to his partners, and it was then 
found necessary to re-form the Company into 
one made up of 14 shares of equal interest. 
Towards the end of 1884, the existence of chlor- 
ides was first noticed in Rasp's shaft. This gave an 
impetus to prospecting, and chlorides were 
shortly afterwards noticed on the surface of 
the iron ore by Thomas Low, who at the 
time purchased, by private arrangement, one half 
of a fourteenth share. The rich surface kaolin 
ore was accidentally dropped across by Harry, 
an aboriginal in the employ of Mr. Jamieson, 
who had taken the management of the property. 
Since the beginning of 1885, the prosperous ad- 
vance of the Company has been most satisfactory, 
without check or hindrance, and perhaps unparal- 
leled in this respect In the mining history of the 
colonies. Not the slightest hitch or dispute to 
occasion litigation of any kind has arisen to mar 
its progress, things moving smoothly, without 
failure, from success to further success. ' The 
Broken Hill Mining Company ' was floated into 
'The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited' 
on the 1 2th August, 1885. The original four- 
teen holders appearing upon the first-named Com- 
pany's agreement were : — Wm. Jamieson, W. C. 
Dalgllsh, K. E. Brodribb, Solomon Wiseman, 
Charles Rasp, E. Thomson, Bowes Kelly, W. R. 
Wilson, David James, James Poole, Phillip Char- 
ley, A. W. Cox, and George McCulloch. Of the 
original holders of the first syndicate of seven, 
there are now (1887) only McCulloch, Charley, 
Rasp, and James, who hold shares In the present 
Company. Mr. McCulloch has continued his 
large interest In the Company, and has throughout 
been prominently Identified with Its marked suc- 
cess." 

Some figures issued by the Broken Hill Propy. 
Coy. In 191 1 show how personally unprofitable 
pessimism may sometimes prove In Australia, and 
how Faith, national and Individual, pays best in 
the long run. Here is the illuminating result from 
that once despised corner of Mount Gipps Sta- 
tion — "the broken hill." 

Normal pre-war figures are given in the news- 
paper excerpt at the beginning of this chapter. 
To produce, were it even for one year, a 
quarter of the world's lead and a sixteenth of the 
world's silver is something for this remote corner 
of the Western Division, once regarded as the 
least profitable part of New South Wales. 



BROKEN HILL 



257 



I 




Ore Dressing Plant, Broken Hill Proprietary 



But Broken Hill has done more. It has led 
the mining world in method and organization 
and taught the world new processes and treat- 
ments for ores. It has been a training ground 
for engineers and metallurgists, some of whom 
have risen to world-wide distinction. Its mana- 
gers have drawn salaries greater than State gov- 
ernors. The fluctuations of its output have 
affected the price of metals, ^nd, as the second 
city in New South Wales, neither its political nor 
financial voice can be treated with disrespect. 

Of course Broken Hill was not without the 
"boom" which is a feature of all great mineral 
propositions. When the richness of the find was 
fully realized, Australian speculators and share- 
mongers went temporarily crazy. The country 
for miles around was pegged out. Syndicate after 
syndicate formed, floated, and fell. Men made 

L fortunes in a week, and lost them in less than an 

K' hour. 

H Some of the fortunes were made on a pure 

W fiction; others had a solid foundation in fact. 

B Block 10 Mine offered an example of the latter. 

■ At that period of its development when the man- 



agement were expecting to cut the lode, business 
in shares became brisk. They stood at £3/6/- 
when the announcement was made that the lode 
had proved to be phenomenally rich. Then they 
sprang to £20, and people who held them found 
their bank balances suddenly swollen to a degree 
they had hardly anticipated. 

In March, 1888, when the boom was at its 
height, the capital market value of the Barrier 
mines was more than sixteen millions of pounds. 

The field has long entered the normal path of 
development, and will continue to be a producer 
of silver, lead, zinc, copper and gold for many 
years to come. 

The geology of the Hill has naturally attracted 
attention from scientists all over the world. These 
remarkable deposits of valuable ores have formed 
the subject of many a scientific paper; they have 
inspired more than one treatise; and their in- 
terest to the mining man, the chemist, and the 
engineer is perpetual. 

According to Mr. E. F. Pittman, sometime 
Government Geologist of New South Wales, the 
Broken Hill ore deposits do not occur in what is 



258 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



known as an ordinary fissure lode, but are of the 
class called "segregated lodes" or "saddle" reefs, 
resembling in some respects the auriferous saddle 
reefs of Bendigo, Victoria. The Broken Hill 
reefs are argentiferous, although they contain a 
percentage of gold. They consist, at or near the 
surface, of manganiferous ironstone, which below 
is replaced by kaolin and oxidised ores (carbon- 
ates) of lead. These, again, at greater depths, 
are succeeded by sulphides of lead and zinc. 

The overcoming of the "sulphide" problem has 
been among the historical achievements of the 
Hill. 

One of the chief points of interest about these 
saddle reefs is that while the "legs" of the saddles 
invariably thin out and disappear in depth, the 
permanence of the mines is assured by the cer- 
tainty of other saddles being discovered almost 
perpendicularly under the first and at greater or 
less intervals of depth. 

"The Broken Hill lode," said Mr. Pittman in 
1892, "appears to be a huge saddle lode formed 
"in a fissure which owed its shape to the contor- 
"tions which the gneissic rocks have undergone. 
"If this opinion is correct, the possibility is that 
"the eastern and western legs will be found to 
"thin out gradually as they descend, and in that 
"case the depth at which they would disappear 
"would depend to a great extent upon the width 
"of the synclinal basins on either side of the hill. 
". . . What appears, however, to be the most 
"interesting question is the possibility of simi- 
"larly shaped lodes being found vertically under 
"the present one, as they are found to occur in 
"Bendigo." 

The geological problems of eighteen years ago 
have been solved in part; the main consideration 
these times is economical working. The mines 
in operation^Proprietary, Junction, Junction 
North, Amalgamated Zinc, British, Block 14, 
Block 10, Sulphide Corporation South, Zinc Cor- 
poration, South Extended — with all of them the 
matter has resolved itself into cheap process which 
will leave a profit on the market values of metals. 

So that the visitor to Broken Hill finds not the 
romantic mining-camp of early days, but a row of 
smoke stacks along the hillside for a mile and 
a quarter, over which hangs a heavy plume of 
smoke by day and a dull glow of arc lights and 
furnaces, reflected skyward, at night. 

He hears the hoai'se voices of steam whistles 
calling the "shifts." He sees in the distance great 
hillocks of "slag" and dumps, the size of which is 
some indication of the operations of the particular 
property it marks. 

These great heaps of tailings stand at intervals 
along the line of lode and represent an incredible 
amount of underground and surface labor. 



As he approaches the scarred hillside a pecu- 
liar murmuring noise issues from the disturbed 
■slopes. It resembles the droning of a titanic 
hive of bees in swarm — rhythmical, persistent — 
carrying a note of anger or warning; and be- 
speaking a tremendous activity. This ever-present 
sound proceeds from the machines along the slope, 
purring like gigantic cats in the sun. 

All day, all night long they are at work, grind- 
ing, grinding ore into dividends for shareholders, 
into salaries for officers, into wages for men. 

It is not beautiful, this city of the Barrier, 
standing unique, tremendous, in an open land- 
scape of hundreds of miles. But it is wonderful, 
not only to geologists, chemists, engineers, but 
to philosophers, students of economics, writers 
of history. 

The joy of the Hill is a garden, but the scar- 
city or cost of water has to be taken into con- 
sideration by residents, so the place is not beau- 
tiful as it might be. The happiest face in Broken 
Hill will probably be that of the lady who has 
two small plots of buffalo-grass lawn and a shady 
pepper tree in front of her cottage. 

Up at the Roman Catholic Convent they have 
a bangalow and a cabbage palm, which are treated 
with a tenderness akin to that bestowed on deli- 
cate growing children. 

On the Western Hill stands the granite cathe- 
dral. Opposite, on the "broken hill," are the 
mines. 

Between Religion and Science, facing one ano- 
ther like hostile armies, lies the town. 

The boundary-riders who watched their sheep 
grazing in the hollow thirty years ago, heard no 
echo from the future of church bells or machin- 
ery. There are, throughout the length and 
breadth of this Commonwealth, many another 
hill and hollow, pregnant with future cities, 
where sheep are grazing peacefully to-day. 

If the physical appearance of Broken Hill 
children is a guide, there is no part of inland 
Australia which cannot be occupied by Europeans. 

For seven months in the year the climate of 
Broken Hill is delightful; the other five months 
are hot. But if people would only learn, the heat 
and discomfort of these five hot months could be 
minimised. 

Unfortunately, Australia has not given the 
question of housing, clothing, food, and habit, 
the attention which their importance in the scheme 
of effective white occupation demands. 

Broken Hill offers examples. Its climate is 
dry and healthy. Consumptives have been sent 
to the Barrier to die, and gone away cured. 

For five months out of the twelve, residents 
must put up with a certain amount of inconveni- 
ence. If the definite objective of the population : 
were to reduce that inconvenience by every pos- 



BROKEN HILL 



259 



sible means, life in the summer months would be 
as pleasant as any other time. Apart from its 
exceedingly healthy climate this land is every- 
where intensely fertile. It will grow anything 
if it can be irrigated. 

Unluckily for Broken Hill, the city water sup- 
ply is a monopoly, and the charge is 5/- a thou- 
sand gallons for domestic purposes. 

This, and the uncertainty that always hangs 



covery of a further refining treatment, suddenly 
converted into reserves of great value. 

The open spaces are crossed and recrossed by 
rails; iron trucks rattle; iron arms of steam 
shovels swing towards the tailings, dip with auto- 
matic movement into the black heap, and swing 
back to the railway waggons, loaded with sand 
which has already been through the mills and is 
now going back to be treated by a new process 
and the last fraction of its mineral value ex- 



over a mining district, together with the heavy 

tariff inflicted by another monopoly controlling tracted. 

the connecting railway between Cockburn on the Out of a mass of galvanised roofs, iron 

South Australian border and Broken Hill, have smoke-stacks project — spires of the Churches of 




Broken Hill Proprietary Silver Mine 



itended to make it poor in private gardens and 
[foliage. It suffers by comparison with Mount 
[Morgan or Kalgoorlie or Charters Towers, nor 
Ihave its wealthier citizens displayed the same 
Jatriotism as those of Bendigo and Ballarat. 

In its remoteness and concentration Broken 
Hill, with 7,000 to 8,000 working miners, its 
steam trams and camel-drivers, its galvanised 
houses and granite cathedral, whirling flywheels, 
ore-laden trains, smoke, noise and dust, consti- 
tutes a world of its own, a world isolated from 
the rest of civilization, and yet more modern in 
certain aspects than most cities. 

One only needs to visit the surface workings 
of the mines to see this. Here one gets a closer 
view of these enormous mounds of black sand — 
the pulverised hearts of the hills, which, after 
being cast aside as worthless, were, by the dis- 



I 



Mammon, whose votaries are toiling deep under- 
ground, some far below the very roots of the 
ranges — 1,300 feet and more. 

Rusted, discarded machinery lies about every- 
where, proof that one expensive mechanical sys- 
tem has displaced another, during the twenty- 
eight or thirty years of the field's existence. 

Telephone poles and electric standards mani- 
fest the universal use of the forces of electricity, 
which has now entered so largely into the subju- 
gation of matter. 

That "broken hill" where the wallabies were 
once plentiful, is bare, torn, tunnelled, beheaded, 
levelled, devilled, and unmercifully dishevelled. 

Nature has been ransacked, explored, ex- 
ploited and infinitely vulgarised by the spoiler. 
Industry, the ravisher of peaceful solitude, from 
whose strenuous thighs great wealth is born in 
sore travail, has erected its dwelling here. 



262 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



filled. Finally, as we have seen, the worthless 
waste — from which all mineral values have been 
ground, crushed, rolled, washed, and chemically 
extracted — is automatically conveyed into a gap- 
ing excavation on the crown of the lode, left by 
early operations. 

Industry has taken the heart out of the hill, 
powdered it, sieved it, sifted it, reduced it to com- 
ponent atoms, retained what it required for the 
uses of man, and returned the country rock as 
clean-washed sand. 

In her own laboratories Nature effects some 
astonishing changes, but she takes lakhs of cen- 
turies to get her results. Man, being short-lived, 
goes through all the phases of big reductions in 
a few hours. 

Short of the transmutation of metals, atomic 
reduction — exampled in the zinc mill at Broken 
Hill — seems to be the last word. 

Wages paid on the Hill (1916) are for shift 
bosses, £4/10/- a week; miners, minimum wage, 
11/3 daily, the hours of labour being 44 hours 



per week. On contract work the men earn as 
much as 18/- a day. They have a Co-operative 
Meat Supply and a Co-operative Store in the 
town, both working on a profitable basis. 

After nearly thirty years of activity the Barrier 
fields still seem to have a long life before them. 
Geologists have said that there is a "mother lode" 
yet to be discovered. Along the present line of' 
the lode stand the poppet heads of putative 
mines — some just complying with labor condi- 
tions, some moribund or dead. The Pinnacles, 
for which great things have been predicted, stands 
out in blue prominence in the southern skyline. 
Between it and the Hill lie many possibilities, and 
Northward again the chances lie. 

The Darling River is only sixty-five miles 
away. If Western Australia carried water to 
Kalgoorlie — 300 miles, New South Wales may 
yet be justified in taking water to the Barrier and 
beyond it. 

The red soils between will grow anything. 
Some day it will all come good. 




A Broken Hill Silver Mine 



{^(>z) 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY. 



KNOWEST thou the land where the citron 
blooms?" If Heine had seen the sunny 
south coast of New South Wales he might 
have written it, "Knowest thou the land where 
the rock-melon ripens? " 

It was a morning late in January, 1914. 
Two of us sat on the balcony of a hotel in Nowra, 
and the rock melon's netted rind, neatly divided 
into sections, lay empty before us. 

We had purchased it in a fruit shop up-street 
for fourpence but a half-hour previously. Now, 
it was no more than a luscious memory. 

From a contemplation of our fruit we turned 
to contemplate the green land around us. Fer- 
ility and peace were the keynotes in that sweet 
ymphony of Nature. " Breathes there a man 
ith soul so dead — " who, looking over Shoal- 
haven, does not feel proud to be an Australian? 
There is no discord in the Aeolian harpings of its 
winds; there is naught but beauty in its gently 
undulating lines. 

English blackberries hung in ripening clusters 
on its hedges. Scented lilies diffused their 
ineffable fragrance by the banks of its rippling 
creeks. Its maize fields are defiant of drought; 
there are no pests in its orchards, and the dairy- 
en know what riches fountain into the milk-pails, 
all the year round. 

By the establishment of a storage reservoir on 
the Shoalhaven River — at a suitable base above 
urrier, 12 miles from Nowra — the latter dis- 
rict. Berry, and probably Kiama, could be 
[developed as irrigation settlements. Production 
would be enormously increased; with a near 
market in Sydney, the -future will doubtless see 
the whole of this southern Illawarra and Cambe- 
arra converted into irrigable gardens and small 
airy farms. Near Nowra is a plot of 28 acres, 
held by Chinese at an annual rental of £5 per acre. 
In dry years, with irrigation, these Chinese 
gardeners succeed in raising five tons of potatoes 
to the acre — which, doubtless, pays them hand- 
somely. 

The irrigable belt near Nowra contains about 
32,000 acres of magnificent alluvial soil. At the 
present time this land is worth on an average £40 
an acre. One farm of 800 acres was recently sold 
for £40,000. Some of this has produced as much 
as 100 bushels of maize to the acre. 



^Kas I 



Between Nowra and Burrier, however, 
there is Government land valued at £1 an acre, 
much of which, with irrigation, might be turneJ 
to profitable account. 

While looking out over verdant Shoalhaven 
and discussing these possibilities of future coastal 
development, there arrived O. L. Harrison, of 
the N.S.W. Forestry Department, in his busy 
little Cadillac car. 

It had been arranged that we should accom- 
pany Mr. Harrison on one of his down-coast tours 
of inspection. The journeys and voyages under- 
taken in search of accurate material for this book 
have never been tedious, but some of them have 
proved more enjoyable than others. That ten 
days travel with Forester Harrison was amongst 
the most memorable. It has left dreamy recollec- 
tions of hours that were as near to perfection as 
Earth can give. 

Although it was midsummer, there had been 
some rain; whereby the dust was checked and the 
atmosphere sweetened and cooled. 

The southern coast of New South Wales en- 
joys perhaps the best climate in Australia; its 
roads are excellent, its inns comfortable, and its 
people hospitable and friendly. 



Down the South Coast from Nowra to Eden, 
prosperous dairy towns and villages follow one 
another. The land is rich, the seasons usually 
good, and coastal steamers plying regularly to 
the different seaports keep the farmers in touch 
with their markets. Overland communication 
with the rail-head at Nowra is kept up by motor 
and coach services. 

Added to all the native attractions of the Land, 
we had a travelling companion who knew every 
track, bend, and beauty spot, as well as a Sydney 
tram driver knows the road to Circular Quay. 

From Nowra to the junction of the Crook- 
haven and Shoalhaven — where one gets a glint 
of the blue Pacific — the road runs through the 
alluvial belt already mentioned as a future irriga- 
tion possibihty. 

We took this before lunch, ere starting out on 
our four hundred mile jaunt to the South. 

At a little roadside orchard, worked by one P. 
Caffery, as an adjunct to his dairy farm, we pulled 



262 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



filled. Finally, as we have seen, the worthless 
waste — from which all mineral values have been 
ground, crushed, rolled, washed, and chemically 
extracted — is automatically conveyed into a gap- 
ing excavation on the crown of the lode, left by 
early operations. 

Industry has taken the heart out of the hill, 
powdered it, sieved it, sifted it, reduced it to com- 
ponent atoms, retained what it required for the 
uses of man, and returned the country rock as 
clean-washed sand. 

In her own laboratories Nature effects some 
astonishing changes, but she takes lakhs of cen- 
turies to get her results. Man, being short-lived, 
goes through all the phases of big reductions in 
a few hours. 

Short of the transmutation of metals, atomic 
reduction — exampled in the zinc mill at Broken 
Hill — seems to be the last word. 

Wages paid on the Hill (191 6) are for shift 
bosses, £4/10/- a week; miners, minimum wage, 
1 1/3 daily, the hours of labour being 44 hours 



per week. On contract work the men earn as 
much as 18/- a day. They have a Co-operative 
Meat Supply and a Co-operative Store in the 
town, both working on a profitable basis. 

After nearly thirty years of activity the Barrier 
fields still seem to have a long life before them. 
Geologists have said that there is a "mother lode" 
yet to be discovered. Along the present line of 
the lode stand the poppet heads of putative 
mines — some just complying with labor condi- 
tions, some moribund or dead. The Pinnacles, 
for which great things have been predicted, stands 
out in blue prominence in the southern skyline. 
Between it and the Hill lie many possibilities, and 
Northward again the chances lie. 

The Darling River is only sixty-five miles 
away. If Western Australia carried water to 
Kalgoorlie — 300 miles, New South Wales may 
yet be justified in taking water to the Barrier and 
beyond it. 

The red soils between will grow anything. 
Some day it will all come good. 




A Broken Hill Silver Mine 



(263) 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY. 



KNOWEST thou the land where the citron 
blooms?" If Heine had seen the sunny 
south coast of New South Wales he might 
have written it, "Knowest thou the land where 
the rock-melon ripens? " 

It was a morning late in January, 19 14. 
Two of us sat on the balcony of a hotel in Nowra, 
and the rock melon's netted rind, neatly divided 
into sections, lay empty before us. 

We had purchased it in a fruit shop up-street 
for fourpence but a half-hour previously. Now, 
it was no more than a luscious memory. 

From a contemplation of our fruit we turned 

o contemplate the green land around us. Fer- 

ility and peace were the keynotes in that sweet 

fsymphony of Nature. " Breathes there a man 

ith soul so dead — " who, looking over Shoal- 
Siaven, does not feel proud to be an Australian? 

here is no discord in the Aeolian harpings of its 

inds; there is naught but beauty in its gently 

ndulating lines. 
English blackberries hung in ripening clusters 
on its hedges. Scented lilies diffused their 
ineffable fragrance by the banks of its rippling 
creeks. Its maize fields are defiant of drought; 
there are no pests in its orchards, and the dairy- 
men know what riches fountain into the milk-pails, 
all the year round. 

By the establishment of a storage reservoir on 
the Shoalhaven River — at a suitable base above 

urrier, 1 2 miles from Nowra — the latter dis- 
rict. Berry, and probably Kiama, could be 

eveloped as irrigation settlements. Production 
would be enormously increased; with a near 

arket in Sydney, the -future will doubtless see 
the whole of this southern Illawarra and Cambe- 

arra converted into irrigable gardens and small 

airy farms. Near Nowra is a plot of 28 acres, 
held by Chinese at an annual rental of £5 per acre. 
In dry years, with irrigation, these Chinese 
gardeners succeed in raising five tons of potatoes 
to the acre — which, doubtless, pays them hand- 
somely. 

The irrigable belt near Nowra contains about 
32,000 acres of magnificent alluvial soil. At the 
present time this land is worth on an average £40 
an acre. One farm of 800 acres was recently sold 
for £40,000. Some of this has produced as much 
as 100 bushels of maize to the acre. 



^■as i( 



Between Nowra and Burner, however, 
there is Government land valued at £1 an acre, 
much of which, with irrigation, might be turneu 
to profitable account. 

While looking out over verdant Shoalhaven 
and discussing these possibilities of future coastal 
development, there arrived O. L. Harrison, of 
the N.S.W. Forestry Department, in his busy 
little Cadillac car. 

It had been arranged that we should accom- 
pany Mr. Harrison on one of his down-coast tours 
of inspection. The journeys and voyages under- 
taken in search of accurate material for this book 
have never been tedious, but some of them have 
proved more enjoyable than others. That ten 
days travel with Forester Harrison was amongst 
the most memorable. It has left dreamy recollec- 
tions of hours that were as near to perfection as 
Earth can give. 

Although it was midsummer, there had been 
some rain; whereby the dust was checked and the 
atmosphere sweetened and cooled. 

The southern coast of New South Wales en- 
joys perhaps the best climate in Australia; its 
roads are excellent, its inns comfortable, and its 
people hospitable and friendly. 



Down the South Coast from Nowra to Eden, 
prosperous dairy towns and villages follow one 
another. The land is rich, the seasons usually 
good, and coastal steamers plying regularly to 
the different seaports keep the farmers in touch 
with their markets. Overland communication 
with the rail-head at Nowra is kept up by motor 
and coach services. 

Added to all the native attractions of the Land, 
we had a travelling companion who knew every 
track, bend, and beauty spot, as well as a Sydney 
tram driver knows the road to Circular Quay. 

From Nowra to the junction of the Crook- 
haven and Shoalhaven — where one gets a glint 
of the blue Pacific — the road runs through the 
alluvial belt already mentioned as a future irriga- 
tion possibility. 

We took this before lunch, ere starting out on 
our four hundred mile jaunt to the South. 

At a little roadside orchard, worked by one P. 
Caffery, as an adjunct to his dairy farm, we pulled 



"vT^SHiJ'-'" "'■'":"' £-.4ifcC; 







■a 



3 
O 
09 






264 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY 



265 



up to eat peaches and plums. Stone-fruits flourish 
in this locality. The amiable Caffery fed us with 
red nectarines, golden drop plums, and rosy- 
cheeked peaches, till we could eat no more. 

We returned to lunch with pleasing impressions 
of green flats, fat cows, melon patches, silky oaks, 
willows and jacarandas, fertility, beauty and 
prosperity. Later, when we set out again on our 
journey by the main coast road, it was with a very 
contented mind. 

The road ran through noble bush, up hill and 
down. Blackbutt, turpentine, ironbark, and 
bloodwood were the prevailing timbers; but now 
and then a hillside curve or bend would bring us 
in sight of a gully beautiful with palms and tree 
ferns; or a dip downhill led us across a green flat, 
where, on cleared farm lands, dairy cows and 
maize crops flourished. Always on the western 
side of us there was a blue background of moun- 
tains, which practically remained, in many varying 
contours, all the way down coast. Now and then 
we caught a glimpse of blue waters eastward. 

So, with mountains on the right, and sea on the 
left, we journeyed leisurely. 

Over the grassy shoulders of a cleared hillside 
we saw Lake Conjola; looking in the afternoon 
light like an immense bed of blue cornflowers in 
bloom. 

We motored into Milton, through rich grazing 
and dairying hill-farms; worth in some places £45 
an acre. 

Milton, lying beyond the railway, is an old and 
quaint village. It is perched on a high ridge, 
which overlooks a scene of great fertility. 

Between Nowra and Eden there are many old- 
fashioned gardens, with tall hollyhocks, and blue 
larkspur, and red cabbage-roses, to keep folk in 
mind of colonial days. 

Motor cars and military bands, of course, they 
have on the South Coast, but the air of once-upon- 
a-time, somehow, clings to it still. Not all the 
khaki uniforms, nor bandoliers, nor magazine 
rifles, nor high-decked military saddles of its 
smart modern yeomanry, can quite dispel the feel- 
ing that Captain Waldron or Captain Weston, 
with a squad of British regulars in long red coats, 
with Brown Besses, bayonets, pipe-clayed belts — 
and all the uniform and accoutrements of William 
or young Queen Victoria will shortly come march- 
ing, drummers and fifers at their head, down the 
South Coast road. Nor all the motor cars with 
their hoarse noises, polished lamps, coughing 
exhausts, and burning engines can quite put out of 
one's mind the thought that Cobb & Co.'s mail 
coach must be somewhere just ahead. 

More forests and flats, maize paddocks and 
farms lie before us. There are creeks whereby 



the dog-wood and myrtle are flowering. Over 
these we will run carefully. The hillsides are 
well-graded, the creeks spanned by stout, little 
wooden bridges — the roadmakers' art has been 
exercised to good purpose. So we glide quickly, 
smoothly, and, with constantly stimulated interest, 
through an Ideal country. 

Now and again we pass a timber mill, usually 
no more than a long, low iron-roofed shed with a 
saw bench and appliances for hauling logs. These 
mills are mostly located on some tidal creek or 
inlet, where ready water-carriage relieves them of 
their output. Sometimes the timber is rafted, but 
more often loaded directly into little coasting 
steamers, specially built, on a shallow draught, to 
handle this trade. 

By and bye we come to UlladuUa, which leaves 
a memory of a blue bay, a breakwater and sandy 
beaches, overlooked by forested hills. Norfolk 
pines and spreading fig trees, throwing a dense 
black shade, complete the picture. 

Ulladulla, four miles south of Milton, is 
located in a picturesque lake district, where fish 
and game are plentiful. Like other South Coast 
districts, Ulladulla has been the nesting-place for 
a sturdy brood of young dairymen who, when the 
time came, trekked northward to the more tropi- 
cal districts of the Richmond and Tweed, which 
they helped to subdue and convert Into rich farm 




h 



Turpentine Trees 



266 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



lands. Just as South Coast men went north 
years ago, North Coast men are now trekking 
further north into Queensland. The trend of 
migration is likely to be from south to north 
in the future. 

Ulladulla — most melodious of aboriginal 
words — will always be beautiful. Its grassy hills, 
wide coastal lagoons and jungled gullies lure the 
hunter and the dreamer to sylvan delights. 



Apart from being a marksman, the hunter 
must know the habits of game; the necessary 
bushcraft is not picked up in a day. Readers 
of this book will bear these facts in mind. Aus- 
tralia is a sportsman's paradise, but the sports- 
man must learn many pages of Nature's Book if 
he wishes to avoid disappointment. 

F"or example, below Eden, forty miles or so, is 
the Mallacoota Inlet. At certain seasons of the 




A Cream Cart 



The good rock oyster fattens inshore, and 
along romantic sea-margins whimbrel and godwit 
call. It is good to tramp some coastal marsh or 
foreland, well waterproofed and gaitered, when 
the south wind is whipping the spindrift, and, 
from grey clouds, comes down a warm slant rain. 

Then is the time to crouch under cover, where 
the wheeling black duck alight to feed. 

Good also it is to whistle the pointers to you at 
early morning, ere the dew has left the grass, 
and walk rushy flats or stubble paddocks for 
quail. One may be assured of sport in proper 
season anywhere along this littoral between 
Nowra and Eden. 

But as fishermen are born, not made, the perfect 
hunter cannot be evolved, save from specially 
adaptable material. The unskilled amateur will 
go into a district where game is plentiful and get 
nothing. The experienced sportsman will go 
where game are scarce or shy and still secure his 
bag. 



year a stranger might sail all day over a series of 
salt lakes and freshwater rivers and see, perhaps, 
a dozen birds. But if the stranger knew just 
where to hide from sundown to dark, he might 
shoot as many ducks as he could carry. 

At any day-time of the year he will not see a 
blue-wing duck on Mallacoota. 

But if he knew where to "plant," and he knew 
how to shoot by the splash of alighting birds or 
by starlight, moonlight, or no light at all — as an 
experienced duck-shooter can — he will get blue 
wing — not earlier than 9 p.m. any evening. 

Where those particular blue-wing come from; 
where they go ; why they never arrive until night- 
fall, and why they leave the waters of Mallacoota 
before daylight is one of those nature 
problems which the writer has been unable to 
solve. It is doubtful if the New South Wales 
Intelligence Department — an encyclopaedia of 
interesting information — has solved it either. . . 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY 



267 



Our good forester said we would get oysters have described the Australian Bush as monoton- 
at Bateman's Bay. Having already found him a ous. No botanist, no lover of Nature, could ever 
reliable authority on South Coast matters, we find it other than beautiful and interesting. The 



accepted his assurance with the faith of Hadji 
pilgrims on the road to Mecca. 

Crossing the picturesque Clyde River by a slow 
punt we came to the Clyde Hotel — another low- 
roofed South Coast inn filled with grateful sur- 
prises. 

They gave us oysters, in sooth, luscious, flavour- 
able, memorable oysters, freshly opened — three 
large plates. 

Then they served us an excellent soup, and 
followed it with fish, newly-whisked from the salt 
water near by. Then they pressed us to asparagus 
and roast lamb and mint sauce, and seemed 
grieved because we ate sparingly. Rather than 
hurt their hospitable feelings we attacked the 
rice custard and plums, and the peach pie with 
baked custard; but, there is a limit to the capacity 
even of hungry travellers an hour late for Sunday 
dinner. 

For a while afterwards we sat on the verandah 
of the hotel looking idly at the hazy entrance to 
Bateman's Bay, looking at sea, island, training 
wall, and long reaches of tidal sands — all very 
beautiful, full of colour, and fanned by the winds 
of perfect peace. 

Inland, the still waters of the Clyde opened out 
into wooded hills, with blue ranges in the far 
background. 

It is a picturesque district, and its limited popu- 
lation enjoy prosperity — and the finest of oysters. 
The fishing, they told us, was good, but we might 
not linger. 

Once again the quiet, competent Harrison 
turned the starting handle of his reliable little 
car, and we glided on through alternate forest 
and Hat towards Moruya. 

Anon, the road wound into coastal hills. Many 
stiff climbs and sharp turns gave it variety. The 
sides of these hills are thickly covered with dark, 
palm-leaved macrozamia, from whose ripe red 
seeds — protected by a spiked green outer case, 
resembling a pineapple — a food substance re- 
sembling arrowroot has, it is said, lately been 
extracted. It is claimed that this starchy product 
contains much nutriment. An attempt is being 
made to commercialise it. 

The forests immediately south of Bateman's 
Bay contain spotted gum and blackbutt of good 
quality. New South Wales spotted gum has been 
proved one of our most valuable hardwoods. It 
enters largely into carriage work. It is light and 
strong, and more durable than American hickory. 
The tree itself, with its tall white trunks covered 
with leopard-like spots, umbrageous foliage, and 
smooth, regular branches, is one of the finest in 
^ur glorious native flora. Superficial writers 



wonderful hardwood forests which cover so many 
thousands of square miles of this Continent are 
an asset beyond calculation. 

There are yet magnificent belts of com- 
mercial timbers in Southern New South Wales, 
which are receiving the careful attention of the 
Forestry Department. 




k 



Blackbutt, Bateman's Bay 



As we motored through these, our forester 
friend gave us details of forestry work, of the 
quality, value, tensile strength, and use of various 
timbers. He opened for us a book of woodcraft, 
which made an interesting journey still more en- 
joyable. 

By and by, of a clear Sunday afternoon, we 
petrolled out of the high timber, and entered a 
region of more frequent houses, with trim gardens 
and orchards around them. 

Moruya appeared before us. The town is ap- 
proached by a long bridge spanning a tidal river. 
It is the centre of an exceedingly fertile district, 
surrounded by alluvial flats growing prolific maize 
crops, and has a fine background of blue moun- 
tains. 



268 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED. 



Moruya is hospitable, prosperous, picturesque. 
Poverty does not exist on the South Coast; most 
people are making money, and everybody enjoys 
a good living. 

A tour such as ours, leaves the visitor with 
impressions of fresh-faced, happy people, good 
food, good beds, good roads, pleasant days filled 
with panoramas of ever-changing beauty and re- 
freshing nights. 

The average of South Coast farms is a little 
over 200 acres, and the output of agriculture and 
dairy produce has materially added to the rich- 
ness of the State for the last fifty years and more. 

Farm land near Moruya is valued at £40 to 
£50 an acre. All South Coast agricultural pro- 



Tall hollyhocks, in cottage gardens, mossy 
four-rail fences, and an utter absence of that air 
of bustle and speculation which one finds in new 
places, proclaimed Moruya to be an early settle- 
ment. 

It has been celebrated for its fine dairy pastures 
for many years. The motor car has come, the 
separator has come, but the South Coaster, kindly, 
good-humoured, and easy-going, still jogs along 
comfortably in his own quiet way. The next 
generation will probably ' hustle ' — he is satisfied 
with to-day. 

From Moruya to Bermagui there extends a 
coastline which is an open casket of gems 
to nature-lovers. The main road skirts shallow 




Moruya Cheese FactojTr 



duction gives one the impression that people are 
not getting anything near the revenue possible 
from their lands. But, how can we blame them 
for taking things easily? Living in an idyllic 
climate, softened by daily sea breezes, surrounded 
by sea, sky, and mountains, Levantine in light 
and colour, with fishing, oystering, shooting, 
sports, races, dancing, and amusements for con- 
stant attraction; possessing an easy competence; 
dreading neither want nor stintage, owning their 
buggies, bikes, saddle horses, motor cars; having 
mostly money in the banks, and a certainty of 
good seasons — it would be absurd to expect such 
people to live a strenuous life. 

Even the sea-gulls sitting on the fences in the 
main street look lazy and contented. 



Lake Coila, a haunt of wildfowl, and runs on to 
the Tuross River. This romantic river and 
estuary empty into Tuross Lake, an indented 
and island-studded sheet of water where fisherman 
and sportsman forget fast-flying hours in thrills 
of constant kill and capture. 

Historic Bodalla Estate is an example of what 
can be effected on good country by good manage- 
ment. It lies along the Tuross River, a liberal 
freehold which has been in the possession of the 
Mort family since the days of the late T. S. Mort, 
to whose memory, as a pioneer of industry. New 
South Wales pays homage. The estate comprises 
50,000 odd acres. On 6,000 acres of its im- 
proved areas about 300 people find a living. They 
are well housed and apparently contented. Th? 

Jl 
f I 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY 



269 




Narooma Bivei 



estate pays £8,000 a year in wages. It is the best- 
grassed, best-stocked, most scientifically conducted 
I estate, with the exception perhaps of Kameruka, 
bn the coast of New South Wales. Its dairy 
products — butter and cheese — are famous. Its 
general appearance is that of a State agricultural 
ifarm, conducted on revenue-producing lines. 
I There is an accommodation-house at Narooma, 
where the traveller can be sure of a good lunch 
with fresh oysters as an appetiser. 

The channel is crossed by a punt near the 
mouth of the inlet — a fine sheet of water that 
widens out into picturesque reaches towards the 
hills. Mount Dromedary stands out in solid 
bulk in the background. 

Strong tides pour in and out of the channel; 
rarely navigated except by timber steamers, which 
read a careful passage to and from the wharves 
t the feet of the mills. 

Good timber goes out of Narooma, which is 
Iso famous for its fishing. It is one of the many 
elightful places along this coast, where one might 
ipend an enjoyable vacation, forgetting the world 
f care, detaching the good rock oyster from his 
ative habitat, and filling one's fishing basket with 
he spoil of rod and line. 

Breakers were combing lazily on a golden 
tretch of sand; steep hills throwing their 
eplicas into still depths, as we left Narooma 
ehind. 
Bordered by tree-fern, myrtle, dogwood, pen- 
cil cedar, and mountain musk, the winding road 
went on. Wild tobacco grew in the bushes and 
on the forest reserves, the trunks of the spotted 
gum stood like pillars of white marble, orna- 
lljimented by dark arabesques. 

FHr It crossed out over a shoulder of the Drome- 
dary, where Tilba-Tilba is set in a rich pocket of 



k 



soil, and went down over Wallaga Lake through 
Bermagui and Baragoot, and Cuttagee and 
Wapengo, all salt inlets, to Tathra, which is the 
port for Bega and its district. 

At Tanja we turned and crossed Mt. Doctor 
George, from the summits of which we looked 
down and saw the town of Bega, the capital city 
of this far South Coast. 

Bega lies on a river of the same name. With the 
exception of the alluvial flats along this river, the 
district is nearly all granitic hills, getting higher 
as they go westward towards the Dividing Chain. 
These hills have been largely cleared, and make 
excellent pastures. They go out through Candelo 
and Rocky Hall, and include some fine pastoral 
country of which Nungatta Station, near the 
Victorian border, is perhaps the best. This 
station, on an area of eleven thousand acres, has 
carried 2,500 head of cattle. Nungatta is well 
watered, high, and grows good fattening grasses. 
This back country is coming into sheep, and later 
on will, no doubt, be occupied as dairy farms. 

Kameruka Estate, a few miles from Bega, is a 
telling example of the value of this southern 
granitic country. All over Australia Kameruka 
is celebrated. 

Its fruits, cheese, and dairy produce are of the 
finest qualities. It is delightfully situated among 
low rolling hills, is abundantly watered, and has 
been laid out and improved on the lines of the 
best English estates. 

Similar country around Bega — suitable for 
grazing and dairying — is valued at £7 to £10 an 
acre, whereas the alluvial flats, devoted largely 
to maize-growing, can hardly be got for £60 and 
£70 an acre. 1 he average maize crop on Bega 
flats is from 70 to 80 bushels an acre; but, in 
exceptional seasons, this has been increased to 140 



270 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Benjamin Boyd's Old Home, Twofold Bay. 



bushels. The annual net returns from these maize 
lands may be taken (19 14) at from £10 to £12 
an acre. 

Ultimately the "back country," the rolling 
granite hills (such as compose the major part of 
the Kameruka Estate) through all this southern 
part of New South Wales, from Bega to the Vic- 
torian border, will be found more productive on 
actual expenditure and receipts than the naturally 
rich soils along the river beds. Should an exten- 
sion of the railway from Bombala to Twofold 
Bay be carried out, all these lands will come within 
the range of closer settlement. 

The road from the railway at Cooma comes 
down to Bega. Nowadays the South Coast and 
the tablelands are linked up by motor services 
over various routes. 

The trip from Cooma to Eden brings the tra- 
veller a practical example of the fact that Aus- 
tralia is a land of many good climates. He may 
leave Cooma in a grey fog or covered with 
snow, wrapped to the ears in rugs and overcoats. 
He will still shiver at bleak Nimmitabel : but as 
the road falls through thickening forests towards 
Brown Mountain, the climate becomes percep- 
tibly inilder. 

On the hunch of the mountain, all at once, from 
an elbow in the road, he beholds another world 
spread out beneath him. The South Coast is un- 
rolled like a green scroll edged with blue. While 
the cold mountain air is still nipping his ears, he 
looks over into a land of summer, dotted with 
patches of green sub-tropical vegetation, and fields 
covered with waving maize. In another hour or 
so we find him discarding his overcoat, dispensing 
with his travelling rug, and talking pleasantly 
about surf-bathing. 

He eats his breakfast chop beside a roaring 
fire, takes his midday lunch amid spring perfumes 
from country gardens, and calls for cool drinks 
with his dinner at night. 



We bided overnight in Bega at the clean and 
comfortable Commercial Hotel, where, true to 
South Coast traditions, guests are treated like 
friends, and feather-beds are found for favored 
visitors. Some critical writers have complained 
that Australians lack polish. In this country 
superficial manners — which mean little — are 
sometimes neglected; but kindliness and an hon- 
est hospitality, which is common to all classes, 
will be found everywhere. If the traveller is 
prepared to "take things as he finds them," and 
is not given to aloofness, he will soon learn and 
appreciate the homely goodnature of the Bush. 

From Bega down to Eden the coast road 
changes pleasantly from forest to clearing and 
back to forest again. 

At Merimbula there is an old-established de- 
pot for the manufacture of maize flour; a little 
roadstead and a wharf where coastal steamers 
are berthed twice a week. 

The village of Pambula lies in the margin of a 
rich pocket of alluvial flat, devoted mainly to the 
growing of maize. 

Between Pambula Lake and Eden there are 
many forest-clad hills. Surmounting the final 
ridges the wide, blue waters of Twofold Bay 
come into sight, with the township of Eden 
perched on an overlooking hill, and Mount Im- 
lay standing high and prominent, some miles to 
the westward. I 

Eden is rich in historic memories of the days 
when Benjamin Boyd attempted to establish a 
whaling industry on a baronial basis; when the 
white sails of wooden brigs and schooners awak- 
ened local interest as they came and went, when 
Sir Oswald Brierley painted fine canvases on the 
southern shore and old taverns re-echoed the ! 
songs of carousing sailormen. 

On the south headland is the unfinished tower 
of Ben Boyd's lighthouse. On this side of the Bay 
still stands Sir Oswald Brierley's house, with 



I 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY 



271 



ancient mulberry trees growing in front of it. 
The shingles are slipping from its high gable 
roof these days, and the plaster is falling from 
the walls. Ben Boyd's substantial buildings are 
suffering the same fate. For many years they 
have stood as silent monuments of a fine failure. 
Ihey have helped to keep green the memory of 
old times, when Eden was the great whaling depot 
of the South Pacific. 

The industry has never actually died out. For 
thirty years every season the Bay has been the 
scene of wonderful whale chases, in which the 
"Killers," harriers of the seas, have played a star 
part, helping the local whalemen to corner and 
kill their whales, and being permitted in return to 
tear out their tit-bit, the tongue of the whale, in 
repayment. 

The Killer {Orca gladiator) is somewhat like 
a huge porpoise, with a blunt nose. It has a 
high dorsal fin, a black striped body, is 15 to 25 
feet in length, and has proved itself to be one of 
the most intelligent creatures of the living world. 

The Twofold Bay "pack" numbers about 
twenty Killers all told. During the season, June 
to October, this pack is invariably to be found 
about a spot called "Leather Jacket," just off the 
south headland. Here they apparently lie in 
wait for whales coming up coast. The appear- 
ance of a whale off the entrance to the Bay is the 
signal for a great commotion among these Killers, 
who surround the cetacean, and endeavour to 
drive it into the Bay. 

The local whaleboats put out quickly, and a 
most extraordinary hunt takes place, in which 



Orca gladiator works the worried whale for the 
whalemen's advantage, just as a pack of harriers 
will drive a hare to the gun. 

Nor do they leave the quarry until the har- 
pooner's lance has finished its deadly work. 

Eden whalemen have bestowed fanciful names 
on their finned assistants, and take good care to 
protect them. A most friendly relationship has 
grown up between the boat crews and the Killers, 
and the hunt is carried out on a joint organiza- 
tion, which generally proves fatal to the whale. 

A whale chase in Twofold Bay is a sight that 
stirs the blood of the lucky beholder, and the 
residents of Eden never grow tired of the spec- 
tacle. While the chase is in progress the business 
of the town remains at a standstill. Finbacks, 
bumpers, right whale, and grampus are all caught 
at Twofold Bay in this unusual fashion. 

Eden of to-day is a haunt of tourists and a 
shipping depot for timber and wool and produce, 
brought down tediously by teams from Monaro 
and the adjoining districts. 

Midway between Melbourne and Sydney, this 
fine harbor, as the terminus of a railway from 
the tableland, should have a future. 

At Kiah, Towamba, Pericoe, Yambulla, Nun- 
gatta, and Nethercote there are good farm 
lands; some in settlement and some awaiting sub- 
division. The hills will grow splendid fruit, and 
though old as Australian occupation goes, the dis- 
trict is still young in development. 

On a blithe, windy morning we went out to 
Nethercote, a belt of volcanic soils a few miles 
from Eden. En route we halted the German 




At the Whaling Station, Twofold Bay 



272 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



waggon of one Adolf Fourter, at the summit of 
a tall, forested hill. Adolf is a fine example of a 
successful Bavarian colonist — blue-eyed, blond- 
bearded, hearty, and cheerful. With his compe- 
tent Australian wife and three stalwart sons, he 
has cleared and cultivated a comfortable farm 
out of virgin forest. He holds a 250-acre block 
under conditional purchase title. Twenty-one 
years ago he began, as a young immigrant, on 
91 acres. He had a little colonial experience 
and no capital. As he cleared the heavy timber, 
he planted maize and potatoes. After a few 
years he began dairy farming. 

By culling his little herd and testing his milk 
carefully he can make his cows each return him 



scope of rolling hillsides, where forest and farm 
alternate, is a green garden of fertility. 

The Southern dairy farmer has been called 
upon to cope with the rabbit, and netted fences 
cross the landscape in all directions. 

At Cobargo, they told us, the rabbit was prov- 
ing a blessing in disguise, inasmuch as people 
were learning that 640 acre holdings could be 
reduced to 320 acres and worked to greater ad- 
vantage. 

For rabbits, prickly pear, and other foreign 
Introductions, which become pests In Australia, 
there is one explanation — and a remedy. Rab- 
bits, foxes, prickly pear, spread because wide, 
waste lands afford them unique opportunities to 




A Dairy Farm at Nethercote 



as much as £2/3/9 monthly per annum. He 
nets nowadays a living of £300 a year, and re- 
gards Australia as a good country. 

Nethercote soil averages 40 to 50 bushels of 
maize to the acre. In good years the crops go 
up to 90 bushels. Its farming population seems 
exceptionally contented. 

We turned northward by inland roads; climb- 
ing over the hills that lie between Pambula and 
Wyndham, and crossing Myrtle Mountain, en 
route to Candelo. 

Traversing a short belt of red volcanic country, 
yet virgin to settlement, we beheld, from the sum- 
mit of this mountain, one of the finest panoramic 
views in the State of New South Wales. 

Kameruka lay beneath us, with Its boundaries 
of dark pines, and the pretty little town of Can- 
delo at the head of the Bega River. Candelo is 
famed for feminine beauty. In spring all this 



increase and multiply. Closer settlement formsj 
the one effective check to these evils, simple andl 
commonplace enough in their origins, but taking! 
on complex and singular aspects from the very! 
nature of local circumstance. 

In occupied countries some of our worst curses 
are cultivated as blessings. We hear that the 
French peasant breeds his rabbits as an agree- 
able addition to the bill of fare; that the Ameri- 
can agriculturist grows prickly pear for fodder; 
that the English sportsman preserves his fox. 
In Australia we poison our rabbits with phosphor- 
ised pollard; employ noxious gases to extermin- 
ate prickly pear, and — although a sporting people 1 
— shoot foxes without a qualm. 

It is true that frozen rabbits are exported 
in large quantities. New South Wales sent out, 
roughly, seven million pairs of rabbits and hares 
in 1 9 13, and nearly five million lbs. of pelts. 



THE LAND OF MILK AND HONHY 



273 



Prickly pear is being turned to some account, and 
the English fox skin has become an article 
of commerce — but the Australian settler has not 
yet learned to look upon these things as valuable 
national assets, nor is he to be greatly blamed on 
that account. 

From Cobargo, back through Wagonga and 
Furobodalla, and across the Bodalla Estate again 
from west to east, was a lovely afternoon's run. 
' )n this track we headed Narooma Inlet and tra- 
\crsed some fine spotted gum forests and part- 
ially cleared farming lands. 

Between Bateman's Bay and Milton next day 
we again took a westerly route, which brought 
us over Termed Mountain, where we inspected 
the locally famous "water trees." 

rhese twin trees act as a reservoir for a sup- 
ply of clear, cool water, from which the thirsty 
traveller may procure a refreshing drink, no mat- 
ter how dry the season. The butt of one tree is 
hollow. A hole has been cut in big enough to 
admit a swagman's billy-can. All sorts of mys- 
terious bush explanations are given for this little 
natural phenomenon, which do not affect way- 
farers with local knowledge, who find the trees bv 
the roadside a pleasant place of shade and water 
on a hot day. 

Late that night our pleasant pilgrimage with 
Forester O. L. Harrison finished at Nowra. But 
for evermore in joyous recollection we will see 
that long, lovely coastland, dreaming lazily be- 
tween Shoalhaven River and Twofold Bay. 
Lake and inlet, river and mountain, blue skies, 
blue seas, blue hills, waving palm trees, glorious 
forests, green meadows, whitewashed dairies, 
winding roads and all the happy incidents of 
travel and adventure through a romantic and 
beautiful country will make mental pictures, 
whereon we can look with unwearying delight. 




White Apple Tree 



The white bridge across the river at Towam- 
ba, the granite hills of Pericoe on which dark rain 
clouds are gathering, Nungatta homestead with 
its background of hills, tBe road from Pambula 
to Wyndham winding through the gorges, the 
lookdown from Myrtle Mountain, the spindrift 
on the ocean beach at Narooma — these things 
are not easily forgotten; nor are the cool sea winds 
coming shoreward in the afternoons, nor the 
sparkle of the waters, nor all the light and color 
and contour and foliage of a land forever fav- 
ored by the winds and sun. 




Main Street, Milton 




cm 



tm 

3 

a 



S 









09 



274 



(275) 




Burrinjiick Dam, in Course of Erection (Down-stream Face) 



IRRIGATION AND THE RIVERINA. 



- /-A Thomases, where machine-made critics 
spent their leisure time in predicting the 
faihire of each fresh enterprise. 

Some years ago the N.S.W. Government 
j decided that it would link up Coonamble in the 
t North-West with Dubbo, by railway — 90 miles. 
One remembers the violent opposition to this 
line. The author of this book, driving a caravan 
across from Dubbo to Narrabri, en route to 
Northern Queensland, in 1899 — met many dole- 
ful prophets, who proved, to their own satisfac- 
tion, what an utter failure the North-West line 
IHKs going to be. 
^PLooking up railway returns for the State 
recently, he found with no surprise that the 90 
miles has been paying £20,000 a year after the 
first year of its construction ! 
IH|So with the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Scheme. 
T)espite all predictions of failure, this great 
national work promises to be one of Australia's 
biggest successes. 

These engineering works represent the second 
greatest artificial storage in the world — being 
only a little behind the Assouan Dam. 

T he site chosen for the erection of the retaining 
wall was at Burrinjuck, on the Murrumbidgee 
River, forty miles from Canberra. 



Here the river enters a deep and narrow gorge. 
By damming this gorge with a wall of cyclopean 
concrete, the engineers were able to throw back 
the flow of the river into an enormous natural 
basin, capable of containing more water than 
Sydney Harbor. 

The wall of this colossal dam is 236 feet high 
and 752 feet long. It has absorbed over 60,000 
tons of cement. Five thousand square miles of 
catchment area spread behind it. The actual 
irrigation area is located a long day's journey 
down stream. The farms receive the water as 
it is required. 

The Murrumbidgee Irrigation Scheme has been 
expensive, but it has established a national asset 
of ever-increasing value. The original estimated 
cost was £1,169,008; but this will be greatly 
exceeded. 

The irrigable district, 220 miles from the 
Burrinjuck Reservoir, extends on the north side 
of the Murrumbidgee River, from Narrandera to 
Gunbar, a distance of 130 miles. It contains a 
territory of 358,000 acres. Of this 196,000 acres 
have been classed as first-class land. 

The area will carry at least 3,580 homesteads, 
on a basis of 100 acres to a holding. 

It is difficult to estimate what the total popula- 
tion of the new province will be in another ten 



k 



276 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



years. If, on 11,000 acres of irrigated land at 
Mildura, over 5,000 people are doing well, the 
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Scheme should ulti- 
mately support as many as two hundred thousand. 
Already it has a population of 5,000, and not 
one-tenth of the scheme has been dealt with. The 
latest official report of Yanco and Mirrool sec- 
tions — the first to be thrown open — is inspiring. 
" At the beginning of the year," says the 
official report to the Ministry, " approximately 
330 farms had been taken up on the Yanco and 
Mirrool areas. 



to the growth of vegetables, tobacco, and other 
annual crops. 

"Not only have the farms taken up in the initial 
stages of the settlement been brought into pro- 
duction, but during the year an additional 225 
farms, with an area aggregating upwards of 
10,000 acres, have been allotted, and in the ma- 
jority of cases brought into full use. The setders 
as a whole have displayed the utmost energy in 
the development of their farms, and they are to 
be congratulated on the results achieved. These 
remarks apply equally as well to the Mirrool end 




Burrlnjuck Dam. Almost Completed (Up-stream Face) 



"Most of these were at Yanco, the Mirrool 
area having just been opened. Many of these 
farms had been taken up only in name, the settlers 
were not in occupation, and on many holdings 
clearing operations had not even been commenced. 
Except in the immediate vicinity of Leeton, there 
was little to show that any attempt at closer 
settlement on a large scale had actually taken 
place. Now, however, conditions are entirely 
different. 

"From Yanco station northwards for a distance 
of 12 or 15 miles on either side of the road, there 
is a succession of closely-settled holdings, varying 
in area from two to 50 acres. Many of these 
have been planted with fruit trees and vines; 
others again, have just yielded to their holders 
very successful hay crops; while still others have 
been put down with lucerne or are being devoted 



of the scheme as to the much larger settlement at 
Yanco. The first subdivision of the Mirrool area 
included about 89 farms. Almost the whole of 
these have been taken up, cleared, and cultivated, 
with the result that the Mirrool settlement on a 
small scale is a replica of the country around 
Leeton. The total number of farms allotted 
during the year is 560. 

"One hundred and fifty additional farms have 
been made available for settlement, and these 
will be thrown open early in the new year, and 
there will be additional areas from time to 
time. 

"Generally speaking, settlers may be divided 
into three classes: — (i) orchardists; (2) dairy 
farmers; (3) mixed farmers. Everything points 
to success in the whole of the three branches of 
intense culture. The results obtained from 



es 01 I 
1 the I 

M 



IKKIGATIOxN AND THli RIVERINA 



277 




An Apricot Tree, Yanco 



rrees planted at the experimental farm have been 
:xtremely satisfactory, and as the farm was estab- 
ished on some of the poorest land in the settle- 
nent, it is only to be expected that settlers on 
higher-class country will produce even better fruit 
— fine as the fruit produced at the farm has un- 
Joiihtedly been. 

"With regard to dairying, the results obtained 
so far have been eminently satisfactory. 

"Expert opinion is unanimous on the point that 
^ anco offers splendid opportunities to the dairy 
farmer. Settlers are rapidly recognising this fact. 
Before the local factory was opened cream suffi- 
cient to produce 600 lb. of butter per week was 
being sent from the areas to the Hay Butter Fac- 
tory. The cream suppliers to the local factory 
number 60, and the output amounts to approxi- 
mately 3,500 lb. per week. The quality of the 
butter produced is first class, and no difficulty has 
been found in disposing of it at top market rates." 

Co-operative canning plants, to deal with the 
surplus crops of vegetables are being installed, 
and co-operative fruit-preserving plants will also 
be a future development. 

For the guidance of intending settlers, official 
information concerning terms and conditions will 
be found in the appendix of this volume. 

New South Wales is naturally anxious that 
Murrumbidgee settlers should succeed, not only 
for themselves and for the sake of the scheme, 
but in order that the benefits of irrigation may be 
demonstrated beyond all doubt. Nowhere can 



there be found a more interesting settlement. The 
resources of modern science have been freely 
called up to achieve the maximum of result. The 
engineer has been given a free hand, and the 
artificer is nowhere stinted. 

As a result, things have been made possible in 
a space of time which the pioneers of the last 
generation could never have imagined. 

The author saw the beginning of this settle- 
ment in August, 1 9 10. The State Experimental 
Farm was then the only area planted. In May, 
1913, he re-visited it and found profitable agri- 
culture firmly established, villages where there 
had been solitudes, prosperity and progress 
already in being. As a sheep-raising proposition 
the annual revenue of Yanco might have been los. 
to 15s. an acre in good seasons; but now these 
red soils will bring forty, fifty times that return 
to the irrigationist. 

In May, 1913, there was hardly a railway 
station in the south-western radius where one 
might not see huge stacks of wheat awaiting trans- 
port. Old fields were green with self-sown wheat. 
In the new fields, stubble and sheep, and disc 
ploughs at work told of a thriving industry. But 
the production of wheat lands will never be as 
great as that of irrigation areas. The ^o-acre 
farmers are the men of the future in Australia. 
They will be as independent as the old sheep- 
barons, even if their incomes caimot be so high — 
and they will not envy the 1,500-acre men on 
their grain-growing mixed-farming sections. 




278 



IRRIGATION AND THE RIVERINA 



279 



The actual life and growth of this settlement 
in the making is good to watch. You go down to 
Leeton and put up at a well-patronised boarding- 
house, where a crowd of young engineers and 
Government officials of all ages and ranks come 
regularly to " chop." 

Many of them dwell in the canvas town 
waiting, like some of the settlers, for houses 
which are yet in the building. Material and labour 
can hardly be got through quickly enough to meet 
the demand for construction. Bustle and business 
are in the atmosphere of the place. 

Awaiting permanent quarters, this section of 
the population makes itself very comfortable 
under calico or canvas. The settlement is attract- 
ing a good class of people, with intellectual and 
social instincts. 

While the Avork of ditching and grading, sub- 
dividing, fencing, and house building is going on, 
social and municipal organisation are also 
evolving. Being, in a sense, a huge co-operative 
family, the irrigationists are friendly and helpful 
to one another. 

The new colony on the Murrumbidgee is an 
ideal place for the man who would live the healthi- 
est of lives, amidst the happiest of surroundings, 
and is satisfied with a comfortable income, which 
can be supplemented in many ways. 

A tour of inspection around Leeton to-day 
leaves the visitor with a conviction that he has 
seen a district where success is written in letters 
of green and gold at every turn. He finds the 
most up-to-date butter factory in Australia ; he 
sees on the State Demonstration Farm a hundred 
examples of profitable production, by which 
settlers may be guided. Along the main canal, 
which three years ago was no more than a huge 
ditch newly cut through \'irgin country, he will see 
maize, melons, pumpkins, lucerne, and behold 
young fields in the first flush of agricultural 
motherhood, new dwellings, new gardens, and 
hopeful new residents. 

He will see the beginnings of ostrich farms, 
dairy farms, orchards, vineyards, all the signs of 
intensive culture and close occupation, where a 
few years ago there were only long lines of wire 
fences and a few scattered sheep. 

It was worth while, for this result, that the 
Great Dam, 200 miles away, was slowly raised 
as an eternal monument to the foresight and pub- 
lic enterprise of a young State. It took six 
hundred thousand tons of material and sixty thou- 
sand tons of cement to weld Burrinjuck Moun- 
tain to Black Andrew, and to create that titanic 
cup which holds 33,630 million cubic feet of 
water that will keep perennially green this 
national garden and extend its boundaries year 
by year. 



In this garden of five thousand plots, fodder 
enough can henceforth be grown to supply the 
surrounding pastoral districts, if necessary. There 
will be no more drought on the area, and no more 
shortage in the country round about it. Most 
valuable of all, a populous centre of settlement 
has been created in the heart of the West! 




Irrigation at Yanco 



New South Wales meditates the construction 
of other storages for the purposes of irrigation: 
at Wyangala on the Lachlan River, and Cam- 
beroona on the Murray; on the Upper Hunter, 
the Warragamba, the Macquarie, and at Lake 
Menindie on the Darling. 

The financial aspect of the irrigation policy 
includes the creation of a sinking fund and the 
meeting of any accumulated deficiencies on ac- 
count of maintenance and interest that may occur 
during the early years of working. In regard to 
the Murrumbidgee scheme, it is provided that the 
whole cost of the works, both storage and 
channels, shall be wiped out in a hundred years. 

The Government can do this, and still afford 
its settlers all the water they require for purposes 
of irrigation, at a lower rate than that charged in 
any other irrigation settlement in the world. 




28o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



The original \^'arragamba River scheme in- 
cludes the construction of a storage dam to retain 
a volume of 103,800 million gallons of water. 
This would give Sydney a supplementary daily 
domestic supply of 80 million gallons, and leave 
80 million gallons daily for irrigating lands along 
the banks of the Nepean River and South Creek. 

The introduction of intensive agriculture into 
a country where agriculturists have been used to 
large areas and depended on Nature alone, has 
not been accomplished without opposition and 
doubt. But New South Wales has ever exhibited 
a thoroughness about her public enterprise. Con- 
fident of her enormous resources, she builds solidly 
and fearlessly. In launching her irrigation policy, 
after much premeditation, she determined that 
she would begin with a scheme on a parallel with 
the great Assouan dam. The State has now prac- 
tically completed its works at Burrinjuck and on 
the Murrumbidgee, and will probably await the 
sequel of experience before undertaking another 
scheme of the same magnitude. Meanwhile there 
is room for many smaller irrigation schemes with- 
in the borders of the Mother State. The next 
decade will doubtless see a great advance in 
irrigation throughout New South Wales. 

The Murrumbidgee Scheme may ultimately be 
extended to Hay. Between Whitton and Hay, 
the railway line runs through typical Riverina 
plains, giving, under present conditions, good re- 
turns from sheep. Wheat-growing is extending, 
and one near day all that vast prairie, from 
Carrathool on the Murrumbidgee to Hillston on 
the Lachlan, will doubtless come under the plough. 
With a rapid extension of dry farming, the estab- 
lishment of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Colony, 
and necessary railway building, Riverina is coming 
into her own. 

And what an Eldorado it is! He who has not 
seen the Riverina in good season, has never 
known how wondrous fertile, kind and fair our 
Australian Motherland can be. Her face is 
beautiful in many moods, but Riverina is the 
maternal smile upon her mouth. 

From Cowra to Balranald, from Jerilderie to 
Maude, our Southern Sultana, spreads one vast 
carpet of emerald, broidered with flowers. Spring 
dances her sarabands across it for hundreds of 
melodious miles. The early winds of summer 
ruffle its grassy seas into undulating billows; but, 
instead of the lonesome albatross, cutting cold 
crests with down-pointing wing-tips, the speckled 
shell parrot and the pink galah match their 
colours with its painted flowers. 

Life, the life of the plains, is everywhere. The 
lagoons are covered with wildfowl, plump black 
duck, with iridescent wing-feathers, noisy teal, 
swift-flying widgeon, whistling duck, and other 
species. White-breasted pelicans, reminding one 



of Dutch fishing-smacks, drift to and fro; graceful 
black swans, with arched necks, scarlet beaks, and 
impudent eyes, move through the water-weeds 
like Venetian gondolas. 

Cormorants, snake-necked, sharp-beaked, evil- 
smelling and predatory, watch on shoreward 
snags for their meal of fish. 

Along the edges mottled wood-duck sleep with 
brown heads tucked under their wings. White, 
black and white, and straw-coloured ibis make 
Egyptian borders to an Australian picture, as they 
stalk along the marshy margins, pausing every 
now and then to pick up an insect with sickle- 
shaped beaks. 

Flock plover and spurwing, jack-snipe and sandJ 
piper, white and blue cranes, spoonbills, egretsj 
divers, redbills, coots, water-hens, play and feec 
upon the surface, or around the margins. 

From cypress-pines come the calls of top-knot 
pigeon, and turtle dove. 

Brolgas, mostly in pairs, but, at sunrise in 
dancing parties of twenty or thirty, walk with 
stately strides across the plain. Grey bustards, 
taking flight before foot travellers, but easily 
approachable by horsemen or vehicles, move with 
backward-turning heads through the long grass. 
Awkward-looking emus cover the distance with 
long stilt-like strides. The agile kangaroo hops 
gracefully here and there, sitting up and listening 
between feeding whiles. 

Flocks of galahs and crested cockatoos, and 
flights of gorgeously-coloured parrots, all add 
colour and animation to a scene which makes an 
equal appeal to artist or sportsman. 

In good season the Riverina is beautiful and 
benign, abounding in fish and game. It grows the 
finest of wool. All fruits and flowers flourish on 
Its wide domains. It produces the best of mutton 
and the fattest of beef; the manliest of men, the 
sweetest of women. In good season it Is a dream- 
land, a lotus-eater's heaven, a paradise on earth. 

The galvanised roofs of Its stations standing 
miles apart among their gardens, red level coach- 
roads; winding rivers meandering along under 
drooping branches of shady trees; wire fences that 
seem to run to infinity; rotund sheep, young un- 
broken horses, wooden houses with red-raddle 
fire-places, kerosene lamps, fly-proof doors, 
Austrian chairs, bullock teams and motor cars; 
grey myall trees, pointed pines growing in 
dignified regularity, as if they had been planted 
and pruned, yarran, boree, golden wattle, muddy' 
blllabongs, low hills clothed with stunted mallee, 
long plains, covered with salt-bush; wide plains 
carpeted with grass and wlldflowers; soft winds 
perfectly blue skies and exhilarating sunlight — 
that is Riverina in spring. i 

There is an atmosphere of easy-going pros-- 
perity about Riverina towns. The pleasant, broad 



IRRIGATION AND THE RIVERINA 



281 



streets of Hay planted with kurrajong and pepper The tables were decorated entirely with roses 

trees; the avenues of gums in which Balranald grown in the town. It would have been difficult 

takes its pride; these make pictures different from to select such a display from the best Horists' 

those which have been painted by imaginative garden in Sydney, which prides itself on its roses, 

writers about towns "out back." The "wild and woolly West" was represented 

Hay was once a port for all the western wool by a decorous assemblage of well-groomed towns- 

as far as Bourke, but the opening of new rail- men in evening dress. The menu was innocent of 




Dairy Cows on Natural' Pasture, Murrumbidgee 



ways has taken much of its river-transport away. 
Still the whistles of river steamboats are heard 
along the red-gum reaches of the Lower Murrum- 
bidgee, and the chug of paddle-wheels awakes the 
echoes of its bends. There are 3,200 miles of 
navigable river-waters in Riverina. 

Hay, like all the Western towns, is a most 
hospitable place where they kill the fatted turkey 
on slightest provocation. Once the author thought 
of Hay as a singularly hot and uncomfortable 
place, unbeautiful and distressing to a degree. 

He arrived at Hay wearing a heavy overcoat. 
After a hot bath, in a very fine hotel, he was 
ushered into a spacious, electric-lit dining hall, 
where a banquet had been laid for the visiting 
Minister and his party. 



traditional corned beef or boiled mutton; but as 
a menu it remains in middle-aged memory — 
another pleasant recollection of the "western 
desert." 

The desert which can colour roses and brown 
turkeys with such infinite success should make 
very pleasant hiding-places for those who call 
them " home." 

At the conclusion of our elaborate meal a 
group of us sat around a warm log fire and talked 
of Australia's future. There were some educated 
and intelligent local young men in the circle. 
Their views on the future of the West would 
have astounded some metropolitan " Writers of 
the Bush." To them there was no longer any 
problem ; but a certainty which would be realised 



b 



282 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



by increased population. Dry farming had been 
proved, irrigation had been proved, wool-growing 
had been proved — there was nothing to doubt 
and nothing to dread; all they wanted was trans- 
port and the right kind of settler; the land would 
do the rest. 

They believed in their country, because they 
knew how good it was. The ridiculous West of 
the story-teller moved them to mirth. When 
somebody said, " Hay, Hell, and Booligal," the 
outside world had been inclined to accept it as a 
statement of fact. The gorgeous roses of Hay 
put forth their fragrance in denial. Down at 
Booligal they said the roses were even better. If 
so, Booligal must be a veritable Vale of 
Cashmere. 

From Hay to Balranald spread the mighty 
plains, beautified with blue bush and pearl bush, 
needlewood, wilga, and pine. They are com- 
posed of black soils and red soils, as fertile as 
anything on earth. For every acre of their sur- 
face there could be found a use. They contain 
the potentialities of five hundred thousand years 
of fallow; their virgin breasts are yearning to 
suckle thousands of farms. 



The 'Old Man' salt-bush, perennial, succulent, 
dots the level distances with its silver clumps. 
Miles of plain are covered by annual salt-bush — 
one of our most valuable Australian fodder plants. 
Samphire flats and red sandy ridges, beloved of 
the cypress pine, patches of mallee, all these give 
the landscape variety. To the man with eyes and a 
soul there is no monotony in these magnificent, 
fertile distances. 

Between Balranald and Euston — close to the 
latter township — is Lake Benanee, a splendid 
natural reservoir — of Aeolian formation — which 
is to be used as a storage for an irrigation scheme. 
The projection of a Victorian-built railway 
through this district, and the carrying out of this 
scheme, and a similar one at Gol Gol, would bring 
much fine agricultural land into occupation. If 
I were asked to prophesy which part of New 
South Wales will be most densely populated in 
another forty or fifty years, I should say the 
western river belts. At least they should carry 
the largest rural population and give the highest 
agricultural returns. 




The Beginnings of an Ostrich Farm at Yanco. 



(283) 




Boad and Biver. 



THE FUTURE. 



WE have glanced over some possibilities of 
the Western Division along the Darling. 
We have stood at either end of a river 
which falls six inches to the mile in 1,200 miles. 

At Wentworth irrigation area we saw SUC- 
CESS written in large letters. Four hundred 
miles higher up the river we saw SUCCESS 
written at Pera Bore and the Oriental Garden. 

Between these two demonstrations lie the 
station gardens, the woolsheds — and all the yet 
unexploited offerings of a rich, undeveloped 
country. 

Pessimists may argue against the future, and as 
long as the Man of Faith has no data to offer in 
contradiction, the Pessimist may prevail. But 
once you establish a scientific fact — it stands. 

At Wentworth and Bourke we have the estab- 
lished fact that irrigation in Australia is a payable 
proposition. Anywhere, everywhere, along 400 
miles of road between these points, this fact can 
be repeated over and over again. 

The area which it is possible to irrigate is 
ultimately determined by the amount of necessary 
water available — and that is a matter for the 
engineers of the future. 

The Commissioner for Irrigation to-day says a 
quarter of a million acres, enough to support 25 
Milduras, with an aggregate population of two 



hundred thousand. That in itself would be a 
fine thing. It would one day be worth 25 mil- 
lions of money annually to the Mother State. But 
settlement of the Western Division does not stop 
at the Darling. There are other potentialities, 
latent yet, but certain to develop later on. 

The normal carrying capacity for the Western 
Division in sheep is set dowh officially at from 7 
to 73 millions over its whole area of 83 million 
acres, or about one sheep to 12 acres. The nett 
annual revenue from sheep might be at the out- 
side five shillings a head. Twenty-five irriga- 
tion settlements (another chapter will tell us what 
happened at Mildura) would add a revenue of 
many millions greater than the whole Division can 
give from wool — and these 25 settlements, on 
the basis of Mildura, would occupy only a quarter 
of a million acres! The area of Dunlop Station 
alone is nearly four times that. 

Now in one of their reports, we have the 
Western Lands Commissioners, Messrs. C. J. 
McMaster and Hugh Langwell — both know- 
ledgeable men — complaining that they have about 
360,850 acres of Mallee lands on their hands, "a 
"large proportion of which, although of little 
"value for grazing purposes, is, with improved 
"methods of cultivation and the adoption of dry- 
"farming processes, capable of conversion into 



b 



!84 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



"agricultural areas for which there is an existing 
"and growing demand." 

It is all singularly Australian! 

Here we have two earnest Commissioners 
almost tearfully telling the Minister of the day 
that they have nearly half a million acres of 
beautiful country which they want to get rid of. 

In a few years, as wheat lands, if the story of 
Pinnaroo is repeated, it will be worth ten pounds 
an acre. 



When this particular belt of Mallee is given 
communication, it will be found, if the writer's 
experience is not at fault, among the most profit- 
able land in New South Wales. 

At Gol Gol, opposite Mildura, there are about 
132,000 acres of vacant Crown lands with a 
frontage to the Murray which can be developed 
as an irrigation settlement at a comparatively 
small cost. These lands are superior in quality 
to Mildura. 



^^^9-^:^7"^ 









'l^'^^'^p^f^n-- 



*^v. 





Raymond Terrace Viticultural Station 



The Mallee is no good — or rather in Nature's 
scheme, too good — for grazing; consequently this 
parcel of wheat lands, worth a prospective three 
million pounds at least, goes begging for lessees! 

"In order to pave the way for the disposal of 
these lands, or part of them, the Board an- 
nounces that it is going to cut up some into blocks 
and "offer them in areas sufficiently large to 
"enable the lessees to undertake mixed farming 
"on a scale that we believe will be remunerative 
"and lead to a development of this part of the 
"State." 

In actual fact the Mallee in the Western Divi- 
sion of New South Wales, bears every appearance 
of being superior to Mallee which is being rapidly 
settled in Victoria and South Australia. Our 
trouble is that Australia, all over, luis loo much 
good agriculttiral cotiiitry and not enough people. 



Nowadays Lands and Agricultural Depart- 
ment reports speak of successful wheat-growing 
on eight and nine-inch rainfalls or even less! 

We know that profitable dry farming in 
America and in South Africa is being carried out 
on what would a few years ago have been con- 
sidered an absolutely inadequate rainfall. 

Says William MacDonald, an agronomist of 
world-wide fame:— 

"All soils are not suitable for dry farming — ■ 
"the most important thing is depth of soil; 
"sandy or silty loams are the best. The soil 
"must be looked upon as a sort of reservoir for 
"the storage of water over periods ranging from 
"a few weeks to many months. It has recently 
"been found that the nitrifying germs are present 
"in large numbers in the soils of the drier regions 
"and in a very active state." 



I 




P4 



n 



o 







28? 



286 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Girls Picking Grapes, Hunter Blver District 



Soils such as William MacDonald classes 
among the hest for dry farming prevail through- 
out the West. 

"The future of dry fanning is assured. It will 
"take its place alongside the sister science of irri- 
"gation, and through the combined efforts of the 
"farmer and the expert it is destined to exercise 
"an enormous influence on the future development 
"of the United States and the Biitish Empire." 



These words have a special significance for all 
Australia. Their peculiar application to the 
farthest-out lands of New South Wales will one 
day be more fully realised by the people of the 
Australian East. 

Dry farming is not new; but in its modem 
application it will achieve results that it has never 
given in Egypt or north-western India. If 
ancient agriculturists could remain for thousands 



,*^ % 




I 



A Wheat Stack at Gerogery 



NEW SOUTH WALES: THE FUTURE 



287 



af years in dry country without any knowledge of 
organic chemistry and its application to agricul- 
ture, dry farmers of the future will do wonderful 
things in Australia. 

With their drought-resisting stocks and their 
fallowing methods, with library and laboratory 
■lehind them, they are destined to go out, a silent 
conquering army, further and further towards 
the heart of the continent. 



green with growth and yellow with golden har- 
vests. 

* * * * 

The Gospel of Dry Farming, as given by Dr. 
Widtsoe, is simple enough: — 

1. Plow deep. 

2. Plow in the Autumn; there is no need for 

Spring plowing. 




On the Karnah Biver, near Bowral 



Where the vanguard camps to-day the rear- 
guard rests to-morrow — the Army of Invasion is 
already on the march. Led by the shining spirit 
of William Farrer, this Army of Invasion is pre- 
paring its assaults upon the outstanding citadels 
of Nature, and its conquests will continue for still 
another hundred years. 

As the hopeless sage-brush lands of Western 
America have fallen under the plough, so will 
the salt-bush and spinifex lands of Australia dis- 
play their profitable uses. 

We can safely predict that the most Western 
lands of New South Wales will yet in turn be 



^ 



3. Cultivate the soil in early Spring; as far 

as possible after every rain. 

4. Fallow the land every other year under a 

rainfall of 12 to 15 inches; every third 
year under a rainfall of 15 to 20 inches. 

5. Grow crops that are drought-resistant. 

6. Stick to a few crops; preferably such 

staples as wheat, oats, barley, rye, 
alfalfa, and when they are established 
go on to others. 

Simple enough; modified and applied to Aus- 
tralian conditions it is already bringing thousands 



288 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



of acres of despised back blocks into profitable 
agriculture. 

Mixed farming at Menindie will be no more an 
impossibility for the future than wheat-growing 
at Wyalong is to-day. 

If 640 acres are the outside limit considered 
necessary for a dry-farmer to hold among the 
sandhills of Nebraska, a day has to come In West- 
ern New South Wales when even less than that 
will be a good living area for a farmer and his 
family. 

How much of these 83 million acres in the 
Western Division will be dry-farming country in 
1950? If a prophet had got up in Sydney thirty- 
seven years ago and foretold that wheat would 
be — as it is — the staple crop of certain districts 
in 19 1 6, he would have been discredited by the 



best-informed agriculturists and severely criticised 
by a super-careful newspaper press. 

In a recent report of the Western Lands Board 
this pregnant clause is inserted: — 

"The Commissioners desire to again point out 
that the advancement of the Western Division 
now depends mainly upon: — 

1. Irrigation settlement and distribution of 

water for stock and domestic supply. 

2. Railway extension, and 

3. Making available more country of a char- 

acter suitable for small holdings." 

Therewith the question of settlement in this 
great third division of the Mother State may be 
left for the present. 




Jones' Bridge, Tumut 



VICTORIA 







I 



e 

o 

s 
i 

O 



CO 

a 



290 



m 




EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS. 



II" the object of this book were historical, 
rather than descriptive, the author would 
be tempted to devote a maximum of space to 
the story of colonization in Victoria. Al- 

though the smallest of the Australian States, ex- 
cepting Tasmania, it has been so blessed by natural 
advantages and sound citizenship that it is now 
carrying a larger population for its area than any 
of the others. 

The Victorian coast near Cape Everard 
afforded Captain Cook his first glimpse of 
Australian shores; yet it was forty-seven years 
from the foundation of the British Colony at 
Port Jackson that actual settlement at Port 
Phillip began. 

Nine years after Phillip's landing, the Sydney 
Cove, a wooden cargo vessel of the period, 
ended her voyage from Bengal on P'urneaux Is- 
lands in the then un-named Bass Strait. The mate, 
supercargo, and fifteen of the crew endeavoured 
to beat up-coast to Sydney in the ship's long-boat, 
leaving the master and several Lascars on the 
Island. The long-boat was driven ashore, ap- 
parently near Cape Everard, within the present 
Victorian border. 

Like the survivors of the Monumental City, 
wrecked sixty years later on Tallaberga Is- 
let, near Gabo, most of them perished before 
they gained European settlement. Only the 
supercargo and two seamen reached Sydney. 
They left the ship in F'ebruary, and were picked 
up, in May, exhausted and wounded, by a small 
fishing-boat cruising to the southward of 
Botany Bay. They had tramped along the inter- 
vening coast, living as they might, and dogged 



by murderous natives, who speared several of the 
band. This wreck flickers the heroic figures ot 
Surgeon Bass and Second-Lieutenant Hinders for- 
ward upon the shadowy film of History. 

Bass, then 34 years of age, at his own request 
was provided by Governor Hunter with a good 
whaleboat victualled for six weeks and manned by 
six men. Thus outfitted, this young Columbus set 
southward along unknown and hostile shores 
in his cockle-shell. He rounded Cape Howe, 
and, entering Victorian waters — then sailless and 
uncharted — worked his intrepid course beyond 
Wilson's Promontory for sixty miles to Western- 
port. There, his whaleboat leaking and provi- 
sions running short, he was reluctantly compelled 
to put about and fight turbulent seas for 600 
lonely miles back to Sydney Cove. He had doubt- 
fully demonstrated that Van Diemen's Land was 
not, as had been supposed by Dutch and English 
navigators, a part of the Australian mainland. 

Victorians have reason to be interested in their 
first explorer. "Six feet high, dark complexion, 
wears spectacles, a very penetrating countenance" 
— so he was described. He left Port Jackson in 
1803 — six years after this remarkable feat — with 
the brig Venus, for the west coast of South 
America, to procure salt meat and live cattle for 
the settlement. He was taken prisoner by the 
Spaniards, and his subsequent fate remains un- 
known. It is presumed that he died in South 
America. 

The immortal Flinders, accompanied by Bass, 
sailed in the sloop Norfolk, of 22 tons, in Oc- 
tober, 1798, on a voyage of discovery. They 
finally established the existence of a strait between 



291 



292 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 





Surgeon George Bass. 



Captain Matthew Flinders. 



Tasmania and the mainland. Lieutenant Grant 
in the survey ship, l.ady Nelson, two years later 
added to the imperfect geography of the period 
by sailing through Bass Strait, on the voyage of 
that vessel from London to Port Jackson. 

Subsequently, he explored the Victorian coast 
in this vessel, of 60 tons, as far as Westernport, 
where, during a month's survey, he established 
a small plantation on Churchill Island, and built 
a block house — the first dwelling and garden on 
Victorian soil. Nine months later his chief offi- 
cer, Lieutenant Murray, then commanding the 
Lady Nelson, revisited the place and found that 
the wheat and Indian corn planted by Grant were 
flourishing. 

Governor King in the latter part of 1801 sent 
Lieut. Murray down the coast to make a detailed 
examination, with a view to forming a permanent 
settlement. He had already forwarded urgent 
despatches to England on the subject. Murray — 
preceded by Bowen, his chief officer, in the Lady 
Nelson's long-boat — entered Port Phillip Heads 
on 15th of February, 1802 — a memorable date 
for all patriotic Victorians. 

Murray was followed, six years later, by Cap- 
tain Matthew Flinders in the Investigator. Flin- 
ders landed and explored the country on the 
western side of the Bay. 

King's anxious determination to forestall the 
French, who it was believed meditated the occu- 



pation of southern Australia, led him to despatch 
a party in the Colonial schooner Cnmhcrlaiid, of 
29 tons, from Sydney in November, 1802, to 
make a particular survey of Port Phillip. 

Charles Grimes, the Acting Surveyor-General 
of New South Wales, was a member of this 
expedition. They fell in with Baudin, the French 
navigator, at Sea Elephant Bay, on the east coast 
of King Island, on the 23rd of the month. 

Having explored King Island, and delivered 
an official warning to the Frenchmen to keep off 
Australian soil, the adventurous band sailed across 
the Strait to Port Phillip, which they entered on 
January 20th, 1803. 

They remained until the 27th of F'ebruai 
examining the foreshores and charting the waters 
of picturesque Port Phillip. James Flemming, 
who was sent with the party by Governor King 
to report on the soil, timber, and natural advan- 
tages of both King Island and Port Phillip, has 
left a most interesting journal of these explora- 
tions, which extended right around the bay, and 
included the discovery of the Yarra and other 
rivers. 

Flemming recommended the banks of the 
Yarra as the most eligible place for settlement, 
and described the country in general as excellent ( 
pasture, with fine clay for bricks, good stone, and ! 
timber inland suitable for building purposes. 



i 




293 



294 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Hemming, in so far, justified the confidence which 
King placed in his judgment. 

On Friday, October 9th, 1803, there arrived 
off Port Phillip Heads the Ocean transport 
(Captain Merthon), followed on Sunday, by 
H.M.S. Calcutta (Captain Woodriff). These 
vessels, at the instance of the British Govern- 
ment, had sailed from Spit Head on the 24th of 
the preceding April with an assorted company of 
bondmen and freemen to form a settlement at 
Port Phillip in the then Colony of New South 
Wales. In May, 1803, Lngland, seeing that the 
Peace of Amiens would prove no check upon the 
ambitions of Buonaparte, had declared war 
against France. While Lieutenant-Colonel David 
Collins of the Royal Marines was landing 
his men and stores at Sorrento, Napoleon the 
Great was perfecting his schemes for the invasion 
of England. 

Lieutenant-Governor Collins had heard the 
muskets of revolutionary America discharging 
hot lead into his father's regiment of red-coats at 
Bunker's Hill. He had been Judge Advocate of 
the baby Colony of New South Wales under its 
first Governor, and at the age of 47 was chosen 
to father the settlement at Port Phillip. 

If the records are true, Collins brought no 
enthusiasm to this task. He was decidedly 
anxious to divert whatever colonizing activities he 
possessed to Van Diemen's Land. Even before 
he left England, he seems to have determined 
that this would be his ultimate goal. He achieved 
his object at what might have been an incalculable 
national cost. The country which he libellously 
declared "uninhabitable," and abandoned after a 
stay of three months, has proved one of the 
richest territories in Australia. 

From the window of the room where this is 
being written, the author looks out across the blue 
waters of Port Phillip, and sees dim outlines of 
that very shore whereon the tents of transitory 
settlement stood a hundred and ten years ago. 
Suburb succeeds suburb and garden follows gar- 
den, along the curving foreshores which grow 
between. 

He turns to the map of Port Phillip prepared 
by Surveyor Grimes, and notes that the site of 
his own residence is marked down as "barren 
sandy hills." The home-grown cauliflowers and 
potatoes just placed upon the dinner table are a 
present testimony that even good and hopeful 
Mr. James Flemming was entirely wrong in this 
conclusion. Forty acres of splendid market 
garden on the opposite side of the railway line 
corroborate the evidence of an amateur agricul- 
turist such as the author of Australia Unlimited. 
Twelve or twenty, or fifty thousand fruitful acres 
around the shores of Port Phillip in 1914 are 



greenly contradicting the errors and libels of 
1804. 

Leaving its little human record of one birth, 
a marriage, and twenty-one deaths behind, the 
last of the settlement was embarked for Hobart 
on the 1 8th of May. Thirty-two years later, one 
at least of the Sorrento settlers, John Pascoe 
Fawkner, returned to the effective colonization 
of Port Phillip. The discoveries of Hume and 
Hovell, in 1824, did much to enlighten the colonial 
mind regarding the quality of territory south of 
the Murray. An abortive attempt was made to 
establish a settlement at Westernport in 1824. 
Meanwhile the development of the whaling and 
sealing industry among those islands which lie 
between Tasmania and the mainland led the 
Hentys — a family of Sussex sheep-breeders, who 
had been unsuccessful land-seekers in Western 
Australia and Tasmania — to establish themselves 
at Portland. They landed at this fine harbor in 
1834 and inaugurated a highly creditable and suc- 
cessful colonial career. Victoria has reason to 
be proud of the quality of her pioneers, in the 
forefront of whom stands this acquisitive and 
energetic family. When, in 1836, Major Mit- 
chell concluded his triumphant exploration of 
"Australia Felix," he unexpectedly found the 
Hentys firmly established at Portland. 

Without doubt Major Mitchell's glowing ac- 
count of the virgin pastures of the south-west 
stimulated the tide of immigration which shortly 
set in. 

John Batman, in 1835, had already landed at 
Port Phillip from Tasmania, spied out the land 
and seen that it was good. John Batman was 
colonial-born, and consequently not filled with 
the fears and prejudices which have so often led 
migratory strangers to condemn things Australian 
which they do not understand. This Parramatta 
lad had migrated to Tasmania when he was only 
twenty, and engaged in sheep-farming. There he 
spent vigorous days of early manhood hunting 
bushrangers and endeavoring to conciliate the 
unlucky natives, who for twenty years waged 
unequal war against the white settlers. f , 

The discoveries of Hamilton Hume, his old ■ 
boy friend and townsman, first set Batman longing • 
to transfer his energies to more profitable fields 
than Van Diemen's Land had offered him. The 
hopes, desires and beliefs of ten years bore fruit 
at last. Acting under a partnership with some ' 
fifteen enterprising local spirits, some of whom 
became the Fathers of Melbourne later on — the 
young colonist sailed thither in the schooner 
Rebecca, of 30 tons, from Launceston on the loth 
May, 1835. 

Lieut.-Col. David Collins had then been dead 
twenty-five years, and much of the physic 



ii(j|l 



VICTORIA: EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS. 



295 




Melbourne, from the St. Kilda Road. 



Inc 



graphical error and misinformation of his pessi- 
mistic period was buried with him. 

When, after nineteen days' voyaging, the ex- 
rienced eye of Batman surveyed the land around 
ndented Head waving with green grass like a 
wheat-field, he knew that the story Collins and 
his satellites had written just across the Bay at 
Sorrento thirty years before, was libellous and 
untrue. 

The land was so rich and promising that Bat- 
man determined to secure the largest pos- 
sible area for himself and his associates in 
Hobart Town. Three white men and seven 
Sydney aborigines accompanied him. F'our days 
afterwards his barque lay at the mouth of the 
Yarra; and again the hardy adventurer came 
ashore and investigated the territory as far as the 
present suburb of Eltham. His famous deal 
with the natives was made on the 6th June, at 
the Merri Creek, near Northcote. P'or 40 pairs 
of blankets, 130 knives, 42 tomahawks, 40 
looking-glasses, 62 pairs of scissors, 250 hand- 
kerchiefs, 18 red shirts, 4 flannel jackets, 4 suits 
of clothes, and i i;o lb. flour, with a small annual 
rental of similar sundries, the Pizarro-like pioneer 
Van Diemen's Land induced eight chiefs, who 
epresented a tribe of about fifty aborigines, to 
cede to him over a half-million acres, including the 
present sites of Melbourne and Geelong. There 
was joy among the innocent vendors that day, and 
much display of red handkerchiefs and testing of 
new cutlery, and presumably the purchaser felt as 
much inward satisfaction as the fortunate Mel- 
bourne speculator who nowadays succeeds in pur- 
chasing a city site, for one foot of which he pays 
as much as John gave for all his hold- 
ings. Ultimately the Home Government can- 
Ifeelled the transaction. On Tune the 8th Batman 



1 L-ii 

■ft. 



boated up the Yarra as far as the falls, just below 
Prince's Bridge. "This," he entered in his diary, 
which is now carefully preserved in Melbourne 
Library, "will be the place for a village." It has 
become the centre of a "village" of over 600,000 
inhabitants ! 

While Batman was in Hobart endeavouring to 
secure ofl'icial recognition of his concession, John 
Pascoe Fawkner, who as a boy of twelve had 
been with his parents among Collins's Sorrento 
settlers of 1803, came across from Launceston 
and staked out his claim by the banks of the Yarra 
on the site of the present Melbourne Customs 
House. He was accompanied or followed by 
several other would-be settlers from Van Die- 
men's Land. So the town of Melbourne had its 
beginnings in a cluster of tents and mud huts. 

Batman brought over his family and all his 
belongings; planted an orchard on the banks of 
the Yarra, and ploughed up twenty acres of land, 
where the Spencer-street railway station now 
stands. His subsequent history is mainly a re- 
cord of vain attempts to obtain recognition or re- 
compense from the Governments of the day for 
his services, and finally to be allowed to retain 
his little agricultural holding by the river. He 
died at the age of 40, apparently a broken and 
disappointed man. 

With this first genuine effort at colonization 
the progress of Victoria began. Up to the dis- 
covery of gold in 1 85 1 that progress was prin- 
cipally pastoral. Until that year its territory 
remained, as "The Port Phillip District," a part 
of New South W^ales. It then became an 
autonomous colony, and was christened Victoria 
in honour of the late Queen. 

At the time of its separation from the Mother 
State, Victoria had a total population of 76,162, 



296 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



and contained a little over fifty-two thousand 
acres of cultivated land, no railways and no tele- 
graphs. By 1 9 14 the population had increased 
to 1,430,878, the land under cultivation was 
6,129,893 acres, and the State had 3,840 miles 
of railway open to traffic. Its expansion in other 
directions had been on the same constantly increas- 
ing scale. From the first export of wool of 
17^,081 lbs., in 1837, valued at £1 1,639, the pro- 
duction had grown by 19 13 to no less than 
106,833,690 lbs., nearly all of which was ex- 
ported — a proof that the soil, climate, and pas- 
turage of the State are ail that these early settlers 
believed them to be. 



ing well over the Murray into New South Wales 
and including the fertile districts of the Riverina. 
Between Wentworth, at the junction of the Mur- 
ray and Darling Rivers, and Albury, various Vic- 
torian railway systems touch the great inland 
river at ten different points and extensions recentlv 
agreed upon by the Cjovernments of the friendly 
States will carry some of these over the border 
into New South Wales. 

The story of the Victorian goldfields contains 
many romantic chapters. Apart from actual 
values won — which made an enormous total — the 
yields attracted a population from all corners 
of the globe, whose energies and abilities proved 




'The Block," Collins Street, Melbourne. 



I, 

I 



I 



From the date of its first discovery at Clunes in 
1851 the value of Victoria's gold to 1913 was 
£293,550,928, or about one half the total Aus- 
tralian output. 

Yet, when the border lines were marked, they 
left in the south-eastern corner no more than a 
thirty-fourth part of the continent — a territory of 
only 87,884 square miles — somewhat less than 
that of Great Britain. 

The new colony measured 420 miles from east 
to west — its extreme length. Its greatest 
breadth was just on 250 miles, and its coast-line 
only 600 miles. 

But Melbourne, with its expansive harbor, has 
become the natural outlet for a territory extend- 



of sterling service in the general work of develop- 
ment. At the end of 1855 the young colony 
had nearly five times the number of people with 
which her national career had begun in 185 i. 

Her annual revenue in those few years in- 
creased from £259,433 to £2,728,656, and con- 
tinued to Increase until, in 1914, it had reached 
£10,731,000. 

Those years, from the advent of Batman, 
Fawkner and other historic pioneers on the shores 
of Port Phillip, to the granting of responsible 
government, had often been strenuous. Ihey 
were marked by honorable enterprise and vigor- 
ous public spirit. They witnessed the steady ex- | 
tension of pastoral settlement and production, 
and the foundation of agriculture and viticulture 



i 



VICTORIA: EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS 



297 



They saw the struggle for independent govern- 
ment begin and end at length in success. 
The Port Phillip District became a self-governing 
community, with its centre of legislation removed 
from Sydney to Melbourne, with its own As- 
sembly and Council, administrative departments 
and a vice-regal representative. 

During the period in question (between 1839 
and 1 851) the colonists increased their numbers 
from 5,000 to 77,000 odd, of whom 23,000 were 
resident in Melbourne, 8,000 in Geelong, and the 
remaining 46,000 scattered over the Colony. 
Their herds, sprung from Tasmanian stock, had 
!2;rown to six million sheep and 40,000 cattle, 
giving a total export value of nearly a million 
pounds sterling in 1850. The land was growing 
wheat, potatoes and fodder, and John Batman 
had long been proved a wiser man in his genera- 
tion than Lieut.-Colonel David Collins of the 
F^oyal Marines. During that period also a tale 
of adventure and exploration had been woven: 
unknown plains had been crossed, unknown for- 
ests penetrated, new ri\'ers forded, new mountains 
disco\ered and named, and with steel and fire 
the pioneers of European civilization had pene- 
trated the distances and branded the flanks of 
Nature with the marks of human occupation. 

That steady pastoral and political advance- 
ment which the new country south of the 
Murray had followed, was destined to receive a 
sudden, unexpected impetus. The proclamation 
of responsible Government on ist July, 185 1, 
was sequelled on the i6th of the same month by 
an equally important pronouncement. 

Over the signature of the Mayor of Melbourne 
a placard was hung out from the Town Hall 
setting forth that 

"The Committee appointed to promote the 
discovery of a gold field in the Colony of Vic- 
toria have the satisfaction of announcing that 
unquestionable evidence has been adduced to 
them, showing the existence of gold in a con- 
siderable quantity both at the Deep Creek on 
the Yarra, near Major Newman's run, and 
also at the Deep Creek on the Pyrenees, near 
Mr. Donald Cameron's house." .... 

Following closely on the first discovery of rich 
alluvial gold near Bathurst, in New South Wales, 
this proclamation set the people afire with 
expectation. 

A month previously, leading citizens had 
decided to offer a reward for the discovery of a 
payable gold mine within 200 miles of Melbourne. 
This apparently was the successful result. 

Even the most optimistic would hardly have 
believed that it was to herald the opening of a 
natural treasure-house which has yielded a value 
now approaching three hundred millions! 




Town Hall, Melbourne 



If Esmond, the discoverer of reef gold at 
Clunes — 96 miles from Melbourne and 22 from 
Ballarat — could revisit the land that gave him 
fame, if nothing else, he would learn that there 
are now 15 mines on the Bendigo gold fields with 
shafts over 3000 feet deep, the deepest of the 
group being 4,614 feet (in 1912); that no less 
than 53 shafts at that period were down below the 
2,000 feet level. 

Anderson's Creek, Buninyong, and Ballarat 
followed quickly upon the discovery at Clunes. 
Then came Mount Alexander and Bendigo. 
Ararat, Stawell, Beechworth, Maryborough, suc- 
ceeded one another; and even the remote fast- 
nesses of Gippsland were finally found to be en- 
riched. 

Hardly had the young State been wedded to 
Liberty, ere Discovery, like a fairy godmother, 
dowered her with a marriage portion sufficient to 
begin national housekeeping on a princely scale. 
As treasure chest after treasure chest in the 
vaults of Nature was opened, gold mania seized 
the people of Australia. Its contagion spread to 
other countries. Not since Pizarro unlocked the 
riches of Peru had the imagination of Europe 
been so stimulated by tales of treasure in distant 
lands. In a little time the streets of Melbourne 



298 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Central Bailway Station, Melbourne 



were almost empty. People abandoned their 
business, civil servants left without sending in 
their resignations, the police force deserted in a 
body. Out of 40 constables in the City only two 
remained on duty after midnight of New Year's 
Day, 1853. 

A constant stream of doubtful emigrants from 
Van Diemen's Land was muddily emptied over 
Melbourne wharves. The Overland Track, from 
Sydney was dotted with foot-passengers carrying 
assorted bundles, containing their personal effects. 
Presently motley companies from overseas, one 
of which included a future Prime Minister of 
England, began to land at Williamstown Pier. 
Now white-haired but yet vigorous, many among 
the number remain to recall the stirring Colonial 
days in which they played their parts. They have 
seen deep-rutted streets of Melbourne changed 
into wide thoroughfares of a great city, and four 
thousand miles of railway replace rough bush 
tracks by which they travelled towards the fields. 
The scene of many a "rush" is marked by pot- 
holes or crumbling shafts; but Bendigo, Castle- 
maine, Maryborough, Stawell, Ararat and Bal- 
larat are flourishing cities, albeit they no longer 
depend entirely or even principally upon mining 
for their support. 

They were wondrous days, full of interest and 
adventure. They called to the strong, daring 
spirits of Europe and America with golden bugles, 
whose echoes haunted the brain of youth for many 
a year. They were stirring days when the griev- 



ances of a cosmopolitan crowd found vent at 
Eureka Stockade; when Luck, which ever plays 
will-o'-the-wisp along the paths of men, danced 
openly down the main thoroughfares, turning now 
and then to scatter a golden benison of nuggets 
among the following crowd. Could clerks sit 
contentedly upon their office stools or constables 
phlegmatically walk their beats when nuggets such 
as the "Welcome Stranger," weighing 2,248 
ounces of pure gold, and worth close upon ten 
thousand pounds, might be unearthed at a stroke 
of an amateur's pick? 

rhe roaring years of Bendigo and Ballarat 
have given place to years of placid progress; but 
they made fine vigorous music for young Vic- 
toria's debut upon the stage of nationhood. They 
left with her a hardy battalion of seasoned 
pioneers of finest types to father and mother 
younger generations of colonists. They left her 
also with roads, bridges, wharves, public works, 
municipal and educational beginnings, and an in- 
fant railway system. They brought also some 
administrative and social confusion and that in- 
evitable reaction which follows all great excite- 
ments. 

In 1852 the deposits of Victorian Banks, on 
the authority of the banker-historian, Mr. Henry 
Gyles Turner, increased from £820,000 to 
£4,330,000, and the notes in circulation from 
£180,000 to £1,320,000. It was some time before 
such a violent disturbance of the deep waters of 
finance subsided and the era of universal gamb- 
ling gave place to one of steady investment. 




VICTORIA: EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS. 



299 



Fire Station, Melbourne 



Trusts, Lands and Geological Survey, Public 
Works, Health, Treasury, Mines and Agri- 
cultural Departments, and other offices and func- 
tions of civilized self-government. 

Apart from all these, which are chiefly under 
direct control of the Ministry of the day, the 
State has a Local Government system now prac- 
tically universal. Victoria has been practi- 
cally divided into urban or rural municipal dis- 
tricts. There are 15 cities, 10 towns, 36 boroughs 
in the State, and 147 shires. 

The councils of municipalities are empowered 
by Acts of Parliament to levy rates, collect licence 
fees, market dues, rents and sanitary charges, 
which, with subsidies from the Central Govern- 
ment, make their principal sources of revenue. 
Their chief functions are the maintenance and 
control of streets, roads, bridges, ferries, culverts, 
sewers, drains, water-courses and jetties, within 
their respective boundaries; and under proper 
municipal by-laws to control the traffic and regu- 
late the markets, pounds, abattoirs, baths, and 
places of recreation; also to make arrangements 
Nor might the equally sudden invasion of a for sewerage, lighting, water supply, and the 
mixed population occur without social disturb- carrying on of noxious trades; and act as local 
ance. There had to be some administration of Boards of Health, 
unpalatable economic medicine before the autono- 
mous Government of 1837 was enlarged to a 
fuller measure of responsible Government in 
1856. Great agitation of the public mind and 
long conflict with constituted authority preceded 
these radical amendments of the Constitution 
under which Parliaments of later periods entered 
upon their duties. 

When Victoria ceased to be a Colony and be- 
came one of the States of the Commonwealth on 
the 1st day of 1900, she was enjoying the advan- 
tages of many democratic institutions. Her 
Statute Books were not lacking in liberal enact- 
ments. Her Constitution had been greatly 
amended and remodelled to meet the popular de- 
mands for reform. She possessed a comprehen- 
sive system of State Education, and a well- 
organized railway service controlled by Commis- 
sioners. Her Department of Customs, more 
expansive than that of New South Wales, 
her Posts, Telegraphs, and Defence, passed 
over of course with that of the other States 
to Commonwealth control. But she retains 
her Chief Justice, Puisne and County Court 
Judges, her Masters in Equity and Lunacy, 
her Commissioners of Police, Public Service, 
Water Supply, Lands Purchase, and Titles, her 
Agent-General and other high officials. She has 
her own State Electoral System, Marine Board, 
Forestry, State Coal-field, Public Libraries, Uni- 
versity, Museums, Art Galleries, Reformatories, 
Gaols, Training Colleges, Harbor and Tramway General Post Office, Melbourne 




300 



AUSTRALIA UiN LIMITED 



The total capital value of rateable property in 
the State for 191 5 was £318,960,116. During 
the four previous years there was an increase of 
nearly 44 millions in the value of these rateable 
properties — one indication of the rapid progress 
which Victoria is making. 

Out of a population of 1,417,801 in 19 15 the 
municipal ratepayers numbered 393,133, who 
were responsible for the respectable total given 
above. On the authority of the Government 
Statist the amount of private wealth only in Vic- 
toria in 1 9 14 could be estimated at three hundred 
and twenty millions, or £243 per head of the 




On the Upper Yarra 

population, as against £153 per head in England. 
Statistics of the State indicate that the average 
wealth of its citizens is steadily increasing. The 
public debt is high, like other Australian States, 
mainly for the reason that large sums of money 
have been invested in public works, a large sec- 
tion of which, like the railways, are reproductive. 
Thus our public debts are to be regarded more 
in the light of profitable investments than liabili- 
ties uncovered by assets. 

While political evolution was in progress, 
the Colony was laying foundations of future 
industries. People gradually ceased to expect 
to win fortunes from the hands of chance, and 



learned to build them on safer grounds of exer- 
tion and enterprise. They came to see that the 
mineral riches of a land blessed like theirs were 
a providential lure to other riches of agriculture 
and manufacture which would prove more per- 
manent and universal. 

When the prosperous "seventies were young, 
V^ictoria had completed only 276 miles of railway. 
By 1 88 I the mileage had increased to 1,247. I" 
1914-15 3,888 miles had been opened. The 
problems of transport had been grappled and 
practically solved; inevitably settlement and pro- 
duction followed. 

By 1 89 1, over two and a half million acres of 
land had been brought to cultivation. This total 
was doubled by the end of 191 1. Coevally with 
this increase of agricultural activity, Victoria has 
devoted considerable capital to the establishment 
of local manufactures. Prior to Federation she 
may justly be credited with having pioneered many 
Australian Industries. In 1871 her 1740 fac- 
tories employed less than twenty thousand people. 
By 19 1 5 the number of factories had increased to 
5,413, finding occupation for 1 13,834 hands. The 
value of machinery and plant, land and buildings, 
rose from something over three and a half mil- 
lions sterling during that period, to twenty-two 
and a half millions. 

Between 1881 and 1915 the value of articles 
manufactured in Victoria steadily climbed from 
thirteen and a third millions odd, to fifty-one and 
a half, and is still an increasing quantity. 

Perhaps the most significant statistics are those 
connected with the Victorian dairy industry. In 
I 89 1 the output of butter was under 17 million 
lbs. In 1914-15 it reached over 62 million lbs. 

In the half century which elapsed between the 
opening of her goldfields and Federation, Victoria 
had been steadily proving her resources. 

The path of progress was not always bordered 
by red roses of success. Colonization has ever 
been a rude and strenuous process in the history I 
of races. The wilderness is not conquered without " 
a conflict, the best of lands must be prepared for 
the plough. Nor can Governments and social in- 
stitutions be got into proper working order with- 
out failures and amendments. Neither will the 
speculative instincts of national youth all at once 
give way to the steady scientific efforts of more 
experienced age. The habit of sudden riches had 
to be corrected in the closing years of the cen- 
tury. The remedy was drastic, but the cure will 
be permanent. The genius of Victoria thence- 
forward was destined to work in harness with dis- 
cretion and science. But certain experiences were 
gained during that half-century of progress and 
reverse, which invest the outlook for coming years 
with elements of certainty. Whereas hope was 
often greater than faith, it may be accepted that 



I 




30I 



302 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



faith based on facts will be the guiding star of the 
future. 

The suitability of the State for rural industries 
has been satisfactorily proved; the increase in 
dairy output alone confirms that. Profitable 
cultivation of wheat on lands previously regarded 
as unfit for this purpose, the successful manufac- 
ture of raw products into every-day articles of 
commerce, and the treatment of irrigable lands, 
are all beyond the stages of experiment. 



below freezing point. Equable temperatures, 
such as these, make for industrial efficiency and 
assist to build up vigorous communities. 

From an exhaustive table prepared by Mr. J. 
M. Reed, ex-Surveyor-General and now Secretary 
for Lands, we find that the little State is well 
dowered by mountains, having so far as at pre- 
sent known, 32 peaks between 5,000 and 6,000 
feet, and 37 summits between 4,000 and i;,ooo 
feet high. On some of these higher peaks in the 





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Tea-Tree on Port Phillip Shores 



In subsequent pages these matters will be ex- 
amined in some detail, and the claims of Victoria 
as a present field for European immigration and 
settlement more fully considered. 

No matter what future contentions may be 
raised about the adaptability of white labor to 
Australian tropics, there is no doubt that the 
White Australia principle can always be main- 
tained without difficulty in Victoria. 

The climate is exceptionally suited to Euro- 
peans. The physical stamina of her men and the 
pronounced beauty of her women are distinctly 
evident; nor can this be attributed altogether to 
superiority of that original stock from which the 
present generation evolved. The mean tem- 
perature recorded at Melbourne Observatory 
over a period of 59 years was 57.4. The average 
showed that on four days during the year the 
thermometer rises above 100 degrees in the shade, 
and on about three nights in the year it drops 



Main Range snow remains in sheltered places 
from winter to winter. 

Victoria, especially in its eastern districts, is 
well watered and supplied with abundant lakes 
and streams. It enjoys as high an average rain- 
fall as, and a milder climate than, that of Cireat 
Britain. The mountain system gives two drainage 
areas, one group of rivers falling northward into 
the Murray, the other turning southward to the 
coast. 

The north-west of the State is a vast plain, 
originally covered for the greater part with that 
stunted eucalyptus which, known as mallee, has 
come to be associated in southern Australia with 
wheat-growing lands. The south-west holds what 
has so far been regarded as the best pastoral and 
agricultural district in the State. The eastern 
areas are generally mountainous but well watered 
and productive. The central districts fall away 
from mineral areas to fertile plains both coast- 
ward and inland. 



VICTORIA: EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS. 



303 



With the object of improving the main roads 
of the State, an Act was passed on 23rd December, 
19 1 2, which empowered the Governor-in-Council 
to appoint a board, to consist of three members. 

The duties of the board are to ascertain by sur- 
vey and investigation what roads are main roads; 
the nature and extent of the resources of Victoria 
in metals, minerals, and materials suitable for the 
purposes of road-making and maintenance, and 
the most effective and economical methods for 
dealing with the same, and for supplying and 
utilising the material in any part of Victoria; the 
most effective methods of road construction and 
maintenance; what deviations (if any) in existing 
roads or what new roads should be made so as 
to facilitate communication and improve the con- 
ditions of traffic; and to record, publish, and make 
available for general information the results of 
all such surveys and investigations. The duty of 
furnishing information that may be required is 
imposed on the municipal authorities. 

■ The construction of permanent works and the 
aintenance of main roads are likewise to be 
rried out by the municipalities to the satisfaction 
ot the board. The total cost of the works, in the 
first instance, is to be paid by the Treasury, but 
subsequently half the amount expended on per- 
manent works and maintenance is to be refunded 
by the municipalities affected. 

For the purpose of making permanent works, 
power is given to the Governor-in-Council to issue 
stock or debentures to the amount of £400,000 



a year for five years, and the principal and interest 
are a charge upon the consolidated revenue of 
the State. The money so raised is to be placed to 
the credit of an account to be called "the Country 
Roads Board Loan Account," which will be 
debited with all payments made by the Treasurer 
towards the cost of permanent works. A sinking 
fund of I per cent, per annum on half the amount 
borrowed is authorised to be paid out of the con- 
solidated revenue until half the amount borrowed 
is redeemed. An annual payment to the Treasurer 
of 6 per cent, on the amount due by each muni- 
cipality in respect of permanent works is provided 
for, and the cost of maintenance, allocated to each 
municipality, must be paid before the ist July in 
each year. A special rate, not to exceed 6d. in 
the £1 on the net annual value of rateable pro- 
perty to meet the cost of permanent works and 
maintenance, may be levied in any ward or riding 
of a municipality as the council may direct. 

According to the Federal Statistician, up to the 
30th June, 1 9 14, there were 2017 miles of de- 
clared main roads, agreed to by the councils, and 
gazetted. In addition, there were 943 miles of 
proposed main roads not yet gazetted. The total 
amount of contracts for permanent works was 
£94,877, of which £23,440 represented contracts 
let directly bv the board, and £71,473 by the muni- 
cipalities. The net receipts for the year ending 
30th June, 1914, were £49,279, of which amount 
the chief items were: motor registration fees, 
£26,011, and unused roads and water frontage 
license fees, £19,193. 





Nyora Gully, Healesville 



f 



304 




I 



On the Beach at Mentone 



PORT PHILLIP AND THE HILLS. 



gardening on the outskirts of both cities will ac- 
cept as a satisfactory compliment. 

In the end, only the very smallest proportion of 
our whole Commonwealth will be found unpro- 
ductive; but, when the utilities of all Australia 
have been determined, it will probably be realized 
that Victoria has no real waste lands beyond the 
rocky sides of her mountains. On the western 
side of Port Phillip basaltic plains extend from 
the outskirts of Melbourne to Geelong, occupied 
first as pasture for sheep, but in latter years de- 
voted to agriculture, principally the production 



SINCE Batman's "village" grew to be one of 
the major cities of the world. Port Phillip 
District has been the scene of rapid 
changes. Where ample mid-Victorian skirts 
evaded contact with the mud and dust of unmade 
thoroughfares, sleek motor-cars convey modern 
Beauty to afternoon tea, over faultless street sur- 
faces, where traffic obediently follows the move- 
ments of a uniformed constable's imperious hand. 
John Pascoe F'awkner's weatherboards and slabs 
have given place to lordly granite and arching 
steel. 

I he Yarra, although much yet remains to be ^ r ji i- i ■ r i ^ , 

done, has been improved out of all semblance to "[ ^°'^^^''' ^'^"^^ h=is found a ready market m 
the stream wherefrom, one boisterous Monday l^^ metropolis. This sweep of country takes m 
morning eighty years ago, Batman filled the Re- I;=^^erton, Werribee, Little R.ver In spnng- 
becca's casks with fresh water before setting sail *'"'" '* '' ^ '^"'^ "f /'■^^" ,^"^ gold— the settlers 
for Tasmania with a freshly-written treaty which ^'''^'^ acres emerald with flounshmg young crops 
purported to make him and his associates lords of °J °^^'' ^"'^. °P/" ''^"=>'"f, °^ fallow golden with 
600,000 acres, now the most valuable in the Com- ^^P'^ "^/^"^ m flower. Many Insh farmers took 
monwealth "P ^""^ around here when the Colony was young, 

Batman,m his overland journey from Indented ^"'^ ^^''^ prospered. 
Head, had seen how suitable the lands were for The eastern arm of Port Phillip for the first 

pastoral and agricultural purposes. Unlike her few miles is mainly suburban and residential, 
older rival, Melbourne has rich soils at her back Then come flat patches of peaty sand on which, 
doors, in contrast to the stiff clays and sandstones with the judicious use of fertilizers, highly profit- 
on which Sydney is located. Victoria has been able crops of vegetables are grown. Mammoth 
described as the "Cabbage Garden of Australia," cauliflowers, potatoes, onions, and tomatoes are 
a tag which anyone who has had experience of raised for local sale or export to other States. 



i 



305 



3o6 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



While this book is being written, its author is 
taking necessary physical exercise and recreation 
as an amateur gardener in this very locality. At 
first sight one might be inclined, like James Flem- 
ming, Governor King's agricultural expert, to 
condemn this particular strip of heath and 
bracken-coated sand as barren and unfit for cul- 
tivation. But never judge Australia by surface 
indications! That may be accepted as a guiding 
adage. It is certainly adaptable to market gar- 
deners in this vicinity, who are making respect- 
able fortunes on soils that have no pretence to 
richness. The secret, of course, is rational man- 
uring, good rainfall, supplemented by irrigation 



pleasant work examining a land of such beauty 
and attraction, a land of gardens old and new, of 
orchards, of blue shores and green hills, of plea- 
sant rural roads, along which bush and settlement 
alternated, of clean and spacious inns, leafy vil- 
lages, grassy slopes and running streams. 

Through the seaside suburbs of St. Kilda, 
Brighton, Hampton, Sandringham, Beaumaris, 
Mentone and Mordialloc, the road runs to Point 
Nepean. Port Phillip covers a total water space 
of 800 square miles. Along its shores are many 
pleasant marine resorts. On the eastern side of 
the Bay a beautiful species of "tea-tree" flourishes. 
From Sandringham onwards this native tree has 




The River Yarra at Melbourne 



in some cases, and proximity to market. Proprie- 
tary gardeners round here pay wages to their 
European laborers which would make an English 
or French or German market gardener believe 
that the world had gone mad. They give com- 
paratively high prices for implements and fertil- 
izers, and yet are reaping profits which, to a Bel- 
gian peasant proprietor, for example, could be 
associated only with the Millennium. 

There are still room and opportunity within a 
50 miles radius of Melbourne for hundreds of 
small agriculturists with a little initial capital. 

In the late spring of 191 2, the author ex- 
plored the country around this great southern 
centre in detail. It had two interests, the scenic 
and the practical. Each day's motor journey 
brought something of both. In sooth, it was 



been carefully preserved. When it flowers in 
Spring the whole countryside appears to be dusted 
with snow. Residents have learned its value and 
cultivate it for hedges and breakwinds. It re- 
sembles the olive at first appearance, grows 
rapidly and hardily, and is of general service for 
groves and gardens. 

Spaces widen away from the city, and the trav- 
eller enters into delightful rural surroundings. 
Something can be written on the attractions of 
every Australian capital, but Melbourne has a 
charm entirely her own. 

There is a Spring-time softness, an atmosphere 
half country and half suburb about bayside places 
like Beaumaris, Mentone, and Mordialloc which 
cannot be matched in Australia. One happens on 




■d 
a 

Pi 



O 



307 



3o8 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



little lavender farms, strawberry and asparagus 
gardens in out-of-the-way corners. The week- 
ender has not yet destroyed their quaintness. He 
is a bird of summer, and haunts the foreshores in 
his bathing clothes. 

One goes back a little and finds the market gar- 
dener plodding down broad paddocks behind his 
patient plough horse, or planting out long rows of 
cauliflowers after the autumn rains, or in summer- 
time loading his cases of ripe tomatoes on to a 
lorry on busy afternoons before the market days. 
Mayhap one chances on a field of oaten hay with 
the new-cut sheaves in stook, sweet-smelling as 
those that made the delight of rural England 
when Milton was writing U Allegro or Lycidas. 
These places lie back from tree-fringed shores 
where the campers and week-enders — children of 
a later time — have taken possession. 

At Mentone and Mordialloc there are long 
piers typical of Hobson's Bay, where folks prom- 
enade on summer nights. 

Beyond Mordialloc lie Aspendale, Chelsea, 
Carrum and Prankston, where the railway leaves 
the foreshores of Port Phillip and goes across 
the peninsula to Stony Point on the shores of 
Westernport — now converted into a naval base 
for the Commonwealth. A short loop-line re- 
turns to Mornington. Dromana, Rye, Sorrento, 
and Portsea are all popular watering-places be- 
tween that pretty village and the quarantine sta- 
tion at Point Nepean. 

It was half a mile on the east side of Sorrento 
Pier that Collins and his company "settled" for 
three impatient months, a hundred and ten years 
ago. A few ancient graves remain to mark the 
locality. 

PVom Mordialloc to Frankston the sun-loving 
Australian has found a curve of congenial shore 
whereon to erect hundreds of little bungalows and 
week-end places. In summer-time the tea-tree 
echoes the happiness of Melbourne youth; the 
sands are dotted with bathers, and the blue waters 
of Port Phillip sparkle with Sicilian light and 
color, or ruffle grayly when a cool south wind 
comes sweeping over Bass Strait. 

The glories of Sydney are more marine than 
rural. The beauties of Melbourne are a delight- 
ful combination of both. Much has been written 
about Sydney Harbor — always a pleasant theme 
— but in the wider spread of Port Phillip, with 
its fertile shores, there is scope for patriotic paint 
and poetic rhapsody. Manly on a summer's night 
may be a Venetian Carnival, but Mordialloc on a 
spring morning is a page from Whittier. 

The habitat of week-enders practically ceases 
at Frankston. Beyond that, it is shady country- 
side and sunny watering-place down the Bay. 
From Frankston there is a fair road across Morn- 
ington Peninsula to Westernport. Through the 



villages of Hastings and Bittern, it goes pleas- 
antly on to Hinders over hill and dale. 

In spring-time, orchards smothered in apple 
and cherry blossom enliven the way, and green 
crops grow fence-high in unpromising sandy soils. 

From Flinders to Cape Schanck is idyllic. 
Green fields, rolling slopes dotted with sheep and 
cattle, grassy headlands; roads that wind o\'er 
breezy hill-tops and dip across running creeks, 
blue seas and white surf on the beaches, make a 
pretty pastoral, full of southern freshness and the 
fragrance of fruit, blossom, and hay. 

One envies these comfortable citizens whose 
breezy farm-lands face the sea. On this fertile 
stretch of basaltic country old homesteads are 
tucked away in sheltered corners of the downs, 




Bocks at Phillip Island 



their avenues and groves of dark spiral pines pro- 
claiming early settlement. 

Westernport is looped like a horseshoe around 
French Island and Phillip Island, both of con- 
siderable area, both places of attraction for Mel- 
bourne visitors, who find here field and marine 
sports to make their holidays pleasant. 

Cowes, Rhyll and Newhaven on Phillip Island 
are popular summer resorts. Tankerton stands on 
French Island, and San Remo on the eastern 
shores of the Bay. The latter is a quaint little 
seaside place with an old-world air about it. 
Hedges of sweet-briar and English trees help to 
heighten this effect. 

For a restful, reflective holiday these Western- 
port villages have a quiet call. 

It is pleasant to dawdle about the green fields 
and old gardens of a place like San Remo, to feel 
the keen south wind blowing across the sand 
dunes, to watch the long grass waving, to follow 
the red and white roads, lifting and dipping over, 
slope and hollow, giving now and then glimpses 
of blue Cjippsland and Dandenong Mountains anc 
blue stretches of ocean on either hand. 



PORT PHILLIP AND THE HILLS 



309 




white-heart cherries, apples, and pears; and on 
many a patch of fertile soil it produces profitable 
crops of wheat and oaten hay. 

Turning back from Cape Schanck towards Port 
Phillip, basalt gives place to limestone, but rural 
features remain — the squares of green crop, flow- 
ering orchards, long hedges, and old houses in 
their groves of pine. 

Dromana, like these other watering-places, has 
its attractions for sportsmen and holiday-makers. 
The hotels, with rural heartiness, see to it that 
substantial meals are laid before their guests, 
appropriate to seaside appetites. Golfers, fisher- 
men, shooters can enjoy their respective thrills, 
while for the great amusement-loving Australian 
public in general the guide-books set forth their 
snares. In summer many Melbourne business 
people send their families to Mornington, Dro- 
mana, Mount Martha, or some other of these 
cool and pleasant places, and either make daily 
journeys where trains are available, or join their 
families for the week-ends. Bay steamers make 
regular excursions to the outlying piers of Port 
Phillip on either shore. 
l^pEastward from Port Phillip are a number of 
instricts where small blockholders make comfort- 
able livings, where there is room yet for little 
capitalists to establish minor industries or supple- 



The Beach, Cowes, FliiJllip Island 



ment established sources of income with takings 
from the land. 

The town of Dandenong, through which the 
Gippsland railway line runs, is an old-established 
market centre, and the capital of a shire. Spread- 
ing trees shade its busy main street. Like most 
Victorian towns, the aesthetic side of country life 
has not here been ruthlessly trampled underfoot 
by too-eager utilitarianism. The civic nakedness 
which unfortunately attaches to some Australian 
places has been decently covered, and the visitor 
retains pleasant recollections of the town. 

From Dandenong, through the villages of 
Sherwood and Tooradin, a road of no especial 
interest brings one again to the shallow northern 
shores of Westernport. 

A little further east and we enter the Koo-wee- 
rup area, where Government effort in swamp 
drainage and subdivision has been the means of 
settling many agricultural families. 

The railway which connects Southern Gipps- 
land with Melbourne passes through Koo-wee-rup 
and branches off at Nyora for Wonthaggi and the 
State coal-fields. 

Koo-wee-rup is an example of what judicious 
road-making and engineering will do. An area 
of 53,000 acres has been converted into good, 
wholesome farmlands. The roads are flat and 
heavy travelling after rain; but right close to the 




3IO 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



salty margins of Westernport one sees, on fields 
reclaimed by drainage, excellent crops of hay and 
other evidences of successful agriculture. 

Following the main drain in a north-easterly 
direction for about fourteen miles, the traveller 
strikes the Gippsland road and railway line, and 
comes back through Drouin, Bunyip, Pakenham 
and Beaconsfield to Dandenong. These places, 
sleeping under the heels of the hills, are all of 
more or less agricultural account. Beacons- 
field may be taken as an example of an East Vic- 
torian village. 



by Lilydale to Warburton, and through Yarra 
Glen to Healesville — all picturesque routes. 
Through all its rugged and fertile length the long 
Dividing Range nowhere holds greater scenic 
beauties than those which mark the ends of its 
splendid mountain course just beyond Port 
Phillip. 

The Marysville and Warburton districts, which 
go well out into the ranges, probably contain more 
beautiful mountain views than any similar area in 
Victoria. As the Marysville Road rises beyond 
Healesville, it takes the traveller up into forests 







^^ 


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l^Ci^ 


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JPPNifci^^^M 


^^jU 


l^&M^HBj^^^^^F " 




^^m 






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'^'^W^ 



In the Drained Area, Koo-wee-rup 



English oaks spread their leafy branches down 
its streets, its gardens are gay with roses, its 
hedges sweet with briars. 

Waving crops along the hillsides, ripening fruit 
in the orchards testify that this sunny village is 
a valuable gem in a setting of emerald and gold. 

Tilth and fertility, good seasons, constant rain- 
fall are the features of Gippsland: into which 
indifferent roads radiate through villages and 
townships such as these. 

From the old Gippsland Road one might, if so 
minded, walk by upward tracks of great beauty to 
Gembrook and Fern-Tree Gully, Melbourne's 
best-known hill places. As he mounts these hill- 
sides, growing steeper by the way, the visitor will 
realize that he is ascending the southern wall of a 
mountain range which has its beginnings not very 
far from the Gulf of Carpentaria and extends 
across a Continent. 

The nearer ranges are penetrated at three 
points — by railway from Melbourne through 
Ringwood and Fern-Tree Gully to Gembrook; 



of tree-fern, blackbutt and native beech. From 
various points of vantage panoramas of southern 
Australia at her beautiful best are unrolled be- 
neath him. 

The higher rainfall of these hills is responsible 
for a richer vegetation than that immediately 
around Melbourne. Blackwood and mountain 
ash (Eucalyptus sieberiana) probably achieve 
their greatest height and beauty on these ranges. 

The prosperity of Warburton is largely 
based on mountain ash. Here, on an area 
of 12 acres, one mill with 24 hands has 
sawn out £5,000 worth of timber in nine 
months. At Neerim a single trunk yielded 
10,000 6-ft. palings, worth £115. Members of 
this branch of the great Eucalypt family have 
achieved a measured height of 300 feet. Fhey 
stand among the forest monarchs of the earth. 
Despite their tall trees, these hill regions are no- 
wise gloomy or repellant. They are forever sweet 
with blossom and musical with birds. Acacias and 
sassafras, starry-petalled clematis, tecomas, and 




Matblnna Falls, HealesYllle 



311 




s 



312 



PORT PHILLIP AND THE HILLS 



313 




The Biver Yarra at Warburton. 



other native flowers bloom from season to 
season, while the singing birds of the South are 
rarely silent throughout the day. 

Mount Dandenong, the last of a long line of 
ancestral peaks, is over two thousand feet in 
height. With the intervening twenty-four miles 
towards Melbourne laid out in checker-board 
squares below him, the visitor gains from its 
summit a view which will not fade from inward 
vision in a lifetime. Mount Dandenong can be 
reached by regular coach service from Croydon, 
on the Healesville line. Other vantage places have 
been made accessible. For a healthy summer 
holiday, these nearer mountains are not to be sur- 
passed within the Commonwealth or beyond it. 
Beautiful streams of ever-running water, river- 
heads, cascades and creeks, magnificent vistas of 
range and valley, titanic forests, glades of tall 
tree-fern, groves of myrtle, sassafras and wattle, 
farms, orchards make travel in these districts a 
day-long delight. 

With knapsack, gun or Kodak, one might jog 
along from sun to sun, over a tumble of hills, ex- 
ploring side tracks, visiting places of interest for 
weeks, and still find each day more pleasant than 
the one that went before. In this way a pedes- 
trian may at his leisure enjoy the beauties of 
Mount Olinda, Monbulk, Montrose, Croydon, 
Sassafras, Upper Fern-Tree Gully and the Na- 



tional Park; he may climb to Sherbrooke and 
Bayswater; wander out to Belgrave and Emerald, 
on to Warburton, Wood's Point, Healesville and 
Marysville, and go even farther afield through 
the hearts of many ranges into the very fastnesses 
of the Australian Alps. 

By Warburton stands Mount Donna Buang, 
4080 feet high, where winter snows are slow in 
melting. Many prominent peaks lift their rugged 
crowns within the splendid mountain circle of 
which Donna Buang is a commanding centre.. 

From the township of Dandenong in the south, 
across to the pretty railway suburb of Spring 
Vale, there is much delightful orchard and har- 
vest land. Glen Waverley is an idyll wherein 
ripened cherries and briar roses by the wayside 
leave fragrant, colorful memories of bounteous 
Spring. These outer edges of Melbourne are 
charming in their sunlight and shadow, their 
clearings between spaces yet covered with scrubs 
and forests; their open fields and native coverts. 

Pleasant homes of fruitgrowers, and onion and 
potato fields testify to their fertility. They will 
ultimately become one continuous agricultural 
colony. 

Striking across country by Tally Ho and Black 
Flat, through vistas of English seeming, one 
comes to Mitcham and Ringwood by a rising 
road. The hillsides are gay with growing or- 




.314 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



chards. Stream and slope, field and farm make 
bright the way to Lilydale, famous as the Aus- 
tralian biding-place of Madame Melba. In a 
district gladdened by many delightful homes, the 
world-famous Victorian Bird of Song has built a 
beautiful nest. 

Coming on to Healesville from Lilydale, one 
sees the hazy mountains, which, from Melbourne, 
are no more than blue silhouettes, taking on more 



Crossing the fertile flats of Upper Yarra from 
Healesville to Christmas Hills, the traveller will 
see Victoria in one of her typical moods. 
The Yarra, beyond the actual city radius, to its 
head-waters in the mountains, is one of the love- 
liest rivers in the Commonwealth. With clear 
waters swept by willows or shaded by ornamental 
trees; with graceful bends and sparkling reaches, 
it pursues its purling, laughing, singing way over 




On the Boad to Sassafras, Mount Dandenong. 



definite form. Spaces along the range have been 
cleared and converted into farms. A line of tall 
trees with slits of blue sky between them marks, 
perhaps, the summit of a range whose lower slopes 
are green with tilth. Perched on a shoulder of 
hill will be the out-of-town house of some Mel- 
bourne man of means; lower down an orchard, 
further on a little farm. 

Healesville is full of quiet Australian charm. 
Englamored by forested hills, with a clear moun- 
tain atmosphere and cool summer nights, it has 
become one of the great resting-places of the 
South. The Graceburn Weir, part of Mel- 
bourne's water supply, is located near the town- 
ship. 



sand and pebbles — green water-weeds waving in 
its pools, gay flowers mirrored in its depths. It is 
difficult to believe that the turgid stream churned 
by the screws of Trade, which impresses the visi- 
tor so unfavorably on entering its mouth at Hob- 
son's Bay, is the same daughter of the mountains 
that flashes a silver mirror to the sun by Launch- 
ing Place and Warrandyte. 

The steep climbs up Christmas Hills are repaid 
by glorious panoramic views of Yarra Flats, with 
mountains on one side and Melbourne and its 
districts on the other. 

A road goes down on the west to Elthani, 
which is reached from Melbourne through 
Heidelberg and Grecnsborough by rail. 




Sturt Street. 



Botanical Gardens 




.Lake wendouret. 



.SuburDan B6.ll&ral^: 




315 



3i6 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




A Vineyard at Lilydale. 



A little way from Greensborough are St. 
Helena and Diamond Creek, rural places of a 
type only to be found in Victoria and Tasmania. 

Heidelberg was one of the first settlements 
along the Yarra. The adjoining district, on which 
Melbourne suburbs are now encroaching, still 
preserves the flavor of Old Colonial days. Old 
vineyards and orchards, old houses sweetened by 
alder and rose, pear blossom, tall pines, oak 
trees, and trim gardens, feature the landscape. 
St. Helena was named by one of the original set- 
tlers, who had been associated with the mid- 
Atlantic captivity of Buonaparte. 

At Diamond Creek, one of the first Victorian 
gold mines was, until recently, working. About 
here are many young orchards, where apples are 
profitably grown. Further inland, among the 
hills, are raspberry gardens, giving heavy returns. 
All this pleasant country-side is adapted for small 
holdings. With city markets and wharves at a 
reasonable distance, good fruit, butter, crop and 
stock will give the careful block-holder a decent 
living and something more. 



The Yan Yean Reservoir, which supplies Mel- 
bourne with pure water, has been constructed by 
damming the Plenty River, a tributary of the 
Yarra, at a convenient storage point 24 miles 
from the city. A railway goes to Whittlesea, four 
miles further. At the foot of the Plenty Range, 
supplementary storages have been established 
among very beautiful surroundings. 

The embankment of the Yan Yean is 3,200 
feet long, the reservoir eleven miles in circum- 
ference. This pine-bordered lake with background 
of blue hills is among the many creditable public 
works which have been established in Victoria 
during the half-century since gold was discovered 
on the banks of the Plenty River. 

With a good hill-climbing car, the tourist will 
do well to cross from the pleasant clearings of 
Whittlesea towards Kinglake — another mountain 
district of attraction, where cold-country fruits 
bring growers good profits. Kinglake is on the 
edges of forests which have yielded an enormous 
quantity of marketable timber. 





Mitchell Falls, Kyneton. 



The River at Yea, 




I 



•a 

S3 



n 






317 



3i8 



PORT PHILLIP AND THE HILLS 




River Goulbuni, Alexandra. 



Through Kingluke West a hea\y road goes on 
to Yea, following down King Parrot Creek, and 
passing through the pretty hamlet of Flowerdale. 
By pinches, levels and slopes, one gradually climbs 
into the heart of mountains where lordly pano- 
ramas of billowing hills, vividly green flats, 
ravines, forests and precipices await the enthusi- 
astic tourist. It is worth any amount of "top- 
gear" work and hard climbing by muddy road to 
get into these mountains. They will give you an 
impression of Australia which you cannot find in 
books of travel written by casual globe-trotters. 

Along King Parrot Creek, which empties into 
the Goulburn River, are quaint old homesteads 
dating back, no doubt, to the days of first 
Victorian settlement. 

Touring eastward from Yea, the road, railway, 
and river run side by side through a veritable 
land of delight. Nowhere in Australia is there 
a more glorious road than that which winds along 
the Goulburn Valley from Yea to Tallarook. 

The Goulburn, one of the major tributaries of 
the Murray, enters that river a little above 
Echuca. Like the Murrumbidgee and Darling, 
where they join the great river, there is a distinct 
difference in the color of the water. On my 
motor-boat journey down the Murray some years 
ago, I remember that the Goulburn came in un- 
expectedly like a dark green ribbon unrolling it- 
self over a court dress of silvery silk. The Mur- 
rumbidgee was a lighter green, but the Darling 
ran like a river of milk. One noticed these 
features the more, perhaps, because the waters of 
the Murray are so colorless and clear. But the 
Goulburn — already no inconsiderable stream — is 
clear enough where the road meets it eastward of 
Yea. Its swiftly-flowing current is carried along 
between steep granite hills that open out here and 
there in rushy swamps or patches of black tilth 



lands. Fruit and crops, farms and rustic scenery 
of especial charm make the winding road to Tal- 
larook unusually pleasant. Dark patches of fern 
splash the green hillsides with a more sombre 
green. Comfortable farm-houses surrrounded by 
poplar trees, and old huts of bark and slab en- 
groved by older trees, link the present to the 
past. 

Interstate railway passengers are familiar with 
the country that lies between Tallarook and Mel- 
bourne. Much of it is rich and good: especially 
about the old settled districts of Broadford, Kil- 
more, Wallan, Donnybrook and Broadmeadows. 

The Sydney Road runs through all these 
places. By this long highway the diggers poured 
down when the gold excitement was high. By the 
Bendigo Road they left Melbourne for the fields. 

Inns stand yet by the wayside, where flying 
coaches changed horses in the roaring 'fifties, 
where lucky gold-seekers held high-revels and 
scattered wealth to the winds. Crumbling walls 
by cross-roads which echo now the hooting of 
motor horns not so long ago gave back the re- 
frains of songs that delighted the dandies when 
Dickens and Thackeray were revising the proof- 
sheets of their earlier novels. 

The railway takes more prosaic generations 
through Macedon and Kyneton to Castlemaine. 
Macedon has during many years been a habitat of 
the well-to-do. Rich men's homes lie along 
the hillsides. Mount Macedon is 3,3 2 q feet high 
and from various points unfolds panoramic 
views rivalling those of the Dandenongs. Another 
railway has opened the country to Lancefield. 
It junctions with the main northern line at Kil- 
more. 

Kyneton is a further example of a solid \'ic- 
torian township, centring a good agricultural 
district. But the rich lands of Kilmore, Lance- 
field and Kyneton are not yet supporting a 
sufficient population. With the inevitable sub- 
divisions which are coming, these bounteous agri- 
cultural soils will carry a far greater number of 
people, and the local towns will benefit in propor- 
tion. 

Castlemaine is a place of manufacturing impor- 
tance. Much staunch Victorian machinery has 
been turned out in this little town on the outskirts 
of which the signs of old diggings — in the shape 
of mullock heaps, pot holes, rotting timbers and 
rusty iron — are still in evidence. 

Prom Castlemaine across to Creswick and on to 
Ballarat the present agricultural landscape is dot- 
ted with poppet-heads and dumps where reef- 
mining has been pursued with varying success. 
Luckily for these old Victorian mining centres, 
they were surrounded by some of the finest farm 
lands in the Commonwealth. As their mineral 




319 



320 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Coliban Biver, Kyneton. 



resources were exploited, the more permanent 
wealth of the soil was developed. 

Ballarat is no longer a great mining centre, but 
a proud, prosperous modern city, whose commer- 
cial stability is mainly based upon dairying, gen- 
eral farming and manufacture. 

From Castlemaine to Daylesford is only a 
short run. Daylesford makes a convenient health 
district for Melbourne and Bendigo and Ballarat. 
High hills, water-falls, trout streams, mineral 
springs, are among its well-advertised attractions. 

Daylesford, with a population of 4,000 people, 
is one of the brightest towns in Victoria. In none 
of these many brisk and cheerful country places 
within a hundred miles of Melbourne will the 
most pessimistic visitor discover that "weird ex- 
pectancy" which strangers have been taught to 
believe is typical of the Australian bush. It 
would be indeed difficult to find within a hundred 
mile radius of any other city in the world so much 
fertility, so much varied natural beauty, such a 
contented and healthy population. 

Between Ballarat and Melbourne is Bacchus 
Marsh, interesting from both geological and agri- 
cultural view-points. Here one of the most suc- 
cessful of the State's smaller irrigation schemes 
has brought prosperity to a number of settlers. 
Bacchus Marsh is synonymous with agricultural 



values and excellence of production. Apart from 
its celebrity for high-grade dairy products Bac- 
chus Marsh is a most attractive resort. I he 
Werribee Gorge — now converted into a National 
Park — is within three miles of its railway station. 
This place holds particular interest for geologists. 

Ballarat is also reached by a trunk line from 
Geelong. This route takes the traveller through 
some fine agricultural districts. The rapid settle- 
ment of the State has in a great measure been a 
direct result of the construction of lines and loop- 
lines in all directions. No part of Australia en- 
joys such a complete and effective railway system. 

Since the opening of the line to Bendigo, in Oc- 
tober, 1862, western and north-western Vic- 
toria have been cobwebbed with railroads. ft 



I 



* * 

in Australia than (jee- 



There is no fairer place 
long, which fronts Port Phillip at the head of 
Corio Bay. The western shores of this great 
Port are intensely fertile. Geelong itself is rich 
in groves and gardens, busy and modern, but yet 
a city of flowers. It is most happily located on 
sloping hillsides, with a back country of excep- 
tional beauty. 

From Geelong to Queenscliff is a ilelightful 
journey — one to loiter over with a good car upon * 
a long October day. The villa and cottage gardens ( 



41 





321 



322 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




In the Public Gardens, Bacchus Marsh. 



of (jeelong will be full of flowers about that 
time — parks a vivid green, fields emerald and gol- 
den. Imported gorse will make the roadside 
hedges seem like the walls of the new Jerusalem, 
although the farmer loves it not. Ihe fruit trees 
will be a-smother with pink and white. On undu- 
lating hillsides fat sheep and cattle will remind the 
wayfarer that he is passing along a frmge of the 
famous Western District. The great bay will 
glitter ; white sails against a background of Aegean 
blue and the smoke of steamers will shew that it is 
one of the world's busy ports; Barwon River 
will gleam across the farmlands, and Lake Con- 
newarre flash its silver. There will be glimpses 
of blue mountain-peaks in the distance; peace- 
ful hamlets with shaded streets to glide through 
slowly, a clean little inn to offer gossip or refresh- 
ment. There will be scent of roses, clover and 
hay, song of skylarks and carol of magpies — all 
the elements of a joyous journey through 
green expanses that have never borne the cruel 
burden of Want or War. 

At Portarlington the first page of Victorian 
settlement was turned nearly eighty years ago. 
Then the aboriginal hunted emu and kangaroo 
across those pastures, waving like wheat-fields, 
which Batman saw and coveted. 

Batman^and his dusky friends have sped thence. 
New red-roofed cottages, and some old ones 
with the stains of early nineteenth-century wea- 



ther upon them, face the Bay where the litde 
Rebecca lay at anchor only a life's-length ago. 

Farther on is the little marine hatnlet of St. 
Leonards, where clean incoming tides bring shoals 
of hungry fish to gladden the sportsman's soul. 

Let the man whose mind has been filled with 
harsh impressions of our lovely South-land go 
down by Clifton Springs and Drysdale and Port- 
arlington, and recatit! 

When he has grown tired of emerald pastures, 
waving crops, and flowering orchards, he can 
glide out of this rapt demesne to where waves of 
the Tasman Sea break on beaches of Barwon 
Heads, Torquay, or Anglesea ; he may even wan- 
der as far as Lome, and loiter upon the beach or 
explore the damp recesses of Cape Otway forests. 
He will find shores full of beauty and grandeur, 
fields and farms, stretches of bushland swept by 
invigorating winds, fragrant with wattle blossom, 
sunlight and spray — but nothing to remind him 
that Marcus Clarke wrote his dismal preface to 
Adam Lindsay Gordon's poems over in Mel- 
bourne across the Bay. 

It is amusing to hear returned Australians 
speaking in raptured voices of the Sunny South 
of Llurope, of Lnglish lanes and Irish meadows, 
and Caledonian braes. Within the radius of a 
hundred-mile arc, drawn east and west of Mel- 
bourne, glows a Made verdant land, resplendent 
and glorious with mountain and meadow, stream 



PORT PHILLIP AND THE HILLS 



3*3 



and cascade, blue tidal waters and brave sunshine 
— entirely healthy, entirely free, which enjoys all 
the blessings of peaceful production and still holds 
thousands of untilled acres and hundreds of op- 
portunities for the establishment of comfortable 
Australian homes. 

In Melbourne already there are 650,000 
people, or a little less than half the population of 
the State. The city itself does not need to in- 
crease its numbers; but the adjoining rural dis- 
tricts should be able to support many times their 
present total. Judicious land laws, sub-division 
and intensive culture on small areas, the establish- 
ment of new rural industries under attractive con- 
ditions of labor and residence, will help to solve 



this passing problem of centralization. The tap- 
roots of a tree are naturally strongest; but the 
whole root system must be given room to develop 
if the growth of the tree is to have a normal con- 
tinuance. 

Professor Cherry, formerly Director of Agri- 
culture for Victoria, asserts that not one-tenth of 
the available land of the State is under cultiva- 
tion. It may be seen how the present population of 
1,400,000 could be multiplied by ten without ex- 
hausting Victoria's agricultural strength. 

The opening of an autonomous transport, with 
a deep-sea harbor at Portland will help to relieve 
Melbourne. This great national work has already 
begun. 




On the Erskine at Lome. 




324 



I 




Wamiambool. 



THE WESTERN DISTRICT. 



THE city of Geelong has a population of 
35,000. On the outskirts of the town are 
several fine woollen mills, where the in- 
comparable fleeces of these districts — sought 
annually by purchasers from all over the world — 
are made into most durable tweeds, Hannels and 
blankets. Immediately beyond the town there 
liegins the fairest belt of agricultural country in 
the Commonwealth. Furthermore, it is traversed 
by what, at the end of the year 191 5, was de- 
cidedly the best main road in the State. 

Geelong being the natural capital of the won- 
ilerful Western District of Victoria, we will make 
it the starting-point of another journey. 

To travel through this agricultural Utopia in 
spring, when the crops are rustling against the 
top-rails of the fences, is to behold Australia in 
one of her most prolific aspects. 

Richest volcanic soils, visited by copious rain- 
'alls, with a temperate climate, make Western Vic- 
itoria from Geelong to Port Fairy a natural 
garden. Land has sold for over £100 an 
acre within this belt, the output of which in wheat, 
wool, dairy produce, has reached a tremendous 
total. Some of the wealthiest agriculturists in 
Australia have made their fortunes here. If It 
were the ambition of graziers to become farmers, 
rather than vice versa, the Western District 
would be still more productive and closer settled. 
When the men of larger holdings see the wisdom 
"1 sub-division, either on share-farming principles 



or as landlords or financiers, this corner of the 
Commonwealth will swell the figures of Victorian 
production further still. 

Despite this prevailing tendency to large 
estates, the Western Districts are highly progres- 
sive and prosperous. Some of the best towns in 
the State have put civic roots deep into their 
basaltic soils, and are destined to grow. 

The first of these considerable places along that 
pleasant western road is Colac. The town has 
a present population of about 4,250 people, with 
14,500 in the shire. Dairy farming and its by- 
products have proved most profitable. The aver- 
age holdings are about 100 acres. It is said lo- 
cally that fifty acres properly worked make a good 
living area. The present capital value of the 
land about Colac may be calculated at from £40 
to £60 an acre. Land suitable for the growing of 
onions brings as much as £4 an acre annual rental. 
Such land was yielding (in 1 9 1 2 ) six to seven tons 
an acre, worth £20 a ton at the time. Ten-acre 
men were making a fair income. It must be re- 
membered that living in this class of country is 
very cheap. Hitherto, beef and mutton have been 
procurable at prices that keep them on the table 
of every working-man : country house-rents are 
low, commodities comparatively cheap, vege- 
tables and fruit grow readily, and a household 
cow or two are easily kept. Taking into consider- 
ation climate, constant rainfall, convenience and 
company, the small farmer may be better oft on 



325 



326 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



ten or twenty or fifty acres here, than men with 
1,500 acres elsewhere. With the wages paid to 
agricultural laborers in Australia, any ordinary 
farm hand, without capital, can look forward to 
becoming a proprietor. 

It has become the recognised duty of each State 
Government to encourage and assist this class of 
settler as far as possible — the greater the number 
of agricultural proprietors the better for the ef- 
fective occupation and future development of the 
whole Commonwealth. 



erally, dairymen at least could greatly increase 
their returns. Even in these splendid districts 
the most casual observer will see idle lands and 
neglected opportunities. Still there are plenty of 
good farmers and well-worked holdings. As the 
Agricultural Colleges get in their good education- 
al work and European and American settlers with 
up-to-date experience and the necessary initial 
capital take up Australian lands, there will pro- 
bably be a vast improvement in the handling of 
farms. 




Thunder Point and Shelly Beach, Warmambool. 



Farmers of the Western District have paid 
great attention to their dairy herds. Oats, barley, 
onions and potatoes, without fertilizers, may be 
the standard crops of the Western District, but 
the production of butter and cheese, the curing of 
bacon, are constantly-increasing industries. Graz- 
ing, of course, has always been successful; in fact, 
the pastures of the Victorian volcanic belt carry 
a majority of the sheep and cattle of the State. 

Drought is unknown. For half a century oaten 
crops have never failed. Despite these advan- 
tages, experts like Dr. Cherry, Professor of Agri- 
culture in Melbourne University, still contend that 
Victorian farmers are not getting anything like 
the possible returns from their holdings. There 
is no doubt that, with conservation of water and 
fodder, culling and more scientific methods gen- 



The town of Colac — electric-lit, with teleJ 
phones, cars, linotypes and most of the minor coM 
veniences of civilization — like other Victorian 
towns of to-day, presents no extremes of poverty ' 
and wealth. One finds great equality, fine friend- 
liness, general comfort and well-to-do-ness, and 
keen local spirit among these prosperous little 
rural communities. 

Lake Colac, a fine sheet of fresh water, 
22 miles round and averaging eight feet in depth, 
is the scene of an annual regatta. Colac prides 
itself on the fact that its Lake offers the biggest 
field for eight-oars in the Commonwealth, rather 
than on the certainty that its sale yards pen on an 
average a thousand pigs a week. 

The Shire of Colac would carry at least twice 
its present population. 



I 



THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF VICTORIA. 



327 




Tower Hill and Lake, Eoroit. 



As we go, still westward, through halcyon 

land of fields and farms, with good macadamized 

roads under us, we see green crops as even as a 

^^^[lilliard table, higher than the fences, or stocks of 

I^Bipened crops standing in the paddocks with 

reapers and binders at work. Black soils, basal- 

I^^ic soils, limestone soils, chocolate soils, spread 
^fcverywhere. 

Otway Forest is marked by a heavy cloud-bank 
to the southward. Creeks and freshwater lakes, 
lipped by a scarlet weed, are frequent. Orchards 
of apricots and other fruit look prolific and 
healthy. Sheep and dairy cattle graze along 
rolling slopes in lush green herbage. Glossy cows 
nuinch contentedly over rich pastures. Lucerne 
fields hold bounteous promise of winter hay. Po- 
tato plants lift their purple-flowering heads down 
long even rows. Dark green squares of onions 
patch the hillsides. Fine dwellings, creameries, 
smart buggies and new motor-cars indicate that, 
whether the land is cultivated to its full extent or 
not, the Western District men are neither shiftless 
nor poor. 

This description applies to all the country be- 
tween Geelong and Port Fairy, and takes in Warr- 
nambool, Koroit, Colac and Camperdown. The 
latter is a smart, progressive town of about 3,000 
inhabitants. It is the capital of a shire about 900 
square miles in area, holding a present population 

§f 10,000, which might be increased to 100,000 
■ith closer settlement. Some of the larger estates 
re now being sub-divided into 200 and 400 acre 
farms. The writer heard of men in the"'Butter 
Belt" netting £800 a year from i;o-acre blocks, 
his district is watered by many lakes, based in 
Id volcanic craters, some of which are of very 
great depths. It may be regarded as the heart of 
the future closer settlement and intensive-culture 

Krea of Western Victoria. 



IK.' 

i 



Warrnambool, Koroit and Port Fairy, all lie 
within a few miles of one another, and make the 
fertile boundaries of a garden over a hundred 
miles in length. 

The first is a solid little city with wide, well- 
paved and clean streets, sandstone houses, good 
stores, manufactories, and other outward evi- 
dences of long-standing prosperity. Famed for 
its astounding crops of onions and potatoes, 
Warrnambool is also a depot of supply for a large 
dairy-farming area, than which there is nothing 
richer in the Commonwealth. Warrnambool, 
like Port Fairy, is a favorite seaside resort, both 
with rocky ocean-shore and sandy bay-beach. 

Koroit is a smaller repetition of Warrnambool, 
some of the most productive mixed farms in Vic- 
toria being located on the green volcanic slopes 
around it. It is here that a long-extinct volcano 
belched forth the richest soil deposits known in 
Australia, and made the land worth from £80 to 
over £100 an acre. 

Port Fairy is the terminus of the western rail- 
way system, and a shipping centre. Considerable 
port improvements are being effected both at 
Warrnambool and Port Fairy. They are both 
live towns, with active municipal councils who see 
to it that the civic credit of a growing population 
is sustained. 

Between this town and historic Portland 
the coast lands are not of such unvarying excel- 
lence, but even the poorest in seeming are capable 
of high production with proper treatments, as the 
heath lands are now proving. 

Portland, among many Australian towns with 
high ambitions, deserves particular attention. 
It claims the proud historical distinction of be- 
ing the first place in V^ictoria where European 
settlement definitely began. Two hundred and 
fifty-two miles from Melbourne, it is already the 



328 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Loch Ard Gorge, Port Campbell. 



terminus of a railway system which taps the 
north-western parts of the State and the adjoining 
border districts of South Australia. 

It has been patent for many years past that 
Melbourne, like Sydney and Adelaide, is called 
upon to accept more carrying trade than is good 
for her development. It is natural in the opening 
of new countries that first-established ports along 
their seaboards will attract large populations, but 
the expansion of Sydney and Melbourne as ports 
has been out of proportion. 

Both New South Wales and Victoria have now 
determined upon a policy of developing their 
outer ports and inland railways in order to pre- 
vent further centralization. Serious problems of 
transport have arisen which need not be discussed 
now. It is a sufficient guarantee for the future 
of the south, west and north, that the expansive 
harbor works at Portland recently commenced 
will create a new deep-sea port of the first 
magnitude. 

Portland Bay is 24 miles by 12, with 32 feet 
of water and upwards for berthing at low tide. 
It should become an outlet for the Wimmera and 
a large section of the Victorian Mallee. Local 
production in the shape of timber, grain, potatoes 
and the fruits of the temperate zone are already 
exported. The Nine-Mile Forest, near Portland, 
boasts of producing 15 tons of potatoes to the 
acre. Large stretches of heath land, some thrown 
open for close settlement, are located in the dis- 
trict. Unpromising in appearance, these heath- 
covered coastal plains give payable returns of 5 



to 10 tons of potatoes from an acre. Strawberry 
clover, cocksfoot, rye and other grasses thrive 
even in the poorer-looking soils, which extend 
across towards Mount Gambier. For their own 
especial purposes they are just as valuable under 
the high rainfalls of this corner of Australia ;is 
the fat lands in other parts of the State. 

Freezing works make one of the existing indus- 
tries of Portland, whence a hundred thousand 
lambs a year are already exported. Farm lands 
have a present value of £15 an acre, and are in- 
creasing in value. As inevitable export trade 
is developed at Portland Bay, settlement will 
doubtless increase through all this extreme south- 
western division of Victoria. 

The north-west Wimmera and Mallee pro- 
duce sixty per cent of the total wheat grown in 
Victoria, beside a fair proportion of woo! and fat 
lambs. It is expected that this output, or a 
greater part of it, will ultimately be shipped direct 
from Portland. Once direct railway communica- 
tion is established between the port and the highly 
productive districts northward, their products will 
naturally gravitate to Portland, saving thereby 
freight distances of 60 and 100 miles. 

The linking of Portland and Mount Gambier 
by rail will drain the production of that fertile 
pocket also by a much nearer channel to the sea. 

Between Mount Gambier and Casterton to the 
northward, and from (ilenelg to Portland on the 
coast, there is a large block of Victorian territory 
yet but sparsely settled. '1 he writer crossed 
into Casterton from Mount Gambier west 



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329 



330 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



and east in the beginning of 19 12, and 
crossed at the end of the same year 
through Hotspur and Digby — south and north — 
from Portland to Casterton again. The rainfall 
along this route is the same as that of Mornington 
Peninsula — 30 to 40 inches. Nearing Casterton, 
the country improves in appearance; yet the 
more southern part of it is by no means sterile or 
unfit for production. Like the heath lands above 
Portland, it can be turned to very good account, 
as patches of cultivation here and there are al- 
ready testifying. 

Coming across from Mount Gambler — the 
place where good South Australians go to 
when they die — one leaves the black ploughed 
lands before reaching the border and enters 
what to the average layman seems a desert 
by comparison. I remember that particular 
journey rather well, because I had for 
coach companions a blithe colonist of 70, named 
Cawker — an old friend and associate of Adam 
Lindsay Gordon — and a pessimist, who was 
travelling on account of his health. We left 
Mount Gambler while the church bells were ring- 
ing and rattled along briskly behind a fair team 
of horses, first through a magnificent a\enue of 
pine trees and then out on to open country 
with rolling hills of a vivid green; a most strik- 
ing contrast to Hergott Springs, where I had just 
spent a few dry but interesting days. We left the 
onion farms presently and crossed into rich 
swainp lands yet undrained. Fine spreading gum 
trees and flat open spaces featured this region. 

The coach stopped just over the Victorian bor- 
der at a little place called Ardno to change horses. 
Here we got an unexpectedly good cup of tea. The 
pessimist had complained about the. country from 
the moment we crossed the border line. He kept 
on complaining until the coach reached Casterton 
late that afternoon. Although they gave us a 
splendid lunch in the inn at Strathdownie, he was 
not happy. He said there were too many swamps; 
the people couldn't be healthy and the food 
couldn't be good. 

After leaving Strathdownie, the road rises into 
country of no seeming quality. There were 
patches of heavy sand, which gave the pessimist 
an opportunity to talk about Australian deserts. 
His heart was not in Australia. Still we reasoned 
with him. But as the sand grew heavier and the 
stunted forest thicker and more unpromising, a 
tone of greater satisfaction entered into his 
criticisms. He said they called Victoria the garden 
of Australia — was this any garden? 

We had to admit that it was not. But, I ven- 
tured to suggest, out of a profound belief in Aus- 
tralia, that it might be good for something. 

"What!" demanded the pessimist fiercely. 
"What is it good for!" 



I replied that 1 had not enough local knowledge 
to enable me to say. Still, my experience told me 
that this unpromising soil, covered with poor- 
looking timber, was perhaps the very best land in 
the world for some particular agricultural pur- 
pose! 

The pessimist laughed derisively. 

The next place for changing horses was at a 
little clearing in this ugly forest, where a lonely 
hut and a paddock were the first evidence of 
human occupation for many tedious miles. The 
hut-keeper was a solitary old man who looked 
after the coach horses; a tidy ancient whose dom- 
estic surroundings bespoke the clean methodical 
habits of a typical bush bachelor. He had the 
beds ready for the horses and each animal's feed 
waiting in its trough. 

Cawker, Gordon's friend, was the proprietor 
of that line of coaches. He had listened quietly 
to the argument as we came along. He 
professed to know little about farming, but 
he knew the birth-place and history of 
every horse on the road. He said the old 
hut-keeper had been trying to make a gar- 
den. We might get down and have a look at it. 
It should be some indication of what the country 
between the border and Casterton was good for. 
The old bushman was pleased to lead us towards 
a sloping piece of ground which he had cleared 
and planted, mainly, he told us, to fill in spare 
time. It faced towards a creek and seemed to be 
no more than a quarter-acre of gray unfertile 
sand. The tidy man felt called upon to apologise 
for its appearance. He said it looked barren, but 
he had found it would grow crops as well as the 
richer soil of Mount Ciambier or Casterton. In 
proof of this he had, among other things, splendid 
beds of strawberries, patches of green lucerne, 
and an excellent crop of tomatoes! 

The pessimist was thoroughly annoyed. It hurt 
him to find his desert actually yielding ripe straw- 
berries at the mere call of a casual hut-keeper who 
modestly disclaimed any professional knowledge 
of gardening; who was, in reality, only paid to 
look after Cawker's coach horses and merely cul- 
tivated a quarter-acre of available sand to keep 
himself from loneliness. We made full use of this 
object lesson on the deceptiveness of Australian 
appearances. It was a cold day. Phe pessimist 
sank into his overcoat for the rest of the journey. 
Even when we surmounted the last hills, and saw 
the superb undulating plateau of the L^pper 
Glenelg lit with sunset radiance, he did not re- 
appear. 

Casterton is pleasantly located on the fertile i 
fringes of Major Mitchell's "Australia Felix." It i 
is one of Victoria's active inland centres. Red- 1 
brick buildings, fine tree-planted streets, a back- 
ground of vividly green hills, swept by cool , 



THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF VICTORIA. 



33' 



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—1 1 



healthy winds, black flats, richness, cultivation, 
electric light, art furniture, a good hotel and the 
carpeted comforts of civilization — these finished 
the impressions of another day along the border, 
rhis day had brought the author into the fourth 
corner of Victoria — he knew the other three — • 
and it was a consolation to find it capable of grow- 
ing strawberries and lucerne at least. 

One sees along the western road from Geelong 
to Portland, old-fashioned farm houses, with gol- 
den fields of dandelion sloping away to willow- 
bordered creeks. Like the stone houses of Port- 
land, surrounded by formidable walls, they be- 
longed to a generation which has gone. Smaller 
villas on the hillsides, spanking motor cars and 
petrol waggons on the roads, proclaim a newer 
era. 

About Casterton and along the line to Branx- 

holme, where the railway branches for Portland, 

the old stone dwellings are fewer, but the land is 

still lush and green. Rounded hills, spreading 

rees, clear-running creeks, bespeak the happy con- 

nction of good rainfall and rich soil. Trucks 
lied with fat stock go down the rails, boxes of 

tter await shipment at the sidings and polished 
ream cans rattle toward the factories. Agri- 

Itural prosperity is evident, even in the slowness 
f the trains, which stay to pick up trucks of live 

ock, bags of potatoes, and "empties" at each 
little station. 

The distance from Casterton to Melbourne is 
200 miles. The ordinary train completes it in 14 
hours. This is not entirely the fault of the Rail- 
way Department. The leisurely habits of a 
population with nothing to worry about are a con- 
tributing factor. 

From Branxholme the railway takes across to 
Hamilton, and then through good open pastoral 
country to Ararat. Coming from Casterton to- 
wards Melbourne on this line, the passenger has 
the picturesque and striking peaks of the Gram- 
pians on his left hand, for some distance. 

These hills are of particular interest to Aus- 
alian botanists; no less than 1865 varieties of 
native plants have been classified as indigenous 
to them. For lovers of mountain scenery they 
also hold a peculiar attraction. They can be 
reached at Hall's Gap in 16 miles from Stawell, 
on the Melbourne-Adelaide line. The Grampians 
iffer in some respects from any other Australian 
mountains. Rising precipitously out of level 
plains, their timbered sandstone heights have 
been the bed of some ancient sea, whose 
warm waves beat on vanished southern shores un- 
imaginable years ago. High painted cliffs facing 
he solid plain roughly mark the borders of this 
primal sea. Deep gullies, filled with moss and 
fern, pillars and monoliths of naked stone, high 



peaks from which the wheatfields of the Wim- 
mera and the broken volcanic peaks of 
the southern seaboard are visible, make of 
the Grampians a sort of watch-tower for Vic- 
toria. These rugged sandstone ranges, still 
sparsely settled, aloof, remote and unusual, reach 







In the Grampians 



their greatest elevation in Mount William, 3830 
feet high. The orchard settlement of Pomonal is 
located on the east slope of Mount William 
range. Major Mitchell camped hereabouts in 
1836. Apples are its principal product; grown 
almost entirely for export and with considerable 
success. There is still much Crown land, valued 
at £1 an acre, in this district, which, when cleared 
of its heavy timber, is worth £25 an acre. This 
land has proved suitable for the growth of fruits 



332 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Public Gardens, Ararat. 



adaptable to temperate conditions and is likely to 
become not the least productive part of Victoria. 

From Hamilton to Lake Bolac there is good 
pastoral land, and from Lake Bolac north again 
to the interesting little city of Ararat still more 
pastoral and agricultural country. The rounded 
hills and grassy valleys of Australia Felix give 
place to more open and drier plains, changing 
again to lands of hill and hollow which, dipping 
across from Ararat through Maryborough, and 
rolling off to Ballarat and Bendigo, have made 
the richest gold-producing pockets in all Aus- 
tralia. 

From a sensational mining-field, Ararat has 
merged into a mature industrial centre, sur- 
rounded like Ballarat by districts which have 
abandoned the miner's pick for the plough. This 
successful grafting of an agricultural Present on 
to a mining Past is a pleasing feature of Victorian 
settlement. While this is being written comes an 
announcement that the last of the famous alluvial 
companies of Ballarat has closed down. Yet 
there has been no dislocation of business, and the 
prosperity of the city is nowise affected. 

This particular mine, the South Berry, in the 
Creswick group, was the last of a famous family 
of mines occupying an area of about 4 miles, from 
which an estimated twenty million pounds' worth 



of gold have been taken since 1851. The Madame 
Berry Company heads the list of gold producers 
in this remarkable group with 387,314 ounces, 
valued at oxer a million and a half of money; of 
which not less than £855,540 were distributed in 
dividends. Sinking in alluvial at Creswick has 
varied in depth from 50 feet to 400 feet in the 
Madame Berry, the wash beds near the shaft of 
which were about 1,100 feet abo\e sea level. 

I'he Cathcart mine, on the outskirts of Ararat, 
yielded eleven thousand ounces of gold in 1911, 
from what was said to be the deepest alknial de- 
posit in Australia. Much capital has been ex- 
pended in proving the mineral area of the adjoin- 
ing Langi Logan and Cathcart groups. This may 
be a gold-producing region for years to come. 

More exciting chapters in the mineral history 
of Ararat have been written than the slow, scien- 
tific probing which has established this possibility; 
but it will be a golden feather in the cap of this 
interesting field if the deep leads which trend 
southerly down the Hopkins Plateau from the 
Ararat and Cathcart gold-bearing areas, should 
yet prove as rich as those wonderful shallow 
workings which made the fabulous fortunes of 

1855- 

Much unwritten adventure and romance hang 
over the old workings with which the ground 



5ome 

Australian 

Orchids 




Caladenia carnea. 



Prasophyllum fuscum. 



333 



334 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



about Ararat is pockmarked and furrowed. It 
was in the precious pipeclay at the bottoms of 
these holes that anxious eyes from all over the 
earth looked for a fortune in the roaring days. 

Imagination can hardly conjure from the 
Ararat of to-day, with its well-kept streets and 
gardens, the canvas city of 1856-7, where fifty to 
sixty thousand people were encamped. Three tons 
three and three-quarters hundredweight of gold 
went out of Ararat by the gold escort in the 



Farms succeeded claims; wheatfields and 
orchards followed the fossickers' feverish bur- 
rowings, canvas gave way to brick and stone, and 
in another metre the epic of Australian settlement 
was heroically continued. 



Between Ararat and Stawell there are good 
vineyards and orchards. Stawell is a tidy, busy 
Victorian town, 150 miles from Melbourne, form- 




Stawell 



springtime of 1857. In that canvas town, where 
bygone campfires flickered the shadows of long- 
dead diggers on long-folded tents, Julia Mat- 
thews acted and Lola Montez danced. On gum- 
trees, long since converted into ashes, the futile 
proclamation announcing a reward for the arrest 
of Peter Lalor was nailed, when wounds won by 
would-be patriots in Kureka Stockade were still 
unhealed. 

There are old men in Ararat still, who remem- 
ber as children the great rush of 1855, which 
opened the richest alluvial field the world has 
known. These worthy citizens have seen the 
birth and renascence of a doubly-productive dis- 
trict. As the output of metal declined, new 
wealth, in the form of superfine wool, sound 
wheat and good wine, was created. The Great 
Western Vineyard, planted by J. and H. West, 
in 1863, now the property of Hans Irvine, has in 
itself given Ararat to fame as a viticultural centre. 



ing still another metropolis for a productive dis- 
trict. This is a sheep-raising, wine-growing and 
mineral region. The town, like Bendigo, still 
has several gold mines in opL-ration within its 
boundaries. With the (irampian quarries nearby, 
the buildings of this little city are more solid and 
imposing than the structures one sees in most 
Australian country places. 

Leaving Stawell, the traveller shortly enters 
those flat plains which extend through the Wim- 
mera and on over the Mallee to South Australia. 
The mining areas are left behind, and at Murtoa 
over level expanses are written in golden letters 
two words, "Wheat" and "Wool." Towards 
Warracknabeal and Minyip the landscape has 
changed to a sea of wheat or a sea of fallow and 
stubble, according to the time of year. 

There are good farmers out here, mostly 160 
to 640-acre men. They have learned the way 
to make sheep and grain pay, and keep on pay- 



•Agricijltdrai^ 

^ E^DUCATION ^ 





335 



336 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Longerenong Agricultural College. 



ing. With stuiiip-jiimp ploughs, scarifiers, har- 
vesters and hybridised wheats the conquest of the 
Wimmera and the Mallee has gone on rapidly 
during the last few years. Favored by a wise 
policy of rapid railway building, the agricultural 
districts of Victoria have been pushed farther and 
farther out, until practically the whole of that 
great north-western part of the State — which was 
once the despair of governments in Melbourne — 
has been or soon will be successfully settled. 

At Longerenong, between Murtoa and Hor- 
sham, the State has established an Agricultural 
College and station, where constant experiments 
are carried out in connection with problems of 
cultivation; particularly with improving the char- 
acter and yield of wheats. At this college ac- 
commodation is provided for 35 resident students. 
Non-resident students, the sons of district 
farmers, also attend the classes. In the course 
of his perambulations over Victoria, through 
erratic lubrication of his car (and taking the 
wrong turning), the author was compelled late 
one evening to thrust himself on the hospitality of 
the Ballenger sub-household, whose 640-acre 
farm lies opposite to the Government College. 
This family, well-known as successful bee-keepers, 
consists of nine boys and two girls. The 640- 
acre block, although an old farm, was a new in- 
vestment for them. We found three fine Bal- 
lenger sons in charge; offshoots of the main 
household which lived and labored on its original 
holding in another part of the district. These 
bachelor boys, with joyous Australian hospitality, 



fetl two belated travellers on good Wimmera mut- 
ton, honey from their own hi\es, and breati of 
their own baking. Having filled their late and 

unexpected \isitors, these lads tlrew roiuid the fire 

and talked. I'ine clean-living Australian boys! 

I heir souls were as upstanding as the peaks of 
the blue (irampians, 20 miles away across the 
plain. There was no fear of failure in them, no 
dour complainings about hard life on the farm. 

Ihey meant to win out, as thousands of cheerful 
young Australians are winning out on the land. 

It was a good thing to waken next morning 
from a tired sleep on a "shake-down" before the 
fire, and hear those hard-headed, stout-hearted 
Victorian lads getting to the work of the day. 
They had the carol of magpies and the twittering 
of sparrows for orison. Their four-roomed lined 
weatherboard cottage was surrounded by shade 
trees, mostly young sugar gums, which are 
planted as breakwinds on these plains. Green 
fields and distant blue hills made their outlook 
pleasant. They reckoned to average 20 bushels 
of wheat an acre from their section with good 
farming, and there was money to be made in 
various ways — life to them meant something 
worth while. 

What these young men are doing in Victoria 
thousands of others can also do, if they will face 
their personal problems fairly and not expect 
everything for nothing. Victoria, like her sister 
States, has abundant room and opportunity for 
people to whom the virtues of frugality, persever- 
ance, and labor have not become old-fashioned. 



THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF VICTORIA. 



337 



It seems to the writer, in his consideration of 
Austrahan problems of national development and 
individual happiness, that these qualities are not 
incompatible with the most radical views on 
legislation or the most advanced methods of in- 
dustrialism. The Australian settler can be any- 
thing he chooses in politics, an uncompromising 
Socialist or a fixed Conservative, but if he does 
not bring ready hands and right working methods, 
he cannot look forward to winning out like these 
hearty lads of Longerenong. 

Frugality, perseverance, and effort were be- 
hind the men who have made the Wimmera one 



The town and railway terminus of Rainbow is 
situated slightly to the north-east of Lake Hind- 
marsh in what is practically the heart of the Vic- 
torian Mallee. 

Settlement by free selection began in the Wim- 
mera district, as far back as 1869. Several suc- 
cessive good seasons rooted the small land- 
holder firmly and left the first settlers, the pas- 
toralists, out in the cold; but the progress of these 
far western districts was hampered for practi- 
cally the life of the occupying generation, through 
lack of transport and lack of knowledge. 

Railways came in time. The average rain- 




BoUing Down the Mallee. 



of the most productive regions in Victoria. New 
country is not conquered otherwise. The earliest 
pioneers, the advance guard who drove their 
flocks and herds before them, could not have 
alized that the good pastoral lands they 
squatted" upon were destined later on to also 
become a granary for the State. The deceptive 
dryness of Wimmera soils once more caused a fine 
agricultural country to be classed as suitable only 
for grazing. 

The Wimmera River rises near Mount Cole, 
on the Divide, receives some tributaries from the 
Grampians, and, cutting through the deep allu- 
vial plains of north-western Victoria, empties into 
Lake Hindmarsh in latitude 26 S., long. 142 — 
about midway between Wentworth, N.S.W., and 
Portland, Vic. 



fall of twenty inches was supplemented for town 
and farm supply by storages established in the 
Grampians and at Wartook and Lake Lonsdale. 
Then mixed-farming methods of the second settle- 
ment period gave place to systematic wheat- 
growing. Fallowing, summer working of the 
fallows, seed drills, superphosphate, and the har- 
vester, improved crops and improved markets, 
brought prosperity in their train. The staunch 
settlers who had migrated from South Australia, 
lived to see their faith justified. They brought 
some of these innovations with them. The 
farm lands extended out further and further into 
the Mallee; new towns sprang up, new railway 
lines were built, new settlers came in — the great 
plains of the Wimmera, the mallee scrubs, were 
covered with hundreds of square miles of waving 



^ 



338 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



wheat; ploughed pastures yielded higher returns 
of succulent grass, the settlers raised more fat 
lambs, bank accounts swelled, the capital values 
of the land rose from £3 to £10 an acre. To-day 
numbers of the 320-acre men, who mostly com- 
menced with very little capital, are worth from 
£2,000 to £40,000. Horsham has grown from 
a mere village into a smart little city of four or 
five thousand people. Murtoa, Rupanyup, 
Lubeck, Dimboola, Nhill, Natimuk, Minyip have 
all become places on the map of Victoria. Other 
towns and villages are springing up, out to Ouyen 
and the borders. 

So far as experiments in irrigation have gone, 
they prove the Wimmera capable of intensive cul- 
ture: a factor which cannot fail to affect its 
future. Australia, like the United States, will 
pass through several epochs of settlement and 
production. Hopeful Western District pro- 
phets can already foresee another era of increased 
population and production. Between Murtoa 
and St. Arnaud the good red and black lands ex- 
tend. Between St. Arnaud and Maryborough 
the soils seem more adapted for viticulture and 
fruit-growing than wheat. 

Approaching Maryborough, the face of nature 
is once more pitted with the remains of old shafts 
and workings. Gold is still being won around 
here, although the excitement and the rushes of 
early days have become no more than memories 
of oldest inhabitants. Maryborough forms yet 
another small centre of industry. It may be 
classed as a progressive, picturesque, and sub- 
stantial city in a mining, pastoral, and agricultural 
district. 



From this somewhat casual review of the 
Western Districts, it may be gathered that 
Victorian settlement is not faced by radical 
difficulties of indifferent soils or extremes of 
climate. 

As a comprehensive statement of fact one might 
say that nil the Western Districts are good for 
some kind of agrarian production; that certain 
portions of them, such as the belt between Colac 
and Warrnambool, are the best in the Common- 
wealth. One of the Scottish Commissioners, who 
had the widest international experience, told the 
writer he regarded the Western Districts of 
Victoria not only as the best agricultural lands in 
Australia, but the best in the world! Coming 
from such a proverbially cautious source, the as- 
sertion receives additional weight. 

With the exception of the northern fringe of 
the Wimmera and the Mallee, into which they 
merge, these districts have a comparatively high 
rainfall. Experience is now showing that the 
extreme north-western portion receives the neces- 
sary quantity of moisture to ensure the success of 
wheat. In regard to the Wimmera and Mallee, 
it has been argued that the successes of latter 
years are due to increased rainfall. Scientific 
investigation reveals the opposite. The rainfall 
of 1889-96 was heavier than any eight-year 
period in the last 24 years, but the heaviest har- 
vests have resulted from the driest years — due to 
better farming systems and the conservation of 
water in the soil by fallowing. It is not the 
climate which has improved, but the methods of 
Australian dry-farmers. 




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The Lakes Entrance 



GIPPSLAND. 



Ir was a doughty Scotsman from the Isle of 
Skye, named Angas McMillan, who seriously 
attacked the virgin recesses of Eastern Vic- 
toria in 1839. McMillan was overseer for a 
squattage on the high, cold plains of Omeo — 
where New South Wales cattlemen were already 
established. After an adventurous journey of 
exploration through trackless ranges, in May, 

1839, h*^ viewed from a mountain peak the land 
spreading from the Australian Alps towards the 
seaboard, and realized that it was good. He 
came back later in the year and established a 
station on the Tambo River, about forty miles 
south of Omeo. Using, this as a base, in 
January, 1840, he penetrated the new country 
as far as the present site of Mafifra; discovering 
and naming the great Gippsland Lakes, and the 
Nicholson, Mitchell, Avon, McAllister and La- 
trobe Rivers. 

His next station was formed on the Avon : from 

which, in 1841, he opened a route to Port Albert. 

Count Strzelecki entered Gippsland in March, 

1840. Although he has been credited with the 
actual discovery, he was not the first in the field. 
Nor did the sensational experiences of his some- 
what amateurish expedition forward the interests 
of settlement in what is undoubtedly one of the 
fairest provinces in Australia. 



k 



Between Warragul and Bairnsdale one sees 
some of the best of Victoria. Gippsland in 1915 
produced 5,323,oofj pounds weight of wool, sup- 
ported 264,564 head of horned stock, averaged 
21.99 bushels of wheat to the acre, and contrib- 
uted one of the largest quotas to the sum total 
of Victoria's dairy products. 

The development of Southern and Central 
Gippsland has been comparatively recent. Much 
of this territory — originally covered with forests 
— was set down as unsuitable for occupation. The 
struggles of early Gippsland pioneers are an in- 
teresting part of Victorian history. 

A few years ago the fastnesses of nearer 
Gippsland were untraversed by roads, innocent 
of railways, and sparsely settled. On rich 
alluvial flats along the rivers there were farms, 
but even the volcanic hillsides were still covered 
with mighty trees. The Hill Country proper is 
now only partially occupied. It forms a section, 
averaging about 1,500 feet in height, extending 
from the coast of South Gippsland to the Upper 
Murray. Its soils are stiff loams for the greater 
part, with friable clay subsoils; convertible when 
cleared of forest into excellent pastures and the 
best of orchards. The average rainfall is over 30 
inches, well distributed. 



339 



340 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



South Gippsland soils, red and gray, are equally 
famed for their fertility. Potatoes, onions, root 
crops generally, enrich the settlers in these young 
districts. But dairy farming has so far returned 
the bulk of profits. After the heavy trees have 
been felled or killed and the undergrowth 
cleared by axe and fire, a mixture, usually com- 
posed of rye grass, clover, and cocksfoot, is sown 
broadcast. After the first rain this land becomes 
payable pasture. 

About Leongatha one may study the process 
of Southern Gippsland settlement to advantage. 
Leongatha is on a railway line which runs down 
from Melbourne to Port Albert. It is 78 miles 
from the capital, and 273 feet above sea level. 
From here a road goes across to picturesque In- 
verloch and Anderson's Inlet. Coming over from 
Wonthaggi in the direction of the coast, the 
traveller will cross a narrow belt of uncon- 
vincing sandy loams and clays. But the coal- 
fields of Powlett River are a valuable mineral 
asset — further proof that Australia is a land of 
compensations. Inverloch is another delightful 
place to spend a holiday. As one approaches 
Leongatha, the change to rich allu\'ial flats and 
volcanic hills is remarkable. After crossing 
through silent and somewhat monotonous bush for 
about sixteen miles, the traveller suddenly glides 
into a fair and fertile land, where rung timbers, 
vividly green hillsides, young fields, and new 
houses announce that ci\ili/.ation has attacked the 
wild. Cattle are grazing everywhere. I'he 
cowyard and dairy, with milk cans in rows, are 
an inseparable part of this landscape. 

Leongatha is typical of other towns in South 
Gippsland. The history of one is practically the 
history of them all. 

Not many years ago it was primal forest await- 
ing in aeons-old solitude for the advent of man. 
The first Gippsland settlers approached their 
tasks with heroic courage. Their lives, in some 
instances, were literally given to the cause of 
progress, and passed without recognition or 
reward. They buried themselves among the 
darkened trees, remote from railways, unblessed 
by roads in the sense that ordinary citizens regard 
the word. With steel and fire these outposts 
grimly entered upon the conquest of a territory, 
whose ultimate value they may have dimly seen 
but rarely lived to realize. Their descendants 
look out in comfortable possession over green 
pastures, which they knew as grassless forest wilds, 
overhung by canopies of tree-tops, which shut out 
the light of the sun; whose midnight darkness was 
dense as that of a coal-mine. 

The Government sold them land in 320-acre 
blocks for £1 an acre; which was currently- 
regarded as beyond its value. So they battled 



along slowly, opening out the tall timber, slaying 
their giants one by one; agitating the Government 
at times for greater facilities, keeping their dis- 
trict member's nose to the parliamentary grind- 
stone, slowly improving their farms, forming little 
nuclei for townships — living altogether rough 
and strenuous but healthy and hopeful lives. 
These were the men of 25 years ago. Now 
forests are pastures and groups of huts have 
grown into thriving towns. 

Agricultural land at Leongatha, for example, 
is worth £25 an acre. As far back as 1909, a 
320-acre block was sold for £22/10/- an acre. 
In 191 2 this block — one of the original selections 
— was bringing £640 a year rental as a dairy 
farm. Onion-ground right through the district 
was worth £2 an acre rental. There were no 
longer any Crown lands in that Shire — which 
carried a well-established and extremely prosper- 
ous population, not so great perhaps as it will be 
later on, when farms of 200 acres have been cut 
down to 20 and 50 under more intensive cultiva- 
tion, for which they are best adapted. 

One man has already cleared £2,400 as his 
year's income from 40 acres. Under these cir- 
cumstances the thousand-acre farm — there are 
still a few — is a losing proposition. 

Faking the Post Office as a centre, from a cir- 
cular area of ten miles, Leongatha sends 40 rail- 
way-truck loads of fat cattle away each week. 

The co-operative creamery at Leongatha, 
worked on the three-loft gravitation system, with 
its receiving room, cooler, chilling room, and 
giant churn, could hardly be imagined by (iipps- 
land dairymen of 25 years ago. Science and 
organisation, tiled floors, and daily milk tests, did 
not have a place in the old system. Now the 
creamery butter, piled high on its wooden trough, 
after the machinery has done its work, proclaims 
the golden wealth of Gippsland! 

fhere is an interesting Labor Colony near 
Leongatha, capably conducted under Government 
auspices. It fills the dual function of a reforma- 
tory for inebriates and an experimental farm. 
This establishment possesses a carefully-culled 
dairy herd. For 46 cows the milk test night 
and morning has averaged 4.46, which compares 
favorably with the famous Western Districts, 
declared by a member of the Scotch Agricultural 
Commission to be "the finest dairy country in the 
world." The best cow in this herd, a cross-bred 
Jersey (Holstein sire) in the 191 1 season yielded 
8,000 lbs. of milk, worth £16/6/8 in butter 
values. When the author of Australia UnUmUed 
was introduced to this Gippsland matron in her 
seventh year, she had been milking for 305 days, 
after her fourth calf, and was then giving 23 lbs 
of milk daily on a 5 . i test. 




T3 

8 

a 

In 



s 



34t 



342 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



The management of the Labor Farm gives 
some attention to orcharding. The manager 
invited my ten-year-old son to examine a fifth-of- 
an-acre strawberry plot, which had returned £30 
net for 191 1. The fruit was just beautifully 
ripe. I greatly fear the revenue for 19 12 from 
that plot fell short of the expected sum. 

The cherries that ripen by Leongatha are "as 
big as plums." When we were leaving that 
exceedingly pleasant Australian town, a local 



watered and fertile as these rich, radiant forest 
lands newly won from Nature. They, too, will 
have their butter factories and apple and pear 
orchards, their raspberry gardens and piggeries 
and cow sheds in order. 

Lest we should leave this sunlit land with an 
impression that the monotonous country by which 
we reached it is good for nothing, we pause to 
peruse a report which our newspaper friend has 
brought along with his superb cherries. 




"Bull-frogs," Eastern Gippsland 



newspaper man, who is also an agriculturist, came 
down to our hotel with a sample box to cheer us 
on the way. 

We dealt with them next morning as we toiled 
up-hill towards Mirboo on second gear. Below 
us lay Leongatha — a happy memory. The dead 
timber left standing in thin, skeleton groups, the 
green patches, rolling dales, flowing creeks and 
fields with clumps of tree-ferns standing among 
the crop, were all a delightful part of that good 
memory. Beyond these, the forest still rolled, 
first in broken patches, and then in dark, densely- 
wooded distances. "Where the vanguard camps 
to-day, the rearguard rests to-morrow." The 
wooded vistas outside these occupied places will 
be converted in turn to blue-black squares of 
onions and green squares of crop; for the land 
beyond the radius of the railway is as well- 



The report sets forth how one Phillipson, with 
rape and paspalum, has turned an area of that 
dull-looking coastal belt between Inverloch and 
Leongatha into excellent pasture. Sixty acres, 
we are told, treated as this settler — and a few 
others who follow his example — are treating it, 
prove better than 1,000 acres in their natural 
state. This land will fatten three sheep to an 
acre, and proves extremely profitable — more 
proof that Australian productive values are well- 
balanced. 

Looking across Southern Gippsland from the 
hill-tops, one sees that it is destined for mixed 
farming on iio-acre blocks; the feeding of cattle 
on "siloed" maize, the growing of onions, pota- 
toes and fruit — that it is, in fine, another Western 
District, and one of Victoria's most valuable 
assets. 



GIPPSLAND 



343 



IroiJi J.coiigatha to Mirboo North a inore- 

! than-usually bad car-road winds and climbs 

, through new country, from which the original 

; forest has not all been removed. The cuttings 

show the richest of rich chocolate land, with 

jj friable soils to any depth; the flats are green and 

H moist, — it is as good as anything in the world. 

I Go through it, as I did, on a dew-wet morning 

: with the magpies carolling and the lories flashing 

their splendid plumage from tree to tree, willows 

waving gently by many a creekside, smoke issuing 

from the chimneys of farm-houses one comes 

upon in corners and on tops of hills ! Go through 

it while the wind is soft and cool before the heat 

t)f the day, when you can smell the new-cut hay 

and hear the cream-cans rattling along the roads! 

You will see that some of the hillsides are yet 

torested; but you will know that every acre is 

good, and that soon it will be all occupied and 

fenced and covered with grass; that there will be 

more sheep in the dales and more cows on the 

pastures, more polished cream-cans waiting by the 

roadside in the early morn. 

There is another creamery at Mirboo North, 
brom here a branch railroad goes over to join 
the main Gippsland line at Morwell, where, and 
at Narracan, there are practically inexhaustible 
deposits of brown coal — destined, no doubt, to be 
an important factor in the future of Victorian 
manufactures. 

Ihe way to iMorwell is adventurous-going for 
motor cars. Of steep hills and ruts there is no 
lack. The writer's impressions of this back- 
track are that it is very sandy in some places, 
that "crab-holes" are not good for front axles, 
and that hauling automobiles out of bogs pre- 
vents people getting anything like a reasonable 
impression of scenery, no matter how interesting 
it may be. 

Between Morwell and IVaralgon is open 
downs, with distant views of mountain ranges, 
which include the Baw Baws. Traralgon is 
another prosperous Gippsland township. The 
country from here to Sale continues good. Bairns- 
dale in the north, on a corner of Lake King, 
and Sale, not far from Lake Wellington, are two 
little capitals of importance. Both are busy 
local centres of about 3,000 population. 

Coming up from Lakes Entrance by steamer, 
after some hours' journey across the waters of 
Lake Victoria, one runs down a narrow seven-mile 
strait to Lake Wellington, and out of this by the 
Latrobe River into the Thompson, and so to 
the town of Sale. It is a most interesting jour- 
ney, with smooth water and scenic breaks to make 
it more enjoyable. Lake Wellington covers 
about 120 square miles: Lake Victoria, much 
narrower and longer, about 90. The distance 



between Lakes Entrance and Sale is over 
80 miles. At Paynesville, fifty miles from 
Sale, Lake Victoria junctions with Lake 
King. From here boats go down to Bairns- 
dale. The Victorian Railways and Tourist 
Department issues circular tickets, which will take 
the tourist by rail to Bairnsdale, thence by boat 
to Lakes Entrance, by second boat to Sale, and 
back to Melbourne — or the other way about. The 
Lake boats are comfortably appointed, and supply 
meals and light refreshments to passengers. They 
leave Lakes Entrance for Bairnsdale and Sale re- 
spectively at eight o'clock in the morning and 
reach their respective destinations in time for 
travellers to catch the afternoon Gippsland ex- 
press to Melbourne. 

The Gippsland Lakes region contains some of 
the most attractive resorts in a State particularly 
blessed with pleasant places. In eight miles from 
Lakes Entrance, Lake Tyers may be reached, 
with its Aboriginal Mission Station, where rem- 
nants of Victorian tribes are closing the last 
chapter in neolithic history. 

Beyond Lake Tyers lie Orbost and Mario, on 
the beautiful Snowy River, and the remote splen- 
dors of Eastern Gippsland. 

Gippsland Lakes are Thule to adventurers in 
motor boats, who will find many a land-locked 
haven with fresh water and level ground for their 



:f\ ^- 




Lake Tyers 




344 



GTPPSLAND 



345 



camps, game, fish and the joys of wide and narrow 
waterways. Into these lakes are emptied the 
Tambo, the Nicholson, the Mitchell, the Avon, 
and the Latrobe. Just across their seaward 
margins runs the Ninety-Mile Beach, and all the 
swamps, backwaters and lagoons that hide be- 
tween Lakes Entrance and Port Albert. 



Maffra (1915) £1/7/6 a ton. Ten tons of beet 
are required to produce a ton of sugar. Maffra 
mill is now fitted with the latest machinery, and a 
1,250 h.p. boiler plant for the expression of sugar 
from beetroot. The grower usually combines 
general farming with the cultivation of beet; he 
has leaves and pulp as a by-product for stock. 



» 




A Backwater of the Mitchell. 



From Traralgon to Bairnsdale by road — one 
sees that Gippsland is continuously good. Mid- 
way is Maffra, where the Victorian Government 
has endeavoured to put the beet-sugar industry 
upon a profitable basis. 

Maffra climate and soil, are said to be partic- 
ularly favorable to the growth of sugar beet. 
The road from Traralgon takes largely over 
granitic ridges covered with ironbark — good 
sheep lands. Maffra is more agricultural, rich 
and swampy in places. Between Maffra and Bois- 
dale and around the latter township most of the 
beet farms are located. The average crop is 
I <; tons to the acre; price paid at the mill in 



i 



Beet fields about Boisdale alternate with lucerne 
fields and maize. There is a cheese factory here, 
and the district has a fine butter average. 

The soils are rich as far as Stratford. Beyond 
that, on to Bairnsdale, until one comes to the 
celebrated Lindenow flats, they do not strike one 
as particularly good for agriculture, though scat- 
tered settlers state that they possess excellent 
growing properties. 

It is appropriate that the village of Stratford 
should be on the Avon, and that its principal inn 
should be proudly called The Shakespeare Hotel. 

Bairnsdale, 171 miles from Melbourne, nestles 
comfortably in an elbow of the beautiful Mitchell 



346 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITFD 



River. Like Sale, it has a vigorous business life, 
and makes a depot of supply for the settlements 
as far away as Cann River and Mallacoota. 
Bairnsdale is to East Gippsland what Mecca 
might be to the pious Arabian. Fat river lands, 
growing maize, silky oaks and willows, give it 
beauty and tilth. Its foundry and School of 
Mines, banks, stores, canning factory, wharves 
and railway station invest it to the bushmen out 
of Croajingalong with an air of metropolitan 
activity. A pilgrimage to "Barns-dale" is 
not a thing to be lightly undertaken, and a good 
many bushmen and bushwomen from the border 
lands rarely get farther than Orbost, which 
should be connected to Melbourne by rail by the 
time this volume is issued — converted into a 
metropolis further out ! 

The climate of Central and Eastern Gippsland 
is benign. Cool, invigorating winters and sum- 
mers, never too severe, produce cherry-cheeked 
girls and handsome lads. Prosperity is univer- 
sal. Good dwellings, flower-gardens, clean 
broad avenues and fine public buildings in the 
towns, and comfortable well-appointed farm- 
houses, testify to this. 

Settlement in Gippsland is yet young. There 
are still thousands of good acres to carry 
increasing population and thousands of 
acres from which yields will be vastly 
increased. Not for agriculture alone is 
it famous. Walhalla, on the overlooking hills, 
has weighted the green gown of Gipps- 
land with golden bullion. The celebrated Long 
Tunnel mine has yielded, since 1868, roughly 
£2,700,000 worth of gold, of which more than a 
million and a quarter have been distributed in 
dividends to shareholders. The adjoining Long 
Tunnel Extended has been an underground trea- 
sure-chest from which a million and a half have 
been drawn. 

Owing, mayhap, to engineering difliculties, a 
large section of interesting country, known as 
East Gippsland, between the Tambo River and 
the border of New South Wales, remains un- 
settled. There are yet within this belt three mil- 
lion acres of unalienated Crown lands, covered 
for the most part with hardwood forests, which in 
themselves are a valuable asset to the State. 

Leaving Twofold Bay, in New South Wales, 
travelling towards Victoria by a rough bush road 
one enters a region of tall trees and sparse settle- 
ment. The straight border line surveyed by 
Black and Allan in 1870-2, beginning at Cape 
Howe, crosses constantly over hills and gullies, 
which become mountains and ravines as the line 
approaches nearer to the point where it meets the 
Murray River. 



Among all the Australian bush lands there is 
none with greater appeal to the eye and the 
imagination than that which rolls upward from 
the Victorian coast into the heart of the Austra- 
lian Alps. 

Prom the summit of the trigonometrical cairn 
on Howe Hill, you may look down and see the 
actual corner of a Continent. Pacing seaward, 
you behold the coastline on your left hand, making 
off towards Thursday Island, and falling away on 
your right towards the Leeuwin. 

You may stand at this south-eastern angle of 
Australia with the tall pillar of Gabo Island light- 
house right under you, and overlook the State of 
New South Wales on one side and the State of 
Victoria on the other. 

Inland, an impressive panorama faces you. 
Over a foreground of fresh and saltwater lakes, 
forested hills rising into blue forested mountains 
make the picture as far as your vision carries. 

Below you, like mirrors in the sun, glitter the 
ever-changing, ever-beautiful Mallacoota Lakes, 
with their wooded shores and islets. 

Southward are Red River, the Wingen, Tam- 
boon. all the lone, mysterious, coastal creeks and 
inlets that follow one another from Bastion Rock 
to the Snowy bar. 

Sometimes in winter a fishing cutter feels a 
cautious way over their uncertain bars, and a camp 
fire reddens the foreshore for a few nights. 
Sometimes a bushman rides down from Mallacoota 
to Cape I\verard. Beyond the visits of these 
passing strangers, this first hundred miles of Vic- 
torian shore faces the Southern Ocean in greater 
quietude than when Captain Cook sighted it. The 
coo-ees of dusky huntsmen are no longer heard in 
the bloodwoods, or their shouts over its heathy 
plains. It is a region filled with the voices of 
wind and wave, the making and turning of ocean 
tides, cries of whimbrel on sandy flats, howling of 
wild dogs in the scrub. Wreckage of unknown 
ships strews its beaches, and spindrift sweeps o\'er 
lone white sand-dunes; restless waves leave their 
tributes of red coral, kelp, and shell along un- 
trodden shores. 

Westward, Genoa Peak and the Drummer 
Mountain stand out in near prominence. Once a 
week the mail coach leaves Genoa for Orbost, a 
link that binds a handful of far-distant Victorian 
settlers to their seat of government in Melbourne. 
7 heir few frontier farms are on good black river 
flats, but the difficulties of transport hamper their 
progress. Apart from these fertile patches. 
Eastern Gippsland is heavily timbered. When 
cleared it will grow excellent grass. 

With a rainfall of 40.59 inches, the 
swamps and the coastal plains and oc- 
casional jungles of tree-fern and vine, can 



an I 

m 



GIPPSLAND 



347 



all be made productive. Along the coach 
track between Genoa and the Cann River 
one sees thousands of yet unoccupied acres similar 
to and equally as good as the best Tasmanian 
apple country. Outside its forest reserves 
Eastern Gippsland will yet become a money- 
getter for the State. Apart from any undis- 
covered minerals it holds, it is essentially a timber 
and fruit and dairy district of the future. 

The border line touches the edge of Nangatta, 
a rich pocket amid granitic hills, and runs west 
by north over the coast range at Bondi and 
across the Delegate and Snowy Rivers, till it 
reaches the Murray just beyond the iVIain Divide. 
For eighty miles or so the Murray, which now 
becomes the border line, runs almost due north; 
then it turns between Towong and Tintaldra on 
its long western journey towards the Southern 
Ocean. 

Midway between The Pilot and Towong, the 
rich flats of the Upper Murray begin. Corryong 
and Cudgewa are comfortably tucked away in 
this corner, which lies outside the boundaries of 
Gippsland proper. 

Returning to Delegate River, the border track 
takes in from the open plains of Monaro to hilly 
and forested spaces which have yet attracted little 
permanent settlement. About Bendock and 
Bonang a considerable quantity of gold has been 
recovered. The country right through from 
Wangrabelle and Yambulla to the coast is aurif- 
erous and no doubt contains some payable de- 
posits of mineral. There is a prospect of an 
alluvial field about the Muller River. The 
Spotted Dog mine at Mallacoota Inlet is said to 
have yielded about £20,000 worth of reef gold, 
while it was working. Gold has been found 
about Mount Carlyle, the Wallagurah, Genoa 
Peak, Club Terrace, and several other places 
throughout Eastern Victoria. 

From Bonang to Orbost, on the Snowy River, 
the chance wayfarer will find habitations few and 
far between. At Goonegerah, Jensen's and 
Sardine Creek, he may obtain a meal, but the 
remainder of his journey will be through dense 
hardwood forests devoid of settlement or clear- 
ings. 

But there will be compensations of com- 
manding mountain views, running creeks, 
green jungles of similar quality to Com- 
hienbar, Cann, and Murrangower. Along 
the headwaters of the beautiful Brodribb 
River, which joins the Snowy near Mario, there 
will be places where clearest waters cascade 
under canopies of foliage sub-tropical in charac- 
ter. The summit of Mount Buck or Mount Ellery 
will reveal a prospect of wonderful mountains, 
rolling over Dargo and Tambo and Croajinga- 
long. 




The Citadel, Buclian. 



The Snowy River has brought' down to the 
flats of Orbost a detritus won from the limestones, 
basalts and granites through which it cuts its way. 
Between Mount Kosciusko and the sea it gathers 
a fine volume of clear water from ranges in New 
South Wales and Victoria. 

These Orbost flats are exceptionally fertile. 
Owing to remoteness, maize has, until recently, 
been their principal product. Of this they yield 
enormous crops, sometimes 120 bushels to the 
acre, but with the extension of the railway from 
Bairnsdale they will no doubt be turned to still 
more profitable account. 

Between Orbost and Mario the Snowy is navig- 
able for small craft, and visitors with any sense 
of beauty will be gratified by views of river banks 
bordered by ornamental native trees, ferns, wil- 
lows, and flowering creepers, with glimpses of 
green maize fields or fields glowing with herbage 
beyond them. Mario — a pleasant tourist place 
— -faces the Snowy bar at the end of the Ninety- 
Mile Beach. The Buchan Caves, only a few 
miles from Orbost as the crow flies, are usually 
reached from Bairnsdale through the village of 
Bruthen. The railway will soon traverse this 
green pocket at the foot of half-cleared hills — 
one of many such places along the creeks and 
rivers of this well-watered corner of the State. 



,148 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITFD 



The flats of Bruthen yield tremendous crops of 
maize. There is illimitable scope for the estab- 
lishment of orchards through these districts. 
Stone fruit, especially peaches and plums and 
apricots, should be most successfully grown. 

The remaining 32 miles to the Caves run 
through monotonous forests of stringybark. and 
mountain ash. Occasional teams come in from 
these back-blocks laden with wattle-bark and wool, 
and go back into the mountains with stores and 
supplies. 

The view from the last summit over Buchan is 
some repayment for a dull drive through the bush. 
The Buchan River, a tributary of the Snowy, has 
cut the hills and sliced their sides in ancient 

chafings for the sea It winds its way far 

below, through green flats and over sandy shoals. 

The hillsides opposite are dotted with trees 
that seem like the trees carved by Swiss toymakers 
for the delight of children. Behind them the 
mountains are tossed and piled. Their higher 
peaks rise triumphantly out of this confusion into 
calm blue skies. The limestone in this region 
seems to be honeycombed with caves for miles. 
Some of the underworld which has been made 
accessible to visitors is exceedingly beautiful. The 
ventilation is much better than one usually finds 
in these underground places, and the passages 
and byways of earth smoother and drier- 
going. Shawls, mysteries, chandeliers, ala- 
baster pillars, marble statues and images follow 
one another, as cavern after cavern is lifted out 
of Cimmerian night by the magnesium lamps of 
the guides. 

It gives one a curious sensation of unreality, 
this descent through a hole in the hillside into a 
region of glamor and mystery, beautiful but 
weird. The magnesium light is obscured for a 
second and the timid stranger enjoys the sensation 
of being immersed in soundless night. He is 
enveloped in a blackness more intense than the 
night of a coal-pit. The ribbon splutters again 
and this aching darkness is, by its magic, trans- 
formed into a glittering wonderland filled with 
beautiful and fantastic forms. In shining grot- 
toes, whose roofs are supported by semi- 
transparent columns, cisterns of placid water, fil- 
tered into perfect clearness through the purifying 
limestone, wait like baths prepared for white 
nymphs of the underworld. 

From chamber to chamber in this enchanted 
Palace of Night the bewildered stranger is led 
through lofty vestibules and mysterious corridors. 
He enters banquet-halls of giants, boudoirs of 
goddesses, workshops of mountain gnomes. In 
what might be the frozen feast-room of a Viking, 
there is a splendid Christmas tree, laden with 
jewelled gifts. In another place "Pompey's 



pillar" stands to mark the slow achievement of 
those underground sculptors who have fashioned 
strange forms with lime and water in the studios 
of night. The Victoria Cave, containing a robed 
image, bearing strange resemblance to the late 
Queen, is a feature in this gallery of subterranean 
marvels. 

Beyond those caves which have been made 
accessible to visitors, others of greater splendor 
are being found. The Victorian Government is 
spending a reasonable revenue in improving and 
making more accessible one of Australia's greatest 
nature attractions. 

After a couple of hours spent in this fantastic 
underworld at Buchan, one emerges to hear the 
river singing to the hills, to behold with a sense 
somewhat of relief the normal world of sunlight 
and shadow. Here tree-tops redden with tender 
leaves of springtime, granite peaks watch like 
seneschals over green bastions, and blue vistas of 
forest-covered mountain, unbroken yet by any 
clearing, proclaim the vastness of this unsettled 
Australia. 

Beyond that picturesque belt of clearing which 
makes all the civilization of Buchan, roll eternal 
spires and battlements of the Australian Alps. 
They sweep northward — Australia's greatest 
mountain range — towards the birthplace of her 
greatest river, the Murray. They contain many 
fertile pockets, many lovely \'alleys, many grassy 
flats and rolling slopes which will some day be 
converted to settlement. 

Three-quarters of an acre of such land at 
Bruthen is reputed to have yielded £200 worth 
of edible beans in a year. 

From Bruthen to Omeo a winding mountain 
road follows the course of Tambo River, up 
and ever upward into a very sea of mountains. 
The bed of the river is sandy and broken by 
water-worn boulders of granite. The deep, bass 
voice of Tambo recites an unending monologue of 
darkened forest and deep ravine; of icy winters 
when its channel is filled with roaring snow- 
waters, escaping from the Arctic grip of their 
parent hills; of summers cooled by mountain airs, 
sweet with perfumes of flowering acacias, dog- 
wood, and musk. Following the Tambo upward 
towards its source, the road takes many windings 
— through narrow cuttings along the hillsides, 
over white bridges, round steep elbows and across 
razorback ridges. There are views of distant 
mountains seen through gaps which the river has 
worn out by endless action; there are red basal- 
tic hillsides, suitable for cultivation. An occa- 
sional settler has established his home here and 
lives as comfortably and hopefully as our remote 
settlers do. At Tambo Crossing the traveller 
finds some pretty patches of wheat and maize, and 



GIPPSLAND 



349 



he will conic upon one or two wayside inns within a 
hundred miles. Grapes and peaches indicate 
that this rugged hackbone of our continent is still 
hospitable, still fertile, still full of promise for 
future production. 

He draws near to Tongio and beholds a few 
mountain farms located among colored hills, on 
whose steep sides scattered trees are growing. 
A sandy river runs over flats where sheep are 
grazing. Scarlet lories, with wings of deepest 
azure, fly up into drooping gum-trees, and, around 
the farmhouses, Australian black, wattles and 
European oaks are planted. 



o\er which the writer pioneered a cautious way in 
December of 1912 with a motor car. Superb 
are the views along that hazardous track — 
mountain is piled upon mountain, and, through 
gorges of wonder, the Mitta chants his defiant 
songs of Youth. These streams abound in 
English trout. If a man would have cool sum- 
mer sport and breathe an atmosphere that is all 
oxygen, if he would live the healthful life that 
brings soul-satisfying days and nights of infinite 
restfulness, let him come out into these indescrib- 
able Alps. The very difl'iculties he encounters 
will spice his travels like a well-seasoned dish. 




In the Buclian Caves. 



The road leaves the Tambo near Cassilis, and 
crossing over a steep and diflicult mountain range, 
strikes the Mitta Mitta River by Omeo. The 
waters of the Tambo flow into Gippsland lakes, 
but those of the Mitta Mitta join the Murray near 
Wodonga, and do not reach their bourne in 
Lake Alexandrina for seventeen hundred miles. 
The range which makes the divide between them 
runs northward into New South Wales. Its 
highest peak is Mount Kosciusko, the tallest 
mountain in Australia. It is a Land of Big 
Things. 

Omeo produces gold and grain. From Omeo 
to Glen Wills there is a narrow mountain road 



Here in this rare mountain air, so buoyant, so 
exhilarating, everyday worries of life are seen 
through the big end of a telescope. They become 
miniature and remote. Here again is another 
Australia, wherein one sees snow-covered trees in 
the middle of December. Communication with 
the outside world practically ceases in winter. 

Mount Wills is 5,700 feet high. Above the 
snow-level its summit is bare. Beyond it lie the 
mysterious Bogong Plains — a wind-swept region 
given over to the genii of the hills. The Bogong, 
Feathertop, Mount Wills loom like nearby objects 
from the summits of Mount Buffalo, which is to 
the Victorian Tourist Department what Mount 



350 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Mount Wills in Winter. 



Kosciusko is to that of New South Wales — a 
sanctuary of high places. 

The village of Glen Wills is perched in pic- 
turesque disarray along a tumbled mountain side. 
It depends on gold-mining for its prosperity. In 
long winter nights its population pores over 
printed pages — it is a well-read, patriotic little 
community. Between Glen Wills and Lightning 
Creek there are some miles of mountain road that 
will fill the hearts of those who travel them with 
mingled feelings of anxiety and delight. At 
Christmas Creek a view suddenly unfolds before 
them which, if they possess the faculty of wonder, 
will make an ineffaceable memory. 

On broad canvases of Australian Nature pic- 
tures magnificent and tremendous have been 
painted, but this picture is among those hung 
"on the line." From an angle in the track one 
beholds a titanic sea, whose wave-crests are moun- 
tain-tops, whose hollows are mighty gorges. The 
mountain slopes steeply down to the shore of 
this blue expanse. A strip of spectral trees slain 
by the snows comes first; then a forest of tall, 
straight woolly-butt, and then the enthralling 
panorama of a thousand cerulean hills, billowing 
away as far as the eye carries into distance. The 
last of the major peaks upon the skyline is Kos- 
ciusko. Drifting clouds make moving patches 
of shadow over forests that have never known 
the axe. In harmonious quiet — a flawless world 
dreams beneath a flawless heaven. Its keynote 
is — immensity. 



A queenly radiance, Amazonian yet virgin, 
englamors it. As I beheld it, the clear air ren- 
dered actinic by recent rain, with just enough of 
cloud in light fleecy patches to break the bald 
beauty of the sunlight, I thought it was the finest 
mountain view in Australia — the most impressive 
panorama I had had the good fortune to enjoy. 

Although we were travelling an anxious road, 
taking our motor car over a track which had never 
been crossed by a petrol-engine before, or prob- 
ably since; although we had lost two hours of a 
short afternoon clearing a fallen tree from our 
path, and did not know what further obstacles 
waited for us in the long downhill that lay between 
Glen Wills and the Mitta — we lingered over that 
scene. 

My companion. Dyer, said it brought him as 
near to Heaven as he could ever expect to get. 
But I do not think St. Peter will be too severe 
on a motor-man who navigated his car without 
serious mishap from Omeo to Tallangatta, by an 
unknown mountain track, too narrow to let two 
vehicles pass anywhere in six or seven miles. 

Our hands were blistered from chopping at 
the dead woolly-butt which we had encountered in 
a cutting where there was no going round. I he 
tree was fully eighteen inches in diameter. It 
was necessary to hack through it twice with a 
light axe of indifferent edge. 

In sharp angles of steep grades our half-road 
overhung precipices of appalling steepness. The 
tree-ferns in gorges below them looked like green 



i 



GIPPSLAND 



^51 



mishrooms, the creeks like jrlittering aluminium 
)ands. It was a world of wonder and beauty — 
md apprehension. 

That half-track was overgrown in some places 
vlth wild hop-bush which threatened our eyes. 
Miows of the previous winter had rutted the sur- 
ace on ticklish grades, where straddling ruts 
neant putting our outside wheels within a few 
nches of the edge. At slowest speed we were 



any thousand feet or so of sheer drop. One 
slight mis-movement of the driver's hand would 
be enough. 

The Genii heard our prayer. We braked 
unthinkable grades, we rounded incredible curves, 
and having glided like a black spider down seven- 
teen miles of precarious web, we bumped into a 
camp of astonished road-menders at the bottom. 
They told us the road over the mountain had been 




Winter in the Victorian Alps. 



iking great risks. We consoled ourselves with 
jM)hilosophy based on the axiom that men die 
Py once. While agreeing in subdued tones that 
jvery individual lives only under sentence of 
leath, we decided that motoring into the abyss 
lust be a decidedly unpleasant method of putting 
le sentence into execution. 
So Dyer called up all his nerve and skill, and I 
lade an invocation to the genii of the Alps that 
[o boulder in our path would cause the front 
Vheels to buck that narrow margin between them 
ml the outer edge, that no slippery corner would 
ause the back wheels to skid; that no overhang- 
tig branch would strike Dyer's eye rounding one 
_|f those impossible corners; that no mischance or 
■rror of judgment would precipitate the outfit over 

L 



pronounced unsafe for vehicular traffic. We 
had come over it at our own risk. We replied 
that we were thankful the risk lay behind us. 

After that came the crossing of Lightning 
Creek — a brawling tributary of the Mitta Mitta. 

I can still see Dyer (he was a little man) grimly 
chewing a pepsin tabloid as he crouched behind 
his steering-wheel, shoulders hunched and eyes 
glittering like points of well-burnished rapiers, 
as he precipitated his little American car at that 
creek. The bank was steep, and he did not 
know the depth of water or the character of its 
foundation. The latter proved to be of fairly- 
large boulders. The bumping was not good for 
a cheap American car, but we won the opposite 
bank at sundown and found our cheerful little 



352 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 





Carting Timber from a Bush Saw-Mill. 



bush inn and its compensations of food and rest 
after the most strenuous day in our exploration of 
Victoria. 

That night we fell asleep to a lullaby of run- 
ning water. The little hostel was located at the 
junction of two snow-fed streams wherein 
speckled European trout were numerous. 

Opposite his front door was the tunnel of a 
hillside mine where the innkeeper dug for gold 
in his spare time. It was his own mine, and he 
worked it all by himself, buoyed by the eternal 
hope of fortune which burns in every gold-miner's 
heart. Adjoining hills have yielded golden tri- 
bute from year to year, and why not his? Nearby 
one saw the remains of the Mammoth mine's 
flume — once 660 feet long and 120 feet high — 
a proof that golden tribute had also been paid to 
the hills. The innkeeper's tunnel was already 
150 feet in length. Who knows what another 
stroke of the pick may bring to light in auriferous 
Australia? 

We saw much evidence of successful mining in 
our journey down the beautiful Mitta valley. 

From Lightning Creek to Tallangatta is one 
of the loveliest motor runs in Australia, albeit 
rough travelling. Road and river keep close 



company all the way — a sinuous road tli; 
dips over comely shoulders of hills and runs on 
as the river broadens, upon levels of gracious pa 
ture. Sunlight and the sparkle of water, coo! ar 
shady reaches where floating lilies bloom and bi 
rushes sway, black farm lands fresh turned by tl 
plough, grazing lands green with grass ar 
clover; birdsong and fragrance of wild flowers 
so this singing stream takes the long road 1 
Spencer's Gulf. 

Splendid are the white rivers of our Victorii 
Splendid is the Snowy, bringing to the Pacific 
tide strengthened and sweetened by outpouriil; 
from a thousand hills; glorious is the Goulbur 
feeding the irrigation farms with its bounteo 
flood; majestic is the Mitchell, sweeping throui 
fertile flats by Bairnsdale; the lazy Loddon h 
her charm; the Yarra its history. 

Under banks of the Glenelg are deep niyste ' 
ous reflections; the yellow waters of the Ove 
tell of fine gold won by busy dredges; the Wn 
mera sings his epic of wheat and wool, but tl 
Mitta Mitta is a lyric poet whose lays, I'l 
Lycidas or Endymion, leave a taste of pastor; 
sweetness. His rippling natal songs are fic 
with couplets from the Alps, his adolescent nictr 



GIPPSLAND 



353 



re the metres of the cavaliers; but, grown to 
ligorous riverhood, he sings with the splendor of 
llilton and the art of Keats. 

rhe poetry of our rivers has never been sad- 

iied by the note of battle. It is a poetry of 

,ce and peaceful human endeavour, filled with 

lices of undcfiled Nature, and echoes of pioneer 

ffort. By the singing rivers of Victoria there 






Tallangatta is 212 miles from Melbourne, and 
enjoys a daily train service. Coaches go to and 
from Corryong, on the Upper Murray, and down 
the Mitta Valley. Some day Victoria may con- 
struct a loop line from Tallangatta to Bright via 
the Mitta Valley and Omeo, and thus make gener- 
ally accessible the most picturesque mountain dis- 
trict in Australia. 




A Selector's Hut in the Gippsland Forest. 



re homestead sites for those who would forget 
ic reddened rivers of Europe and all their dread- 
il stories of destruction and strife. 

Willows and alders grow by the village of 
litta. The traveller makes good going over 
.rtile Hats to the railway township of Tallan- 
atta, terminus of a branch-line which meets 
\iiney-Melbourne railway at Wodonga. 

1 his line will, no doubt, be pushed forward 
itil it meets the Murray at Tintaldra and 

owong, where there is much rich agricultural 
iiid, well-watered, blessed by abundant rains, and 
cndered pleasantly habitable by the mildest of 
iDuiitain climates. Cool winters and balmy 
ummers make blessed the regions of Upper Mur- 
ay, where settlement thrives and industry in- 
rcases. 



By going out to Corryong through Cudgewa, 
one may reach the Yarrangobilly Caves and 
Mount Kosciusko, and return through the lovely 
valley of the Upper Murray — which, after con- 
struction of the proposed Cumberoona dam — will 
be rendered lovelier still by irrigation. 

Over all this remote cast of Victoria still hangs 
a glamor of the unknown. Swift feet of settle- 
ment, lured first by glint of early gold, have 
gone rapidly westward and left the East yet 
largely unoccupied and difficult of access. 

But there is a future for eastern Victoria which 
the writer fondly believes will be one of close, 
prosperous settlement. Millions of feet of com- 
mercial hardwoods make a valuable asset in its 
forest reserves and maybe a million acres of pro- 

w 



354 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



ductive lands await treatment. What wealth of 
precious and useful metal remains to be won from, 
highly-mineralized regions of vast area time will 
determine. This very chapter is being scribed 
upon the edge of an East Gippsland forest. Be- 
tween the author's camp and Snowy River spread 
a hundred lone miles of coastland without a single 
homestead, exclusive of Cape Everard lighthouse. 
Northward to the border line the country is still 
empty. But it will not always remain so. East 
Gippsland will yield marine wealth of its 
shores and estuaries, wealth of its forests, wealth 
of its soils, as other less-favored parts of the 
Commonwealth are already doing. Good roads 
are a first essential for opening this country, which 
will be best settled in small areas of, say, fifty 
acres. 

The experience of settlement in East Gippsland 
is that 1 60 to 320 acre selections in heavily-tim- 
bered country are beyond the strength of the aver- 
age settler. Forest growth is so rapid that 
family effort can only effectually clear a small area 
at a time. Prolific soils and heavy rainfall ensure 
a constant crop of scrub and undergrowth until 
the land is permanently cleared. For all fruits 



of the temperate zones. East Gippsland is ideal. 
Pigs, dairy cattle, potatoes, agricultural produce, 
must ultimately come from a land where maize, 
lucerne and paspalum already flourish. 

Out of 4,920 square miles of Crown lands in 
East Gippsland there will be some unproductive 
acres; but, with a rainfall ranging from 40-45 
inches at Mallacoota to 32-40 at Orbost, the 
poorer soils are brought almost to the standard of 
richer land in less-favored districts. 

Transport and scientific treatments are neces- 
sary. Local experience and local conditions will 
make settlement profitable. Without ports, 
without railways and practically without roads, 
the proved possession of gold, silver, copper, lead, 
tin, iron, molybdenum and manganese alone will 
not insure the progress of this virgin area of over 
three million acres. Nor will its forests of grey 
box, bloodwood and silver-topped iron-bark find 
markets. Nor will it produce the wool and 
butter that it could; nor its coast yield marine 
wealth yet unexploited; nor its sunny slopes be 
covered with orchards nor its \olcanic and alluvia! 
patches be universally converted into farms. 




' Good roads are a first essential ' ' 




Mount Feathertop and Ovens Eiver 



THE VICTORIAN ALPS. 



J';'1"\VJ<:J-:X Tallangutta and Vackandandah 

is a fine strip of vineyard, agricultural and 

pastoral land. Sluice, dredge, and shaft 

also tell of gold-mining enterprise. Brown hilly 

icountry, breaking into grassy Hats, where willows 

and drooping gums give shade for sheep, stooks 

of wheat in cleared paddocks, frequent creeks — 

re all indications that North-Eastern Victoria is 

contributor to the general wealth of the nation. 

iewa lies midway between these towns — a de- 

ghtful hamlet on a pretty little river. A com- 

ined hotel and grocery supplies stout farmers 

ith beverages and breakfast foods of well- 

dvertised brands, while their horses wait 

atiently under the acacias, whisking away sum- 

er flies with busy tails. 

Yackandandah, despite its peculiar aboriginal 
name, is a progressive inland town. The stranger, 
judging it by the number of its hotels, might 
imagine its population to be of poetical Persian 

I™ temperament. They are not more bibulous than 
^our singularly-sober population in general, but as 
the centre of a mining district, Yackandandah pro- 
vides accommodation for a shifting community. 

Hydraulic sluicing has helped to increase the 






prosperity of this exceedingly healthy township. 
The pumping machinery is installed on barges, 
which are floated from point to point. 

Between here and the ancient Victorian town 
of Beechworth, the clear dry airs of nearly two 
thousand feet elevation edge the stranger's 
appetite. One remembers the run across from 
Yackandandah before breakfast, through country 
viewed too early in the morning to carry any spe- 
cial appeal ; the little motor mishap that made 
breakfast still later, and finally the compensation 
of a solid Australian meal in an old-fashioned 
Australian hotel. 

One likes Beechworth, not for the "pleasant 
walks to the Cemetery grounds, the Hospital for 
Insane and Mount Misery," as enumerated on the 
printed cards at our old-fashioned hotel, but for 
avenues planted with mulberries and spreading 
shade-trees, for old churches and trim gardens 
and the balmiest airs that ever brought gladness 
to one's soul. There is no loud clamor of 
industry in this town, which may be reached 
by train twice a day from busy Melbourne. 
But wide streets and handsome public gar- 
dens, substantial stores. Council chambers, 



355 




356 



1 



THE VICTORIAN ALPS 



357 



museiiin, hotels and residences show that there is 
no civic poverty either. 

As a centre for many tourist attractions, which 
can be reached by good roads, Beechworth is well 
and justly advertised. 

From Mount Stanley, 3,450 feet, the visitor's 
eye commands the Alps, Strathbogie and Divid- 
ing ranges, and the valleys of the Ovens, Snowy, 
King, and Mitta Mitta rivers. 

From Beechworth to Wangaratta downward 
slopes take us into level wheat and sheep lands, 
and a warm dry climate like that of Southern 
Ri\erina. Among many prosperous inland 

towns Wangaratta, with 5,000 population, wears 
an air of confidence. It is a cathedral city, and 
the proclaimed capital of the North-Rast. Wheat 
and wool its surrounding districts produce in 
abundance. Fruit, tobacco, and potatoes are 
profitable local products. When Australia be- 
comes a manufacturing country, the growth 
of little cities like Wangaratta will be greater 
than their oldest or youngest inhabitants have 
;ver dreamed. 

Wangaratta, with its two bi-weekly newspapers, 

:s foundry, brewery, creamery, butter, bacon, 

lap and brickmaking industries already estab- 

ihed, with raw products at hand, could be and 

loubtless will be a capital of importance. 

The Government has established an Agricul- 
ral High School here. 

At night the well-lit streets of this little inland 
llty present moving pictures of sober citizens, 
country visitors, boys in khaki uniforms, girls 
in white dresses, all that passing phase and char- 
acter of young colonial life which our artists and 
writers should endeavour to retain — because the 
spirit of Change heralded by the horns of Inven- 
tion is rapidly modernizing the Bush. . . . 

By good road from Wangaratta, one enters the 
Ovens Valley — a land of gold and glamor with 
historical memories of old "rushes," rapid 
"finds," and frequent fortunes. The sluicing 
dredge robs the river of clearness until one gets 
above the radius of its operations; but towards 
'orepunkah and Bright the Ovens is a clear and 
leautiful stream. 

Road, river, and railway run down the valley 
in parallel lines. They wind through a land of 
tall poplars, trim farms, hop gardens, and green 
paddocks with hedges of roses. 

As the traveller nears the happy village of 
Myrtleford, he beholds on the south-east a bald, 
granite hump rising precipitously from the edges 
of the valley. This is the famous Mount Buffalo, 
which calls the tourist with equal attraction sum- 
mer and winter. 

kThat first sight in the distance is somewhat dis- 
jpointing — Buffalo in perspective is neither tre- 



ab 

tf 



mendous nor impressive; it is only when one gets 
under the shadow of the mountain or begins to 
ascend its granite sides that its mighty bulk is 
realized. 

The ascent practically begins at the little rail- 
way township of Porepunkah, on the banks of 
the Ovens. The Government has constructed a 
solid road up the mountain, which is now open 
to motor cars under reasonable restrictions. 
Owing to the precipitous nature of this mountain 
road the car was interdicted at first, for fear that 
the bones of bush horses at least would whiten 




North WaU of Buffalo Gorge. 

under the cliffs. The road is narrow but well 
graded. As it mounts towards the Government 
Hospice it opens up preliminary scenery of great 
beauty. After one gets accustomed to gazing 
down into abysses that seem miles in depth, the 
excitement of gradual ascent is less poignant. 

From a distance the north-eastern face of the 
mountain bears a peculiar white scar, as if an 
avalanche had swept down it and left a glittering 
cleft on its bare granite cheek. Coming nearer, 
it is seen that the white scar is really a stream of 
water which, reaching the brink of that precipice, 
up in the clouds, takes a preliminary header of 
750 feet into the gorge. 



358 



AUSTRAIJA UNLIMITED 




^ Ml 





-**_i'*«<>^ 



^ 



I 



The Chalet on Mount Buffalo 



Though Buffalo is, in the distance, like most 
great objects, somewhat of a disappointment, as 
the visitor mounts its bastioned flank it becomes 
more and more impressive. Ravines and pre- 
cipices gather beneath him on his upward climb; 
the level world sinks lower and lower; the great 
upper world of mountain and cloud unfolds like a 
mysterious scroll. 

Again the air is heavenly and the sunlight 
divine; one's blood tingles in one's veins; life's 
difficulties seem easy of conquest, a curious sense 
of courage and well-being lifts one's spirits into 
the skies — towards which Mr. Catani's narrow 
road is carefully winding. 

Climbing out of Kurobin Valley this road offers 
a halting-place at a junction of streams. Continu- 
ous shouting, murmuring and argument goes on 
between these gossiping rivulets at their meeting 
place. One of them is that white torrent which 
marks the face of the mountain from afar — still 
ruffled and tumbled from its high dive over Buf- 
falo. The little mountain river noisily plunges 
under a bridge and hurries away to join the Ovens 
in its lovely valley below. 

As our road goes up we glimpse the valleys of 
Eurobin, Buckland and Ovens at intervals. At a 
height of 3,600 feet, it swings round a mighty pre- 
cipice and a lordly panorama brings us our first 
realization of what natural treasures this hunch- 
backed giant has locked in his rocky domains. 



Here is no pastoral painted in conventional 
lines and curves, but bold vigorous expanses of 
primal nature with little squares of culti\ation let 
in to make proper contrast between occupied val- 
ley and unreclaimed mountain. 

Here is another of Australia's splendid dis- 
tances, ruffled by the hand of Time into wonderful 
contours and amazing curves. 

On the southern wall of Buffalo, close to the 
Gorge, is a comfortable (>o\ernment chalet, with 
accommodation for a hundred guests. There is 
no more delightful holiday place in Australia, 
summer or winter. Good and sympathetic man- 
agement and a reasonable tariff have increased its 
popularity. Within a minute's walk guests may 
weary themselves with mountain pictures. The 
Gorge is a masterpiece in this gallery of the gods. 
You stand on the edge of a sheer cliff, which is 
the southern wall of Mount Buffalo — and look 
down, if you have the nerve, into an amphitheatre 
of infinite vastness, where constant changes of 
scene lend endless interest to the drama of 
Nature. Out towards the skyline is the dress 
circle of this mighty theatre — Bogong and Kos- 
ciusko, snow-capped in winter, but bottomless blue 
in summer-time. There is nothing like the blue- 
ness of these glorious Australian ranges, so deep, 
so calm, so exultant. 

The valley below you — so far below that it 
seems to belong to another world — is laid out in 



I 



^ 




Eurobin Creek in Buffalo Gorge 



359 



36o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



red and green squares of cultivation. From the 
granite seats of the gods you can see shadows of 
clouds travelling over cleared fields whose still 
beauty, miles beneath you, glows with such distant 
mystery. 

The road in the valley winds like a thread of 
golden silk on a robe of green and blue. The 
road down the mountain hangs like a silver cob- 
web between earth and heaven. Forest-covered 
spurs radiate into altitude from their foothills 
around the valley. You can follow their out- 
lines until they are lost in far-off skies. They are 
part of our world's oldest mountain system, worn 
down to half their original height by the erosions 
of incalculable years. Buffalo was once 5,000 
feet higher. On its granite base rested a super- 
structure which pierced the clouds of bygone 
winters, in aching aeons, ere Atlantis sank beneath 
the waters. In this age of men and machines, its 
sheer sides of time-worn rock are the wonder and 
admiration of summer maidens in Melbourne- 
made gowns and picture hats. The snows of 
winter whiten its wrinkled forehead for the plea- 
sure of scientists and skaters — lured thither by 
the attractions of snow sports and a gaslit hotel! 
Its leaning towers and battlements are still 
assailed by cyclopean forces; weakened mayhap 
by everlasting assault but still strong enough to 
brave and turn aside ten thousand storms. 

One sees where tlownfalling waters have 
grooved out a channel in the hillside — a gutter, 
yards wide, which drains the roof of Buffalo. 
Through it pours with sound eternal that torrent 
which seems like the white track of an avalanche 
down the mountain side when viewed from Ovens 
Valley. Looking down, one sees it smashed into 
a veil of spray arcaded by mimic rainbows. 

Gaunt snow gums, moss-covered boulders, pul- 
pit rocks, lovers' seats are part of the chalet's out- 
door appointments. Inside are lounges, dining 
halls, hot and cold baths, the little conveniences 
which civilized Man finds essential to his happi- 
ness. 

For his benefit and pleasure snow, wind, 
water and sun have done their work. From May 
to September the winter-guest skates, skis and 
toboggans; from October to April, the summer- 
guest engages in what exhilarating pleasures the 
season offers him. Not the least of these will be 
his inevitable excursions to the Horn; which is 
the commanding summit of the Buffalo Plateau, 
and readily accessible from the Chalet at the 
Gorge. 

Here, 5,645 feet above the everyday world, he 
can enjoy the finest panoramic view on this con- 
tinent. On a sublime pinnacle of rock, as a pil- 
grim from some sacred minaret, he looks out over 
Victoria and a part of New South Wales. Eighty- 



six miles north-east stands Mount Kosciusko, 127 
miles to the south and west Mount Macedon, 
both easily visible if the day is fine. 

A mountain world lies at his feet. Grey snow 
grass — thick and springy — purple heather and 
buttercups adorn its slopes. Patches of snow 
gums, killed by over-rigorous winter, give the 
necessary touch of desolation to this singular land. 
He hears clear springs bubbling and the song of 
crystal creeks making immemorial music over 
their eternal boulders. Other round granite 
boulders, smooth as cannon balls, scattered 
around the landscape, show where creek and 
glacier did their work long before ape-men gib- 
bered the rudiments of speech. Leviathan rocks 
25,000 tons in weight arepoised on axes of ancient 
granite. Grey moss beards limbs of trees, lichens 
cling to stained rocks. Where are now the poin- 
cianas of Port Darwin, the screw palms of the 
Gulf? Instead of Horid jungles, Australia the 
Unlimited presents here sombre galleries between 
snow-clad hills, cyclopean chambers, gigantic 
archways, gargantuan plum-puddings, huge 
pebbles, cantilever rocks projecting 40 feet, under- 
ground cellars, cubes, squares, cannon balls, pin- 
nacles and a debris befitting the older foundations 
of the world. 

Instead of tepid lagoons lipped by pink and 
purple lilies, she gives us clear cataracts leaping 
into chasms 1,700 feet deep, and falling away to 
silver threads in a vertical perspective. Tropical 
stillness gives place in season to a stillness of 
snow. An Australian in fur-lined coat, on ice- 
skates, takes the place of the Australian in a white 
linen suit. 

From the Horn a complete horizon of view 
takes in the Baw Baws, Bogong, a great part of 
Gippsland, and southern Riverina. 

Sunset seen from this superb summit is a Wag- 
nerian opera of light and color; but sunrise is a 
glory beyond all expression. There is a camp- 
ing-place at the foot of the Horn where en- 
thusiasts may spend the night and rise betimes to 
bathe their spiritual senses in the ineffable. Be 
well in body, be reasonably contented in mind, and 
behold the coming of Day over two Australian 
States. See its first beams redden the snowy cap 
of Kosciusko, and five minutes later purple the 
Wodonga plains. See this, and you will see 
Australia in one of her tremendous moods, and 
realize that this is the Land of Great Things 



Under Buffalo, a few miles down the Ovens 
Valley, is Bright, one of the prettiest villages in 
the Commonwealth. It is not altogether shade 
trees, running waters, and shadows of the hills 
that make the charm of this little township. It 
has a particular atmosphere of peace and good- 



i 



THE VICTORIAN ALPS 



361 



fellowship and easy-going contentment. In the 
cosy hotel where I bided with Dyer after ascend- 
ing Mount Buffalo, with our American car, in 
defiance of regulations, one was struck, by the 
unusual merit of the pictures — all Australian sub- 
jects — which adorned the walls. Enquiry re- 
vealed the fact that the landlord's daughter was 
an artist, possessing such genius for form and 
color as one might expect from the very quality 
of her native surroundings. 

It hardly came as a surprise to learn that there 
was a true artist in Bright. Aesthetic gentle- 
ness of river and hill, infinite mood of Nature, 
quietude, and call, such influences in places like 
these must bring response in artistic expression. 
The future of Australia in art, music, and poetry 
is as certain as her future in power, wealth and 
industry. 

Bright has some celebrity as a producer of 
gold. There were, at the end of 1914, several 
hopper dredges at work in the vicinity. These 
dredges were each recovering a good average of 
19 to 25 ounces of fine gold per week. They 
employ ten or eleven hands to each plant, and, 
although greatly condemned as polluters of 
streams and destroyers of agricultural land on 
the banks of water-courses, they have proved a 
highly-profitable investment. The precious "dust" 
is washed out of the river silt by a simple hydrau- 
lic system and snared on a piece of ordinary coir 
matting. Once a week the alluvial gold, fine as 
flour, is washed out of the matting. The outlay 
on a dredge plant is not beyond the possibility of 
a small company, and dredge-mining is by no 
means the riskiest of Australian mineral invest- 
ments. Where it can be proved that the dredge 
is not a destroyer of more valuable assets in the 
shape of agricultural lands, there should be 
nothing to prevent its extension. 

Myrtleford is another delightful Victorian 
village, where shady elms throw grateful shade 
and a pleasant low-roofed inn invites the passing 
traveller to rest. Leaving Bright Road at Ever- 
ton the latter may take a westerly track through 
Oxley to Benalla, crossing good level agricultural 
wheat and wool lands on the way. 

Benalla is another important district centre. 
Near to Melbourne, on a main trunk line, it wears 
more of a metropolitan air than most country 
towns. There is a growing volume of business 
in all these embryonic cities of Victoria, and they 
are the pleasantest of places to live in. Where 
transport is established, prices of commodities are 
iitdc more than Melbourne; living is low, and 
wages high. Ordinary workers, if they be frugal 
and secure permanent employment, are sure of 
being able to establish comfortable homes at least, 
and rear their families under healthy and con- 



genial surroundings. Business openings con- 
tinually present themselves, nor do these require 
the initial capital which is essential in more 
crowded centres. 

One will look in vain for poverty in such 
places. Go down the main streets of these coun- 
try towns, on a Friday or Saturday evening, and 
you will see a well-dressed, well-fed, happy-look- 
ing population. There are no mendicants, no 
gutter urchins, no pale work-worn faces, no rags, 




k 



At Bright 



no persona! appeals for help; none of those out- 
ward and visible indications of a ''submerged 
tenth" which seem inseparable from centres of 
population in most countries. Go into the stores 
and you will find that credits are generally sound; 
go into the Savings Banks and learn that nearly 
every householder has an account! 

What conditions in Europe will be like when 
this book goes forth on its mission, at the con- 
clusion of the greatest war in human history, no 
man can safely prophesy. But this salient fact 
stands out, that during the continuation of that tre- 
mendous struggle, the prosperity of Australia suf- 
fered no decrease. Involved with the British 
Empire in conflict, she has been enabled to send 
her contributions of men and money to the 
Mother Country, while pursuing her ordinary 



362 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



course of settlement and development. The 
stability of Australian securities has been amply 
demonstrated. In future we are less likely to 
hear that the British investor fights shy of Aus- 
tralian enterprises. 

The financial soundness and prosperity of the 
Commonwealth are nowhere made more apparent 
than in an analysis of business conditions in our 
country towns. Little centres like Benalla are 
certain to grow as settlement is extended. 

With an irrigation and wheat-growing district 
northward in the direction of the Murray, with 
rich agricultural lands southward towards the 
ranges; with vineyards and orchards and a market 
within easy distance, Benalla, Wangaratta, the 
townships of north-eastern Victoria generally are 
destined to thrive. 

The traveller, continuing his journey through 
this section of the State, may turn off southward 
towards Mansfield, which is the present terminus 
of a branch railroad passing through Molesworth 
to join the main trunk line at Tallarook. This 
cross-road between Benalla and Mansfield gives 
a variety of forest and open, hill and river, not 
yet too closely settled to have lost its native 
charm. Small villages occur, with long intervals 
between them. Towards Mansfield, the way is 
through well-watered pastures and fertile fields 
suitable for cultivation. 

The town of Mansfield stands over a thousand 
feet above sea level. Like all Victorian towns 
along the Great Range, or its many spurs, it en- 
joys an equable climate. The warmest summer 
days are followed by cool nights. Extremes of 
heat or cold lead to neither exhaustion nor dis- 
comfort. Natives of these districts are notice- 
able for their color and physical development. 

The most artistic monument in Australia has 
been erected at Mansfield in honor of police 
troopers Kennedy, Scanlon, and Lonigan, slain by 
the blood-thirsty Kelly gang of bushrangers in 
the Wombat Ranges nearby, in 1880. The fine 
marble column on its granite base marks a phase 
of Australian life which belongs to an adventurous 
past. The tourist of to-day who gazes curiously 
at this obelisk in the main street of peaceful 
Mansfield, can hardly realize the conditions 
which made the lawless reign of the Kellys pos- 
sible. 

Some of the most rugged mountain regions of 
Victoria lie within a few miles of Mansfield. 
Among scenic attractions for which it is a centre 
are Mount Buller, nearly 6,000 feet, and the 
Tolmie Tableland. Forest and fern, hill, moun- 
tain and valley make interesting the roads which 
lead away to Jamieson, Alexandra, and Whit- 
field. 



Many tributaries of the Goulburn River have 
their sources in this part of Victoria. These 
snow-fed streams drain a wide area of the eastern 
watershed. 

Beyond Jamieson to the southward is Wood's 
Point. Between these villages, thirty-six miles 
of exquisite scenery will make amends for a slow 
coach journey. 

The Continent does not present anywhere else 
such a continued stretch of lofty mountains. 
Matlock and Wood's Point are the highest towns 
in Victoria. If this country could be rendered 
more accessible, it possesses attractions which 
would make it probably the most popular resort, 
or series of resorts, in Australia. 

Wood's Point is the small and lofty capital of 
an auriferous district, containing many little 
mining villages. Gold Is constantly being won 
along this part of the great Dividing Range. 
Wood's Point can be reached from Healesville, 
Walhalla, and Warburton by bridle tracks 
through invariably picturesque country. But the 
adventurer will do well to take the summer season 
for his journey. Forty miles from Walhalla or 
Warburton may easily enough be negotiated dur- 
ing summer months, but when winter snows lie 
deep on Mount Buller, and the Baw-Baws have 
changed their robes of summer blue for white, it 
Is quite another matter. 

Between Mansfield and Alexandra Is a very 
beautiful agricultural district, watered by tribu- 
taries of the (ioulburn. If clear, perennial 
streams, the mildest of mountain climates, blue 
hills, grassy fields, green pastures, tall forests, 
x'ineyard slopes, orchard sites, fertility and tilth 
make for human contentment, then the people who 
ha\'e been fortunate enough to secure holdings in 
this favouretl land should be able to enjoy a maxi- 
mum of that blessed gift. f 

Throughout the Victorian hill country there Is 
room yet for thousands of settlers to whom the 
possession of a large preliminary capital Is by no 
means necessary. From Omeo to Healesville 
one sees that Victoria has yet hardly approached 
the problem of closer settlement, while much of 
the eastern division can still be regarded as virgin. 
Between Balrnsdale and Harrietville, following 
the course of the Mitchell River, lies another 
hinterland in which a vigorous population will 
some day find establishment and prosperity. 

Alexandra is one of those pleasant Victorian 
townships which visitors are loath to leave. 
Located In a hollow of the hills, with broad tree- 
planted avenues, trim gardens and the abundant 
growths of rich soils favored by temperate cli- 
mate and copious rainfall. It sparkles like a 
goblet filled with some rare vintage. If, in sooth, 
a man would drink the true wine of life, let him 1 




Pi 



O 

cm 

a 
'3 



a 



36.3 



364 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




On the Acheron Biver 

rise, as Dyer and I, "ere Dawn's right hand is in 
the sky," and gHde out of the sleeping town of 
Mansfield, before a single spiral of smoke has 
begun to curl from a cottage chimney. 

Let him be well along a comparatively good 
road before the rim of a golden sun shows above 
the most easterly hillside. Let him pull up his 
car on the next summit and watch that golden disc 
slowly mounting into a sky glorified by a 
chromatic arrangement of heavenly colors. He 
sees the earth marching forth with banners of 
rose and emerald, to greet the Conqueror. 

He listens to orisons the bush birds are pour- 
ing to the day, canticles of running waters, soft 
hymns of trees, the harmony of Morning break- 
ing over a land that has never heard a discordant 
shout of war. 

His heart-beats are tuned to this joyous excite- 
ment of Nature; his pulses respond to her 
gracious exhilaration. As his car sweeps down- 
ward into the next hollow and rattles over a rustic 
bridge where a passing whiff of mint and briar- 
rose greets him, reminiscent of God knows what 
forgotten dreams, he feels that the morning 
prayers of childhood are, after all, among life's 
most beautiful things. 

If readers find in this volume descriptive repe- 
tition, let it be forgiven by the fact that Australia 
is filled with such a plenitude of delightful places. 



Any writer attempting to deal at length with its 
natural attractions must claim such an indulgence. 

If that road from Mansfield to Alexandra has 
left a special memory of morning sweeping over a 
land glorified by Nature, one may be sure that 
every Australian carries in mind similar 
memories — which are not the lesser gifts in his 
heritage. 

As this is being scribed armed Australians, in 
the shadows of the Pyramids, will vision, across 
desert sands where slaves of departed Pharaohs 
labored, beyond the date palms of historic Nile, 
roads that wind around Australian hillsides as 
pleasantly as the road from Mansfield to Yea. 
Australians, by their camp-fires in African jungles, 
will hear in fancy magpies carolling by creeks such 
as those that glisten under canopies of tree-fern 
from Acheron to Marysville. 

Rubicon forest and Rubicon Falls are among 
the many beautiful and wonderful assets of 
Nature with which Alexandra is enriched. Being 
only 102 miles from Melbourne, with a daily train 
service, this comfortable little town makes a plea- 
sant base for a holiday. Through all this 
mountain country, drained by the Goulburn River, 
fish and game are plentiful. Within a wide circle, 
taking in Trawool, Yea, Alexandra, Jamieson, 
Marysville, and Toolangi, one might spend a 
whole summer without wearying. If one had a 
summer to spare I can imagine no better enjoy- 
ment than the exploration of those wonderful 
tablelands which spread from Mount Dandenong 
to Kosciusko, and from Beechworth to Bonang. 

From Alexandra down to Marysville, along the 
Acheron River, the road runs through mountain 
and meadow land as fair and kindly as any on 
the Continent. Good volcanic and alluvial soils 
prevail throughout the ranges, and along the 
river beds on the north-eastern side of Mel- 
bourne. Fine forests of hardwood, considerable 
minerals, add to the wealth of districts which are 
favored by their proximity to a great city. A 
prosperous rural population is gradually pushing 
its way into the hearts of those blue hills which 
loom upon the north-eastern horizon of the 
southern city-dweller's view. 

Within 40 miles of Melbourne, in those ranges, 
is Mount Donna Buang (4,080 feet) about five 
miles to the north of Warburton. Donna Buang is 
higher than any point in England, Wales or Ire- 
land, and now gives metropolitan people an oppor- 
tunity to enjoy snow sports between July and Sep- 
tember. As an instance of what a still-unex- 
ploited country Australia is, it may be remarked 
that the existence of this mountain was practically 
unknown to the people of Melbourne until Pro- 
fessor Kernot read a paper on it before the Royal 
Geographical Society of Victoria in 1907. Since 



THE VICTORIAN ALPS 



365 



then a road has been opened to its summit, and, 
having been made accessible from Warburton and 
Healesville, it is possible to make a week-ender's 
trip to the snows. 

Within these ranges lies the famous Blacks' 
Spur with its hot-house vistas of tree-fern and 
vine. Timbered hills that will yet know the 
touch of cultivation, perennial waters, sassafras 
and beach and flowering myrtle; roads which 
wind often like the avenues of gardens through 
forests and jungles of smooth and glossy growth 
— Australian nature in one of her happiest aspects 
— wayfarers through these hills will find these 
delights and more. From the Hermitage on 
Blacks' Spur to Narbethong, and from Narbe- 
thong to Marysville will give these wayfarers 
pictures which will cause them to wonder where 
writers have gleaned their melancholy impressions 
of Australia. Here is a typical stretch of 
Victorian forest and hillside whose beauty and 
value cannot be exceeded in any part of the world. 
Streams about Marysville are reputedly good for 
jpout fishing; Marysville is a place of lovely val- 
ys, fern-lipped streams, high waterfalls, cool 
_ mosses, scented acacias, noble forests and superb 
l^ountain views. From the summit of Lake 
"^4ountain (4,000 feet) one looks out over a land 
of mystery and wonder, and hears the wind in the 
tops of forest giants 280 feet above the ground 
proclaiming the glory of Australia. 

On its way home from Flastern Victoria our 
little American car, much travel-stained, came 
over the Blacks' Spur and ran out by a difficult 



road along the edge of that blue wall of moun- 
tains which one sees from various parts of Mel- 
bourne on a fine day. Thus we beheld Mel- 
bourne and its environs and the plains and hills 
behind them in constantly-changing view-points, 
but far and away below us. Near to Warburton 
we turned down over the mountain to Launching 
Place, where the River Yarra is no more than 
a clear-watered sparkling stream. 

Through Lilydale, with a cool south wind 
blowing in our faces, by that lovely orchard and 
garden country that circles Melbourne on the 
north and east, past Mitcham, where cherry-trees 
were laden with red fruit, through the shady mar- 
ket town of Dandenong, and back to breezy Mor- 
dialloc, we came so laden with happy recollections 
of a long journey through picturesque Victoria 
that our mental films in places were doubtless like 
photographic negatives doubly exposed. 

Behind us — from San Remo to Buchan, from 
Buchan to Buffalo, from Buffalo to Eltham, there 
glowed a cool, gracious Australia filled as the 
jewel caskets of an empress with so many pre- 
cious things that their individual values were 
overlooked, in general wonder and admiration. 

The greater part of this scenic East remains to 
be exploited. Its possibilities have not yet been 
developed, and its attractions are imperfectly 
advertised. Its values are not scenic alone; they 
include large areas of virgin lands suitable for 
settlement, and great natural resources of forests 
and minerals. 




'The Hermitage," Blacks' Spur 



m 



"-*« 
^f- 






%' 









m 






m 










366 





A Settler's House, Rochester District. 



VICTORIAN AGRICULTURE. 



VIC rORIA'S future progress largely depends 
on the extent to which her agricultural 
resources are utilised and developed 
Though it is the most densely populated State in 
the Commonwealth, its vast agricultural resources 
hitherto have only heen partially exploited. 
With its uniformly rich land, favorable rainfall, 
its magnificent water and timber resources, it is 
destined to become a State of surpassing pros- 
perity. Increased population, extension of the 
area under cultivation and the development of 
more intensive methods of cultivation are needed 
to properly utilise Victoria's rich natural re- 
sources. 

For decades past it has been called the Garden 
State of Australia, because its soil and climate 
are such as to permit more intensive methods of 
culture to be practised than is possible in any other 
State. The rich stretches of volcanic soil in the 
Western District and the fertile alluvial and peaty 
areas of (iippsland are probably as rich as any 
virgin soil in the old world. These lands are 
destined in the future to support a dense popula- 
tion of contented settlers when intensive methods 
of farming are substituted for the existing exten- 
sive methods of culture. 

A comparison of the agricultural production of 
Victoria, the smallest of the States on the main- 
land, with that of other States will convey some 
idea of the agricultural development here as con- 
trasted with other States. Although the area of 



Victoria is only one-thirty-third that of the Com 
monwealth, it produced in 19 13 approximately — 

One-third of the wheat, 
Over one-half the oats.. 
One-half the barley, 
Two-fifths of the potatoes, 
One-third of the fruit. 
And approximately one-half the hay pro 
duced in the whole Commonwealth 

This is a fine record for a State which occupies 
only one-thirty-third of the total area of the Com- 
monwealth. 

The Government is pursuing an enlightened 
policy of development by ( i ) pushing ahead with 
the construction of railways to bring every settler 
within reasonable distance of a railway, (2) con- 
serving in storages the immense volumes of water 
which hitherto flowed into the sea and utilising 
the water for irrigation purposes, and (3) sub- 
dividing lands purchased under Closer Settlement 
Acts, and allotment to settlers under the liberal 
Credit Foncier System. 

It is estimated that the present and projected 
storages will impound sufficient water to irrigate 
700,000 acres of land. Some idea of the added 
wealth which such an area will ultimately mean 
to the State may be gained by considering the 
annual output of a single isolated irrigation col- 
ony — that of Mildura Mildura is a compact 



367 



368 



AUSTRALIA 



irrigation settlement of 12,000 acres It sup- 
ports on this area a population of 6000 souls, and 
the standard of living of the community is as high 
probably as any other town of similar size in the 
world. The value of its products is £400,000, 
or an average return of £33 per acre over the 
whole area. If only half this return were se- 
cured from the 700,000 acres of irrigation land 
that will be available with the projected storages. 





Crossbreeding Wheats, Rutherglen Experimental Station 



It will mean an ultimate return of £8,000,000 
from the irrigated areas of the State. 

Industries capable of considerable expansion 
and improvement are (a) wheat growing, (b) 
dairying, (c) lamb-raising industries. At present 
less than 10 per cent, of the total area of the State 
is under cultivation, in spite of the acknowledged 
richness and abounding fertility of Victoria's 
soils. 

The area under wheat is approximately 
3,000,000 acres. In every wheat district of the 
State large areas eminently suited for wheat cul- 
ture are still supporting only the roaming sheep 
and the occasional steer. The cultivated area 
could, if adequate labor were forthcoming, be 
easily increased to five to six million acres. In 
19 1 5, in response to a special appeal by the Gov- 
ernment, the farmers of Victoria put in and bar- 



UNLIMITED 

vested i J million acres more wheat than had ever 
been sown before, even though labor was scarce 
and fodder expensive. Not only could the area 
be increased by two to three million acres, but the 
average yield per acre could most certainly be 
increased by at least 50 per cent, if the best 
methods of cultivation were universally adopted. 

This means that Victoria's annual wheat pro- 
duction could be permanently raised to 60-70 mil- 
lion bushels instead of 25-30 millions bushels. 

In dairying the State is in the midst of im- 
portant changes. Dairymen are now beginning 
to appreciate the three fundamental factors for 
success in dairying — breeding, feeding, weeding 
Systematic herd testing, involving the elimination 
of the robber cows, combined with rational feed- 
ing, and rigorous culling, are increasing the pro- 
fits from dairying, and with increased profits will 
come a healthy expansion of the industry. 

Finally, the natural pastures of Victoria are 
eminently suited for the production of a high class 
type of export lambs. Hitherto, Victorian settlers 
have depended too much on the natural pastures 
and too little on providing fodder crops for feed- 
ing their herds. With the inevitable expansion of 
cultivation, the wider use of fodder crops for 
feeding to sheep and the extension of lucerne 
growing in the irrigation settlements, lamb-rais- 
ing will become a great industry in Victoria, and 
numerous freezing works being erected in town 
and country provide the necessary guarantee of a 
suitable market. 

The agricultural production of Victoria is 
steadily increasing year by year. In 1915 the 
total value of products in Victoria amounted to 
£55,000,000 sterling, made up as follows: — 

Cultivation £19,765,128 

Dairying and pastoral 10,510,954 

Mining 1,946,697 

Forest produce 881,360 

Miscellaneous 1,990,003 



Total primary products . . . . £35,085.142 
Value added by manufactures 20,053,552 



Total value £55,138,194 



In a young country like Victoria, depending a 
most entirely on the export of primary products 
for liquidating interest on national indebtedness, 
the stimulation and rapid acceleration of her agri- 
cultural industries is a paramount necessity. The 
climate and the liberal rainfall, together with the 
abounding richness of the soils, place Victoria in 
a very fortunate position in regard to offering 
attractions for overseas settlers. The range of 



ts \ 



VICTORIAN AGRICULTURE 



369 



li 




Fanners attending a Demonstration of the value of Top-Dressing Grass, 

Eutherglen Experimental Station 



soils and climate permits a great variety of crops 
to be grown. Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, hay, 
lucerne, and all classes of fruit thrive to perfec- 
tion, and already in the production of these Vic- 
toria outstrips the other states. 

Then there are many industries which are al- 
most untouched — maize growing, tobacco, flax, 
broom corn — all of which offer abundant oppor- 
tunity for exploitation. Transport facilities, 
which mean much to the producer, are unexcelled 
in Victoria. 

The Government have realised that the most 
ffective means of accelerating settlement and in- 
tensive culture of the land is to provide adequate 
transport facilities, both by road and rail, for the 
primary producers. Victoria contends that no- 
where in Australia are the men on the land so 
well served with railways as in this State. The 
policy of successive Governments has ever been 
to drive these arteries of traffic through the agri- 
cultural areas of the State until the whole State 
has been completely and fully served with trans- 
port facilities. 

Side by side with the development of rail traffic 
as been the improvement of the country roads 

Country Roads Board has been created and 
ndowed with adequate machinery to improve the 
oads, and, above all, wise and healthy legislation, 
rem the country stations. 



The abounding richness of Victoria's soil en- 
ables her to carry a far greater population per 
square mile than any other State in the Com- 
monwealth. Farms are closer, towns are nearer, 
and there are abundant opportunities for social 
intercourse. A high standard of material com- 
fort in the rural districts is thus possible. 

With fertile soil, bracing climate, abundant 
rainfall, an excellent railway system, good roads, 
and, above all, wise and healthy legislation, Vic- 
toria's agricultural future is assured. 

Recent Victorian Governments have given 
much attention to problems of close settle- 
ment. The State Department of Agriculture has 
become a highly specialized organization, work- 
ing side by side with the Chair of Agriculture at 
Melbourne University, the Agricultural Colleges., 
and the Education Department, for the better- 
ment of the man on the land. No matter how 
Victoria's settlement policy may be regarded by 
political critics, the settler who has secured a liv- 
ing area is sure of expert assistance and advice. 
The author has before him a comprehensive 
synopsis of departmental functions and articles 
courteously prepared for this volume by Dr. S. S. 
Cameron, Director of Agriculture. 

The Agricultural Division proper comprises 
the following seven branches — Experiment 



370 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



Farms, Chemist's branch, Science branch. Field 
branch, Horticultural, Viticultural, Farmers' 
classes and lectures. 

The objective of the Division — to quote the 
Director of Agriculture — "is briefly to assist in 
raising the standard of cultivation and production 
in every part of the State where agriculture is 
carried on, by means of demonstration plots, 
demonstration and experiment farms, regular 
courses of lectures, periodical visits and inspec- 



results. Expert officers, skilled in different 
branches of production, are attached to the 
various farms, and give personal advice on all 
agricultural matters free. The results of the 
researches and experiments are published as they 
accrue in the monthly journal of the Department, 
and so are made available to all farmers in the 
State. 

"The State Research Farm at Werribee has 
for its objects three main lines of investigation: — 




Pot-Culture House, Rutherglen Experimental Station. 



II 



tions by expert officers, and by the distribution of 
pamphlets, bulletins, etc., bearing directly on the 
work, of the farmer. Investigations of plant 
diseases and of soil and manurial problems are 
also a marked feature of the work of the Division. 

"There are four Experiment Farms — Werri- 
bee, Rutherglen, Wyuna (irrigation), and Ba- 
mawm. 

"Hundreds of permanent experimental plots 
have been laid out at these Experiment Farms, and 
the intelligent settler who visits these plots may 
learn from the results achieved those practices 
which are likely to give him the best financial 



1. Exhaustive experiments with cereal crops. 

2. Study of irrigation problems connected with 
agriculture. 3. The improvement of stock, and 
experiments dealing with the breeding of lambs 
suitable for export. 

"The Wyuna State Farm carries out various 
demonstrations and experiments in irrigated agri- 
culture. 

"The Bamawm Farm is situated in the Roches- 
ter irrigation district, and is devoted more parti- 
cularly to the culture of tobacco and citrus fruits I 
under irrigation, and the propagation of citrus i 
trees for distribution. 



VICTORIAN ACiRICULTURF. 



37' 



mmm 





-(MaKnL>AMel 




Buildings and Water Supply, State Research Farm, Werribee. 




"The Rutherglen Experiment Farm and Viti- 

jltural Station deals with the culture of vines, 

le raising of phylloxera-resistant stocks, both 

grafted and ungrafted, for sale to intending plan- 

|ters, and experiments on wheat culture and lamb 

raising. 

"Comprehensive records giving full details of 
le experiments in progress and the results ob- 
nned are issued from time to time. 

Chemist's Branch. — The functions of the 
hemist's branch are: — i. To administer the Arti- 
cial Manures Act — and to see that farmers are 
rotected against fraud and adulteration, in pur- 
chasing artificial manures. 2. To analyse soils 
submitted by the public, and to offer helpful ad- 
vice on the mode of treatment of such soils to 
make them more productive. 3. To conduct 
laboratory investigations on specific problems 
bearing directly on the improvement of farm 
practice. 4. To make such analyses of butter, 
cheese and other farm products as will lead to an 
mproved quality in manufactured products. 
"The work of the laboratory includes investi- 



gations and analyses of soils, manures, fodders, 
waters, and milk for the benefit of the settlers. 

"An examination of the manures retailed 
throughout the country districts is made yearly 
for the purpose of detecting adulteration. 

"Examination of waters as to suitability for 
watering stock, domestic, or irrigation use, and 
reporting on same. Examination of all products 
grown on the soil as occasion demands. 

"The Science Branch includes botany, entomo- 
logy, vegetable pathology and biology. 

"The general aim of this branch is to assist 
farmers by directing their attention to the pests 
and diseases which attack various farm crops and 
animals, and to offer such advice as will be helpful 
in preventing losses of stock and crops. 

"The Government Botanist controls the 
National Herbarium, Melbourne, which contains 
over a million sheets of plant specimens arranged 
and listed for reference, comprising not onlv a 
unique type collection of the Australian Hora and 
New Zealand, Papuan and Polynesian collections, 
but also a very large collection of the plants of the 



372 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



whole world, in which American, South African, 
Indian and Malayan plants are especially strongly 
represented. Owing to the purchase of the 
Sonder and other collections, the Herbarium pos- 
sesses type and co-type specimens of the flora of 
other countries, notably from South Africa in 
regard to flowering plants, while in regard to 
Algae it contains type specimens from Kutzing 



surrounding him, since the absence of such know- 
ledge may often cause him considerable loss or 
waste of effort. 

"The Vegetable Pathologist identifies fungus 
pests attacking farm crops, vegetables and fruit 
trees, and prescribes methods for overcoming 
these pests. He also furnishes to farmers, fruit 
growers and others, entirely free of cost, infor- 




A Wool Class, Sale Agricultural High School 



and others. The character and scope of the 
Herbarium is therefore such as to make it a centre 
of reference in regard to Australian plants gener- 
ally, and also to give it an international standing. 

"The Herbarium identifies all plants sent in for 
examination and gives information in regard to 
them free of charge. 

"The investigation of scientific problems in con- 
nection with plant life is rendered easier by the 
existence of a library comprising some 9,000 
volumes — mainly technical. 

"It is of importance to a settler in a new 
country who finds himself surrounded by a flora 
of whose names and properties he is entirely 
ignorant, that he should be able to obtain infor- 
mation when necessary as promptly and expe- 
ditiously as possible in regard to the new plants 



mation regarding diseases of crops, and undertakes 
methods of control. 

"The Entomologist performs a like service witli 
regard to noxious and destructive insects, his work! 
comprising mainly: — Destruction and control or^ 
insect pests. Identification and classification of 1 
insects. Advising farmers, horticulturists, 

orchardists, and the public generally re No. i. 
Field and other experiments with insecticides. 
Breeding insects that are parasitic on the injuri- 
ous species. Instruction in economic entomology 
and ornithology by means of lectures, field excur- 
sions and literary articles. 

"A Government Biologist investigates the 
diseases wrought by bacterial foes, and deals with 
the means of overcoming them. 



VICTORIAN AGRICULTURE 



373 




Landscape Gardening, at the Botanic Crardens, Melbourne 



"Field Branch. — The Field Branch assists 
settlers by — 

"Carrying out experimental and demonstration 
plots on private farms to show the variety of 
wheat, oats, barley, roots, etc., best adapted to 
local conditions, also the kinds and quantities of 
manures and fertilisers that can be most profitably 
applied to various crops, and the cultural practices 
most likely to lead to success. 

"Cjiving advice on the cultivation and utilisation 
of various farm crops by correspondence, personal 
visits, and by lectures under the auspices of the 
local Agricultural Societies. 

"Many of the Agricultural Societies hold farm 
competitions each year with the object of en- 
couraging farmers in the districts to improve their 
methods of cultivation. The judges of these 
competitions are usually members of the Field 
Branch, and these officers are thus enabled to 
come into close contact with the farmers of the 
district and assist them in their work. 

"Officers with an expert knowledge of such 
special crops as tobacco, flax, potatoes, scent 
plants, have been appointed by the Department to 
encourage the growing of these crops. 



Horticultural Branch. — The work performed 
by the Horticultural Branch covers three distinct 
industries, \iz., fruitgrowing and marketing, viti- 
culture, and potato growing. Dr. Cameron's 
report shows the objective of each section and its 
scope, the methods and means adopted in carry- 
ing out the various duties, and also the helpful 
relationship in which the section stands to those 
engaged in the industries referred to. We will 
take, for example, the fruitgrowing industry. The 
officers of the orchard-supervision section render 
advice as to the choosing of localities, planting 
and cultivation of orchards, treatment for preven- 
tion and eradication of diseases, etc. At the 
Burnley School of Horticulture intending growers 
are furnished with all the information likely to be 
required by them during their participation in the 
industry. The fruit inspection section deals with 
all matters in connection with the marketing of 
the produce (advice re packing, suitable markets, 
requirements of other States and oversea coun- 
tries, etc.), while at the various Government Cool 
Stores growers may keep in storage their surplus 
fruits until such time as they can obtain a suitable 
market. It will be seen from this that there is 
little possible assistance which the Department 
does not render to fruitgrowers. As it is in 



374 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



this industry, so with the others dealt with by the 
Horticultural Branch. 

"The duties carried out by the Orchard Super- 
visors (i2 in number, one located in each of the 
fruitgrowing districts of the State) may be sum- 
marised as under: — i. Advising intending 
growers respecting the most suitable localities, 




of any persons desiring to avail themselves of the 
opportunity. Each of these officers is thor- 
oughly conversant with the most suitable districts 
for fruitgrowing, and by experience is well able 
to indicate what classes of fruits and what varie- 
ties of each are best suited to any locality. This 
proves of great benefit to settlers from other 




A Lily Fond at the Botanic O-ardens, Melbourne. 



varieties of fruits, etc. 2. Advising growers and 
enquirers re methods of planting, pruning, culti- 
vation, etc. 3. Advising respecting treatment 
and methods of eradicating disease. 4. Inspect- 
ing orchards and gardens and enforcing the pro- 
visions of Vegetation Diseases Acts. 5. Lectur- 
ing on the various branches of horticulture and on 
insect and fungus pests, and the best methods of 
dealing with same. 

"With respect to the matter of advice to In- 
tending growers respecting localities, varieties, 
etc., any information desired is furnished upon 
written or personal application to the Depart- 
ment. The services of the Chief Orchard Super- 
visor and a staff of ten officers are at the disposal 



countries who are unacquainted with local condi- 
tions. The same applies with regard to advice 
concerning methods of planting, cultivation, prun- 
ing, etc., and also with respect to treatment and 
eradication of diseases. In addition to the 
orchard supervision staff, growers and Intending 
growers may avail themselves of the ser\Ices of 
the Government Entomologist and Pathologist 
previously referred to. 

"The State has been divided into eleven dis- 
tricts and an Orchard Supervisor has been sta- 
tioned in each of these. These officers are in con- 
stant touch with the growers In their districts, and 
should a grower at any time desire Information, 
all he has to do Is to communicate with the Dis- 



I 




Cro33hre.d WKczxhs under^o\i\^ triors. 





WHEATflFRRSdRCHUM 
1913 WHEAT 
191-a SORGHUM 

1915 WHEAT 

1916 SORCHUM 







Permant-./i i^ctaiTor? Te^f 
RUTHERflLEN &XP&R.IM&)HTflL ^T/RTtON 



375 



376 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 



trict Supervisor, who will immediately furnish it 
and, if necessary, visit his orchard. Lectures are 
delivered on the various branches of horticulture 
and on insect and fungus pests, and the best 
methods of dealing with these. Where practi- 
cable the lectures are accompanied by field demon- 
strations. 

"To give the Department power to protect 
careful and painstaking growers against careless 
neighbours and to compel these latter to keep 
their orchards free from disease, a measure 
termed the Vegetation Diseases Act was passed in 
1896. This Act gives power to any properly 
authorised inspector to enter on any land whereon 
any tree, plant, or vegetable is grown, to inspect 
such trees, plants or vegetables, to advise the 
grower as to the best means of eradicating any 
disease, and, if he neglects to prevent such disease 
after receiving due notice, to inflict penalties. 

"In connection with orchard supervision there 
have been and are being established a number of 
experimental orchards for the purpose of demon- 
strating to growers and others the beneficial 
effects of scientific methods of planting and culti- 
vation. 

"There is no phase of viticulture on which a 
grower may not obtain advice from the Depart- 
ment. The Government Viticulturist advises 
vignerons on all matters pertaining to vinegrow- 
ing, wine-making, etc. Experimental work is 
carried out at the Rutherglen Viticultural College 
and, under Departmental supervision, at some of 
the private vineyards. 

"Some years ago practically the whole of the 
vineyards in Victoria suffered severely from the 
ravages of phylloxera. A vigorous campaign 
was instituted by the Department to cope with 
the disease, and since then the work of reconstitu- 
tion of vineyards has been sustained to such an 
extent that the majority of vineyards are now 
planted, in part at least, with phylloxera-resistant 
varieties. All that was possible was done by the 
Department to assist the growers in this work. 
Large quantities of phylloxera-resistant stocks are 
raised annually at the Rutherglen Viticultural 
Station and supplied to the growers at about one- 
half the cost of production. In the year 191 6 
over 400,000 phylloxera-resistant rootlings were 
distributed at the low prices of £6 per thousand 
for grafted and £1/10/- per thousand for un- 
grafted rootlings. 

"Potato (.rowing. — The chief duties carried 
out by the (ioxernment potato expert are of an 
experimental nature: testing of new varieties and 
their suitability to various districts, carrying out 
experiments to determine the effects of artificial 
fertilizers, testing the effect of various spraying 
mixtures on Irish Blight and other potato 



diseases. In addition to this, his advice and ex^ 
perience are always available should any grower 
desire to obtain information on any point con-_ 
nected with the potato industry. 

"In addition to experimental work, lectures are 
delivered by the expert in potato-growing dis- 
tricts, and field demonstrations in various branches 
of potato culture are carried out. 

Burnley School of Horticulture. — This insti- 
tution, comprising 35 acres of a Government re- 
serve within three miles of the Melbourne Post 
Office, has been in existence for a number of years. 
Tuition may be obtained on all subjects pertaining 
to horticulture, on bee-keeping, poultry raising, 
fruit drying and preserving, and kindred subjects. 

"In addition to the ordinary curriculum, free 
lectures and demonstrations on various subjects 
are given. These enable persons desirous of 
obtaining information on one subject only, to do 
so without paying for a full course of instruction. 

"In conjunction with the school there are large 
gardens and orchards which serve for field in- 
struction and demonstrations and for practical 
training in horticulture. Scholarships are granted 
which enable students to continue their studies at 
the Botanical Gardens. 

"In connection with the instruction in poultry 
raising, experimental work in various methods of 
housing and feeding is carried out. A number of 
egg-laying competitions have been held at the 
school, and record results have been obtained. 

"Special provision has been made for instruc- 
tion to women desirous of studying horticulture. 
Numbers have already availed themselves of this 
provision. 

"Theoretical tuition given at the Burnley 
School of Horticulture is supported by practical 
field demonstrations. Students at this school 
have not only the advantage of being told how the 
work should be performed but are shown how 
to do it and permitted to take part in the field|J 
operations. ^H 

"The work of the Live Stock Division may be 
summarized under the following heads: — Dairy 
supervision, stock diseases, stallion examinations, 
sheep industry, pig industry, poultry industry,! 
cheese industry, honey industry, general. K 

"The Milk and Dairy Supervision Act, which^^ 
came into operation in June, 1906, provides for 
the inspection of dairies and dairy herds in dis- 
tricts defined by proclamation under the Act. In 
19 1 2 approximately one-fourth of the area of the 
State had been proclaimed, each district being 
under the control of a Dairy Supervisor, versed in 
all aspects of dairy farm operations, who passes a 
searching examination before appointment. His 
duties are to become acquainted with every dairy 
farmer, confer with and gi\e him advice in regard 



J 



VICTORIAN AGRICULTURE 



377 




Portion of the Burnley School of Horticulture. 



to the better methods of producing milk or dairy 
produce, inspect premises, utensils and animals; 
encourage him in improved methods of cultivation 
of fodder crops, in purchasing and breeding of 
dairy cows, testing and culling, and in construction 
of farm buildings. 

"In 19 1 2 160,000 dairy cows were under dairy 
supervision — an average of 13.67 per dairy farm. 
The average daily yield per cow, while milking 
for a period of nine months, is 6.6 quarts. This 
is an increase from 5.64 quarts, the average 
amount which was given during the year 19 10 — 
such result being mainly due to the advice given 
by dairy supervisors having been followed, and 
culling having been extensively practised. Power 
is given under the Act for the Governor in Coun- 
cil to extend the provisions thereof to new dis- 
tricts. Every year fresh areas are brought under 
such operations, and ultimately the whole of the 
State will become subject to inspection by Govern- 
ment officers. 

"A scheme has recently been introduced for the 
purpose of testing pure bred herds of the State, 
and for the issue of a Government certificate 



to those animals which yield a given amount of 
butter fat per annum. 

"Victoria," says the Director of Agriculture, 
"is particularly free from contagious stock 
diseases. There has been no outbreak of 
swine fever for two years; anthrax occurs in iso- 
lated areas only, and the outbreaks are few. 
Pleuro-pneumonia outbreaks average about 4 or 
5 per annum. The aim of the officers of the 
branch, in checking or repressing these diseases, 
is to conserve the interests of the individual as far 
as possible. 

"The procedure for the prevention of the intro- 
duction of diseases from oversea into Victoria is 
carried out by the veterinary officers of this divi- 
sion. Under the Commonwealth Quarantine Act, 
Stock are only permitted introduction from Great 
Britain and America, and have to carry the neces- 
sary certificates of health, and undergo a period 
of quarantine on arrival in this State. The certi- 
fication of stallions is carried out by the veterinary 
officers of the branch. 

"An expert is attached to the branch, whose 
duties are to lecture and demonstrate upon all 



k 



378 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Ploughing, Rochester District 



phases of the sheep industry, and breeding for 
both wool and carcase production. 

"This industry is being tal<.en up by a large 
number of farmers and small landholders. Lamb 
raising blends well with wheat and cereal growing, 
* and has become a regular and increasingly marked 
feajijre of mixed farming. Hence the necessity 
to have available for those entering on the indus- 
try, reliable information and advice. 

"Co-operation is being entered into by farmers 
of the State, which will mean the regulating and 
ensuring of more equitable returns from the Vic- 
torian pig industry. The Gippsland farmers have 
opened a co-operative bacon factory at Dande- 
nong at a cost of £22,000, with a capital of 
£50,000, which has a capacity for treating 1,500 
pigs per week. Another Company has been re- 
gistered (1913) with a capital of £100,000, in 
which producers in the Western, North-Eastern, 
and Kyneton districts are joining forces with the 
object of building a factory in a central position. 
The amount of bacon produced in Victoria 
(1915) was 13,659,974 lbs., valued at £850,000. 
Victoria being essentially a dairying country, 
there is room for great improvement. The 
State should be able to obtain a larger portion of 
the £24,000,000 paid by Great Britain for pig 
products. 

"Lectures are given throughout the State by 
the Department of Agriculture on feeding, breed- 
ing, and general management of pigs. 

"The value of the poultry industry in 1914 was 
about £1,750,000; practically without an export 
trade. The industry is one which has great pos- 
sibilities ahead of it — the average price of eggs 
throughout the year being 1/4 a dozen. Egg- 
laying competitions are held annually by the 
Department, Avith the result that a considerable 
amount of enthusiasm has been induced and better 
methods of breeding and management are being 
followed. 



In 1 9 14- 1 5 a world's record was created by a 
pen of six White Leghorn pullets which laid 1,699 
eggs, averaging slightly over 2 oz. in weight. 
During the progress of the Burnley egg-laying 
competition, the following world's records have 
been attained: 1913-14, White Leghorns (wet 
mash) winter test 565 eggs, summer test 1667; 
1914-ii; W.L. (dry mash) 1699, Black Orping- 
ton (wet mash) 1562; 1915-16W.L. (wet mash) 
1661; 1916-17 winter test, B.O., 570 eggs. An- 
other world's record was attained in the 1915-16 
competition by 570 hens laying an average of 
219.5 ^gS* ^^ch for the twelve months. 

The most popular breed of fowl in Vic- 
toria is the White Leghorn, which is a pro- 
lific egg producer. The last Burnley egg-laying 
competition was won by a pen of six White Leg- 
horns with a total score of 1661 eggs, giving a 
gross return of 18/- per bird. The heavier 
breeds, whilst not laying the same number of 
eggs, gave a greater return by 1/7 per head, and 
this, without taking into consideration the amount 
obtainable by the sale of cockerels, indicates the 
heavier breed to be the more payable by reason of 
the fact that they are better winter layers, when 
eggs are dearer. 




Grading Land, Shepparton 



f 



"In 1915 3,497,278 lbs. of cheese were manU' 
factured in Victoria. More attention, however, 
is latterly being paid to the industry, services of 
the cheese expert attached to the Department 
being eagerly sought for by cheese-makers 
through the State. Instruction given by this 
officer is very thorough. He remains on the 
farm for three or four days to demonstrate the 
manufacture through all stages. As a result, 
considerable improvement is reported in quality 
of the article now manufactured. 

"A bee expert is attached to the branch, whose 
duties are to encourage the keeping of bees under ^ 



VICTORIAN AGRICULTURE 



379 



proper conditions. This is done by means of lec- 
tures and demonstrations throughout the country; 
also by means of inspections under the Bee 
Diseases Act, which has for its object the sup- 
pression primarily of foul-brood. The average 
yield of honey from about 53,000 hives may 
be taken as 2,500,000 pounds, the bees- 



licence costs 2/6 per annum; whilst a bee range, 
which must have a minimum radius of one mile, 
is let at id. per acre, i.e., £4/3/10 per annum. 
Under the Lands Department, on Crown Lands, 
bee farms may be obtained on payment of 1/- per 
acre per annum; and bee ranges at id. per acre 
per annum. 




A New District: Tongala In 1913 



wax returns being about 40,000 lbs. Owing 
to the difficulty, however, in collecting 
figures by reason of the scattered location 
of the industry in forest country, it is regarded as 
an under-estimate. The average estimated 

return per hive is 20/-; in many cases, however, 
80/- per hive is obtained per annum; whilst only 
recently 392 lbs. of honey were gathered in a 
month from one hive of (approximately) 40,000 
bees. The future of the industry holds great 
possibilities, as there are large tracts of forest 
country entirely untouched by apiarists. 

"Considerable reductions have been made by 
the Railway Department in the carriage of bees 
and hives, thus enabling apiarists to move their 
bees according to season and follow the honey 
How. 

I^b "From the Forests Department a bee-farm 
li 



General. — The staff consists of the chief 
veterinary officer (in charge of branch), 6 veter- 
inary officers, 41 dairy supervisors, 13 stock in- 
spectors, 7 experts, and a clerical staff 12. The 
services of the whole staff are always available 
to advise and assist farmers on any portion of 
the industries which have been referred to. 

"Additional functions of the branch are the ad- 
ministration of the Shearers' Hut Accommodation 
Act, and the Sheep Dipping Act. The former 
provides that shearers shall be supplied with pro- 
per accommodation, under sanitary conditions; 
the latter, that sheep, except under certain condi- 
tions, shall be dipped annually, and that sheep 
found infested with ticks or lice shall not be ex- 
posed for sale. 

"The veterinary staff is always available to give 
information to farmers on questions relating to 



38o 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Maize grown hy Irrigation. 



health and management of stock, and large num- 
bers of replies to queries are despatched 
annually." 

From the foregoing facts, officially supplied, 
intending immigrants and would-be Victorian 
settlers generally, will learn with what pater- 
nal solicitude a splendidly organized and 
scientific Department of Agriculture looks after 
their interests, and aids them at every turn to find 
the pleasant paths of profit. Facts are prover- 
bially dry until the reader finds some personal 
application for them. For further enlightenment 
of prospective settlers some facts compiled by the 
Lands and Immigration Departments, and issued 
in 19 14, may be ventured. 

"The total number of holdings in the year 1 9 1 2 
amounted to 68,703, and the land held, 
37,218,798 acres. The land utilized for culti- 
vation totalled 5)7o6,579 acres, under sown 
grasses 1,085,346 acres, and 30,426,873 acres 
were under natural pastures. 

"Victorian official authorities estimate the 
minimum amount of capital necessary for an ex- 
perienced agriculturist to start upon at £300. 

"Owing to low cost of feeding, dairymen in 
Victoria are able to make more money on lower 
average milk returns than dairymen in other coun- 
tries. During 24 years £30,365,181 were re- 
ceived from butter exported from the State. Co- 
operation among farmers has greatly reduced 
costs of manufacture and marketing, leaving a 
larger profit for producers. As more scientific 
methods of cultivation, breeding, and feeding are 
adopted, this great national income will be vastly 
increased. Oversea markets are still under- 



supplied, there is room for the widest expansion 
that increased settlement can bring." 

Victoria claims to be the granary of the Aus- 
tralian Commonwealth. "It has," says Mr. A. 
L. V. Richardson, M.A., B.Sc, Superintendent of 
Agriculture, "produced more wheat during the 
last decade than any other State, no less than 
241,807,960 bushels of golden grain having been 
gathered in Victoria during the past ten years, or 
a yearly total of over 24 millions. The value of 
this wheat was nearly 40 millions sterling. 

"The wheat industry in Victoria is in its infancy, 
and is capable of enormous expansion. Some idea 
of the development possible may be gained from 
the fact that of the total area of Victoria, namely, 
56,245,740 acres, only about 10 per cent, of the 
total is at present under cultivation, and only one 
acre in twenty is under wheat. Vast areas ideally 
suitable for cereal culture and lamb raising are at 
present held under purely pastoral conditions, 
support merely the roaming sheep, and have never 
yet felt the plough. Many of these pastoral pro- 
perties are cut up from time to time into farms, 
either privately or by the Closer Settlement 
Board, and afford excellent opportunities for new 
settlers to acquire cheap land on reasonable 
terms. 

"The principal wheat-growing areas are the 
Mallee, the Wimmera, and the Northern dis- 
tricts, all situated north of the Dividing Range. 
In 1912-13, 2,157,171 acres, or 87 per cent, of 
the total area under wheat in the State, were har- 
vested in these three districts. There were, in 
addition, 20 million acres of land uncultivated ir 
these three districts last season, the greater por^ 
tion of which is ideally suited for wheat-growing. 



VICTORIAN AGRICULTURE. 



381 



"There is probably no country in the world 
where wheat can be raised so cheaply as in the 
wheat areas of Victoria. Inventive skill and 
ingenuity of Victorian implement-makers have 
evolved types of machines which, for efficiency 
and economical work, could hardly be equalled. 
Multiple-furrow ploughs, running to fifteen fur- 
rows, four-horse seed drills, and complete har- 
vesters, have enabled farmers to till and crop 
large areas with greatest economy and efficiency. 
This low cost of production, together with the 
favorable prices for his produce, has placed the 



assured. Most Victorian wheat-growers now 
associate sheep-raising with their farming opera- 
tions, and find the business exceedingly profitable. 

"Over the greater portion of the wheat area 
farmers sow their seed on well prepared fallow. 
The main object of fallowing is the conservation 
of the soil moisture. Practical experience has 
shown that by judicious fallowing the yield has 
been increased by bushels per acre. Indirectly, 
fallowing leads to the unlocking of the dormant 
supplies of plant food in the soil. It also en- 
ables the farmer's work to be more evenly distrib- 




A Hay Crop at Rochester. 



Victorian farmer in a secure financial position, and 
the beautiful and substantial homesteads, now 
characteristic of our wheat-growing areas, reflect 
the prosperity attendant on this branch of produc- 
tion during the past few years. 

"There is every reason to believe that high 
prices for wheat have come to stay. The 
world's consumption of wheat is increasing. 
Wheat is gradually displacing rice and other 
cereals in the East. Moreover, the United 
States, which formerly dominated the wheat mar- 
kets of the world, will soon cease to be a wheat- 
exporting country. The controlling factor in the 
world's markets of the future will be the harvests 
of Australia and Argentina. 

"During the past decade wheat-growers of Vic- 
toria have been materially assisted by the develop- 
ment of the lamb-raising industry. Freezing 
works established at the seaboard and in the 
country have been the means of securing a staple 
export trade in frozen Iambs. Glutted markets 
are thus avoided and high prices for lambs 



uted throughout the year. Thus, the farmer has 
ready at seed time large areas of land in the best 
possible condition for sowing. 

"At seed time about 60 lbs. of superphosphate 
per acre, costing 2/6, are sown with the seed. 

"No nitrogenous or potassic manures are 
wanted. Practical experience has demonstrated 
that Victorian yields are not increased by such 
applications. Consequently, our Victorian farmers 
do not need to apply costly nitrogenous manures 
so necessary in some wheat areas of the Northern 
Hemisphere. 

"The seed is sown in May, and is ready for 
harvesting in December and January. The wheat 
when ripe is taken off with a complete harvester. 
This machine strips the heads, thrashes, winnows, 
cleans, and bags the grain ready for market at 
the rate of 10 acres a day, and can be worked by 
one man. 

"As wheat-growing is invariably associated 
with the rearing of sheep, it is the general prac- 
tice in the wheat areas to leave about one-third of 



Ik 



382 



AUSTRALIA UNLIMITED 




Dookie Agricultural College 



the area in pasture, one-third in crops, and the 
balance in fallow. This practice, of course, can 
only be followed in a country where lands are 
cheap and individual holdings large; land values 
are still low enough in the wheat areas of Victoria 
to enable this method to be followed with con- 
siderable profit. In the future, more intensive 
methods of cultivation must prevail, but economic 
pressure has not yet been sufficient to necessitate 
a change in this system of farming. 

"Profits in wheat farming will depend naturally 
on the nature of the soil, the skill and judgment 
displayed by the farmer in the handling of his 
resources, and on his business ability. Including 
preparation of the land, cost of seed, manure, har- 
vesting, and marketing, the average total cost of 
production may be taken at 20/- to 25/- per acre. 
In the Mallee districts the cost will be less than in 
the Wimmera and northern districts. The cost 
will vary, too, with the nature of the soil and the 
mode of preparation given to the crop. The 
average crop of the State may be set down at i 1 
to 12 bushels, but individual crops of 20 bushels 
and 30 bushels are common enough with careful 
farming in the wheat areas. Then, of course, 
there are the returns of the wool and the lambs." 

With commendable foresight the Government 
in 1884 reserved as an endowment for Agricul- 
tural Colleges and experimental farms no less an 
area than i 1; 0,000 acres. From the revenue re- 
ceived from this land the Council of Agricultural 
l'".ducation has established the Dookie Agricultural 
College. 

Dookie College is picturesquely situated on the 
confines of the fam.ous